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Full text of "The Koran, commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammed"

. THE LI^PARY 
BRIGHA ' . AC- L ,\ i VERSITY 

* mOVO. UTAH 



^y-\ 



*^ 



KORAN, 

COMMONI^CALLED 

THE ALCORAN OF MOHAMMED: 



TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL ARABlT. 



WITH 

EXPLANATORY NOTES, 

TAKEN FROM THE MOST APPROVED COMMENTATORS. 

TO WHICH IS PREFIXED, 

A PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 



BY 



GEORGE SALE 



Nulla falsa doctrina est, quae non aliquid veri permisceat. 

Augustin, QucBsUEvang. 1. ii. c. 40. 



A NEW EDITION, 

IN WHICH THE SURATS, OR VERSES, ARE, FOR THE FIRST TIME, MARKED. 



IN TWO VOLUMES^ 

VOL. 1 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, REES, & CO.; R. SCHOLEY ; BALDWIN & CRADOCK ; 
J. BOOKER; HAMILTON, ADAMS, & CO.; WHITTAKER & CO.; J. DUNCAN; W. 
MASON; E. HODGSON; J. WICKSTEED ; J. MAYNARD; AND W. H. ALLEN & CO. 

1836. 



LONDON: 

GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS, 

ST. JOHN'S SQUARE. 



AL 

KORAN. 



CHAPTER I, 



INTITLED, THE PREFACE, OR INTRODUCTION ; REVEALED 

AT MECCA. 

^In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ Praise be to God, the Lord of all creatures ; ^ the 
most merciful, ^ the king of the day of judgment. ^ Thee 
do we worship, and of thee do we beg assistance. ^ Direct 
us in the right j^a^in^^aj^^ 

1 The Preface, &c.] In Arabic al Fa- 
tihat. This chapter is a prayer, and held 
in great veneration by the Mohammed- 
ans, who give it several other honourable 
titles ; as, the chapter of prayer, of praise, 
of thanksgiving, of treasure, &c. They 
esteem it as the quintessence of the whole 
Koran, and often repeat it in their devo- 
tions, both public and private, as the 
Christians do the Lord's Prayer *. 

2 Lord of all creatures.^ The original 
words are. Rabbi ^Idlamina, which lite- 
rally signify Lord of the worlds ; but ala- 
mina, in this and other places of the Ko- 
ran, properly means the three species of 
rational creatures, Men, Genii, and An- 
gels. Father Marracci has endeavoured 
to prove from this passage, that Moham- 
med believed a plurality of worlds, which 
he calls the error of the Manichees, &c. ^: 
but this imputation the learned Reland 
has shown to be entirely groundless ^, 



6 Direct us in the right way, &c.] This 
last sentence contains a petition that God 
would lead the supplicants into the true 
religion, by which is meant the Moham- 
medan, in the Koran often called The 
right way ; in this place more particu- 
larly defined to be. The way of those to 
whom God hath been gracious, that is, of 
the prophets and faithful who preceded 
Mohammed ; under which appellations 
are also comprehended the Jews and 
Christians, such as they were in the times 
of their primitive purity, before they had 
deviated from their respective institutions ; 
not the way of the modern Jews, whose 
signal calamities are marks of the just 
anger of God against them for their ob- 
stinacy and disobedience ; nor of the 
Christians of this age, who have departed 
from the true doctrine of Jesus, and are 
bewildered in a labyrinth of error *. 

This is the common exposition of the 



^ V. JBobovium de precib. Mohammed, p. 3. & seq. ^ j^ prodromo ad refut. 

Alcorani, part. iv. p. 76. & in Notis ad Ale. cap. I. ^ De religion. Mohammed, p. 262. 
* Jallalo'ddiny Al Beidawi, &c. 

•VOL. I. 



B 



3 ALKORAN. [chap. 

hast been gracious ; not of those against whom thou art 
inQgiised, nor of those who go astrajr--*'''^'^^'^ 

passage ; though al Zamakhshari, and hast been gracious, against whom thou art 

some others, by a different application of not incensed, and who have not erred, 

the negatives, refers the whole to the true Which translation the original will very 

believers ; and then the sense will run well bear, 
thus : The way of those to whom thou 



CHAPTER II. 

INTITLED, THE COW ; REVEALED PARTLY AT MECCA, AND 

PARTLY AT MEDINA. 

In the name of the most merciful God, 

^ A. L. M. ^ There is no doubt in this book ; it is a 
direction to the pious, ^ who believe in the mysteries of 
faith, who observe the appointed times of prayer, and dis- 
, tribute alms out of what we have bestowed on them: 
I ^and who believe in that revelation, which hath been . 
sent down unto thee, and that which hath been sent 
down unto the prophets before thee, and have firm assur- 
ance in the life to. come : ^ these are directed by their 
Lord, and they shall prosper. ^ As jpr the unbel ievers, 
it will be equal to them whether thou admonish them, 
or do not admonish them ;^ they will n^FTeTieve: ^ God 
hath sealed up their hearts and Ihieir hearing; a dimness 

Title.'] This title was occasioned by phets^; though they acknowledge none 

the story of the red heifer, mentioned p. of those which preceded the Koran to be 

12. now extant, except the Pentateuch of 

1 A. L. M.~\ As to the meaning of Moses, the Psalms of David, and the Gos- 

these letters, see the Preliminary Dis- pel of Jesus ; which yet they say were 

course, Sect. 3. even before Mohammed's time altered 

3 Mysteries.] The Arabic word is and corrupted by the Jews and Christians ; 
gheibf which properly signifies a thing and therefore will not allow our present 
that is absentf at a great distance, or invi- copies to be genuine. 

sible, such as the resurrection, paradise, — The life to come.] The original word 

and hell. And this is agreeable to the al-dkherat properly signifies the latter part 

language of scripture, which defines of any thitigy and, by way of excellence, 

faith to be the evidence of things not the next life, the latter or future state 

seen^. after death; and is opposed to al-donva, 

4 The prophets before thee.] The Mo- this world ; and aloula, the former , or pre- 
hammedans believe that God gave writ- sent life. The Hebrew word ahharith, 
ten revelations not only to Moses, Jesus, from the same root, is used by Moses in 
and Mohammed, but to several other pro- this sense, and is translated latter end^. 

1 Heb. xi. 1. See also Kom. xxiv. 25. 2 Corinth, iv. 18. & v. 7. 2 y. Reland. de 
relig. Moham. p. 34. & Dissert, de !Samaritanis, p. 34. &c. ^ Num. xxiv. 20. Deut. viii.l6. 

THE LIBRARY 

brigiia:: y.uag lniversity 

=, — -^ PRQVO ri^*^^__ ^J 



II.] AL KORAN, 3 

covereth their sight, and they shall suffer a grievous 
punishment. ^ There are some who say, We believe in 
God, and the last day; but are not really believers : Hhey 
seek to deceive God, and those who do believe, but they 
deceive themselves only, and are not sensible thereof. 
^^ There is an infirmity in their hearts, and God hath in- 
creased that infirmity ; and they shall suffer a most 
painful punishment, because they have disbelieved. 
^^ When one saith unto them. Act not corruptly in the 
earth ; they reply. Verily we are men of integrity. ^^ Are 
• not they themselves corrupt doers ? but they are not sen- 
sible thereof. ^^ And when one saith unto them. Believe 
p ye as others believe; they answer. Shall we believe as 
>E fools believe ? Are not they themselves fools ? but they 
r^ know it not. ^* When they meet those who believe, 
^ they say. We do believe : but when they retire privately 
to their devils, they say. We really hold with you, and 
only mock at those people. ^^ God shall mock at them, 
and continue them in their impiety ; they shall wander 
in confusion. ^^ These are the men who have purchased 
error at the price of true direction: but their traffic hath 
not been gainful, neither have they been rightly directed. 
^^ They are like unto one who kindleth a fire, and when 
it hath enlightened all around him ; God taketh away 
their light, and leaveth them in darkness, they shall not 

10 Mohammed here, and elsewhere fre- bestows this name on the Jewish rabbins 
quently, imitates the truly inspired writ- and Christian priests ; though he seems 
ers, in making God, by operation on the chiefly to mean the former, against whom 
minds of reprobates, to prevent their con- he had by much the greater spleen, 
version. This fatality or predestination, 17 In this passage Mohammed com- 
as believed by the Mohammedans, hath pares those who believed not on him, to a 
been sufficiently treated of in the Preli- man who wants to kindle a fire, but as 
minary Discourse. soon as it burns up, and the flames give a 

11 Act not corruptly.^ Literally cor- light, shuts his eyes, lest he should see. 
rupt not in the earth, by which some expo- As if he had said : You, O Arabians, have 
sitors understand the sowing of false doc- long desired a prophet of your own na- 
trine,^ and corrupting people's principles. tion, and now I am sent unto you, and 

— Men of integrity. ~\ According to the have plainly proved my mission by the 

explication in the preceding note, this excellence of my doctrine and revelation, 

word must be translated reformers, who you resist conviction, and refuse to believe 

promote true piety by their doctrine and in me ; therefore shall God leave you in 

^ example.. your ignorance. 

13 Others.'] The first companions and — Around him.'] The sense seems to 
followers of Mohammed ^ be here imperfect, and may be completed, 

14 Devils,] The prophet, making use by adding the words, he turns from it, 
of the liberty zealots of all religions have shuts his eyes, or the like. 

by prescription, of giving ill language, — Their light.] This is of the unbe- 

^ Jallalo'ddin, 

B 2 



4 AL KORAN. [chap. 

see ; ^^ they are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore will they 
not repent. ^^ Or like a stormy cloud from heaven, 
fraught with darkness, thunder, and lightning, they put 
their fingers in their ears, because of the noise of the 
thunder, for fear of death ; God encompasseth the in- 
fidels : ^^ the lightning wanteth but little of taking away 
their sight : so often as it enlighteneth them, they walk 
therein, but when darkness cometh on them, they stand 
still ; and if God so pleased, he would certainly deprive 
them of their hearing and their sight, for God is 
almighty. ^^ O men of Mecca, serve your Lord who 
hath created you, and those who have been before you : 
perad venture ye will fear him ; ^^ who hath spread the 
earth as a bed for you, and the heaven as a covering, and 
hath caused water to descend from heaven, and thereby 
produced fruits for your sustenance. Set not up there- 
fore any equals unto God, against your own knowledge. 
-^^ If ye be in doubt concerning that revelation which we 
have sent down unto our servant, produce a chapter like 
unto it, and call upon your witnesses, besides God, if ye 
say truth. ^* But if ye do it not, nor shall ever be able 
to do it ; justly fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones, 
prepared for the unbelievers. ^^But bear good tidings 
r,/Unio_jJiose.^^ho^^^^b^^ do goo3°^orks, that they 

^'^ shall have gardens watered by rivers; so often as they 
^^> eat of the fruit thereof for sustenance they shall say. This 
c^ is^what we have formerly eaten of; and they shall be 
C supplied with several sorts of fruit having a mutual resem- 
H blance to one another. There shall they enjoy wives sub- 

lievers, to whom the word their, being willing to hear truths so disagreeable : 

in the plural, seems to refer ; though it when the promises are read to them, they 

is not unusual for Mohammed, in affecta- attend with pleasure ; but when any thing 

tion of the prophetic style, suddenly to mysterious or difficult of belief occurs, 

change the number, against all rules of they stand stock still, and will not submit 

grammar. to be directed. 

19 Here he compares the unbelieving 23 Your witnesses besides God.] i. e. 

Arabs to people caught in a violent storm. Your false gods and idols. 
To perceive the beauty of this compari- 25 Sorts of fruit. ~\ Some Commenta- 

son, it must be observed, that the Moham- tors ^ approve of this sense, supposing 

medan doctors say, this tempest is a type the fruits of paradise, though of various 

or image of the Koran itself : the thunder tastes, are alike in colour and outward 

signifying the threats therein contained ; appearance : but others 2 think the mean- 

the lightning, the promises; and the dark- ingto be, that the inhabitants of that place 

ness, the mysteries. The terror of the will find there fruits of the same, or the like, 

threats makes them stop their ears, un- kinds as they used to eat while on earth. 

* Jallalo'ddin. 2 ^/ ^amakhsharu 



II.] AL KORAN. 5 

ject to no impurity, and there shall they continue for 
ever. ^^ Moreover God will not be ashamed to propound 
in a parable a gnat, or even a more despicable thing : for 
they who believe will know it to be the truth from their 
Lord ; but the unbelievers will say, What meaneth God 
by this parable ? he will thereby mislead many, and will 
direct" many thereby ; but he will not mislead any 
thereby, except the transgressors, ^^ who make void the 
covenant of God after the establishing thereof, and cut 
in sunder that which God hath commanded to be joined, 
and act corruptly in the earth; they shall perish. ^^ How 
is it that ye believe not in God ? Since ye were dead, 
and he gave you life ; he will hereafter cause you to die, 
and will again restore you to life ; then shall ye return 
unto him. -^ It is he who hath created for you whatso- 
ever is on earth, and then set his mind to the creation of 
heaven, and formed it into seven heavens ; he knoweth 
all things. ^^ When thy Lord said unto the angels, I am 
going to place a substitute on earth ; they said, Wilt thou 
place there one who will do evil therein, and shed blood ? 
but we celebrate thy praise, and sanctify thee. God an- 

26 Despicable thing.'] This was revealed mand ; whereupon he sent Azrail on the 

to take off an objection made to the Koran same errand, who executed his commis- 

by the infidels, for condescending to speak sion without remorse ; for which reason 

of such insignificant insects, as the spider, God appointed that angel to separate the 

the pismire, the bee ^, &c. souls from the bodies, being therefore 

28 Ye were dead, and he gave you life, called the angel of death. The earth he 

&c.] i. e. Ye were dead while in the loins had taken was carried into Arabia, to a 

of your fathers, and he gave you life in place between Mecca and Tayef, where 

your mother's womb ; and after death ye being first kneaded by the angels, it was 

shall be again raised at the resurrection 2. afterwards fashioned by God himself into 

30 Angels.] Concerning the creation of a human form, and left to dry * for the 

Adam, here intimated, the Mohammedans space of forty days, or, as others say, as 

have several peculiar traditions. They many years; the angels in the mean time 

say the Angels, Gabriel, Michael, and Is- often visiting it, and Eblis (then one of | 

rafil, were sent by God, one after another, the angels who are nearest to God's pre- [ 

to fetch for that purpose seven handfuls of sence, afterwards the devil) among the 

earth from different depths, and of differ- rest ; but he, not contented with looking 

ent colours (whence some account for the on it, kicked it with his foot till it rung ; 

various complexion of mankind 3); but and knowing God designed that creature 

the earth being apprehensive of the con- to be his superior, took a secret resolution 

sequence, and desiring them to represent never to acknowledge him as such. After 

her fear to God, that the creature he de- this, God animated the figure of clay, 

signed to form would rebel against him, and indued it with an intelligent soul, and 

and draw down his curse upon her, they when he had placed him in paradise, 

returned without performing God's com- formed Eve out of his left side ^ 

^ Yahya. 2 JallaWddin, ^ Al Termedi, from a tradition of Ahu Musa at Ashari, 
* Koran, c. 55. ^ Khond amir. Jallalo'ddin, Comment, in Koran, &c. V. D'Herbeht, 
Biblioth. Orient, p. 55. 



fv. 



6 A L KORAN. [chap. 

swered, Verily I know that which ye know not ; ^^ and 
he taught Adam the names of all things, and then pro- 
posed them to the angels, and said, Declare unto me the 
names of these things if ye say truth. ^^ They answered, 
T> Praise be unto thee, we have no knowledge but what 
"^^ thou teachest us, for thou art knowing and wise. ^^ God 
V said, O Adam, tell them their names. And, when he had 
I told them their names, God said, Did I not tell you that 
.r* I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and know that 
., which ye discover, and that which ye conceal? ^^And 
-^when we said unto the angels. Worship Adam ; they all 
worshipped him except Eblis, who refused, and was 
puffed up with pride, and became of the number of un- 
believers. ^^ And we said, O Adam, dwell thou and thy 
wife in the garden, and eat of the fruit thereof plentifully 
wherever ye will ; but approach not this tree, lest ye be- 
come of the number of the transgressors. ^^ But Satan 
caused them to forfeit paradise, and turned them out of 
the state of happiness wherein they had been ; whereupon 

33 Ye conceal.'] This story Mohammed to create man after his own image, and to 
borrowed from the Jewish traditions, dignify human nature by Christ's assum- 
which say, that the angels having spoken ing it, some of them thinking their glory 
of man with some contempt, when God to be eclipsed thereby, envied man's hap- 
consulted them about his creation, God piness, and so revolted. 

made answer, that the man was wiser than 35 Garden.] Mohammed, as appears 

they ; and to convince them of it, he by what presently follows, does not place 

brought all kinds of animals to them ; and this garden or paradise on earth, but in 

asked them their names ; which they not the seventh heaven ^, 
being able to tell, he put the same ques- — Tree.] Concerning this tree, or the 

tion to the man, who named them one forbidden fruit, the Mohammedans, as 

after another ; and being asked his own well as the Christians, have various opi- 

name, and God's name, he answered very nions. Some say it was an ear of wheat ; 

justly, and gave God the name of Jeho- some will have it to have been a fig-tree, 

VAH 1. The angels' adoring of Adam is and others a vine ^. The story of the fall 

also mentioned in the Talmud -. is told, with some further circumstances, 

34 Worship.] The original word signi- in the beginning of the ^i\\ chapter. 

fies properly to prostrate one's self, till the 36 Satan caused them to forfeit para- 

forehead touches the ground ; which is dise.] They have a tradition that the 

the humblest posture of adoration, and devil offering to get into paradise to tempt 

strictly due to God only ; but it is some- Adam, was not admitted by the guard : 

times, as in this place, used to express that whereupon he begged of the animals, one 

civil worship or homage, which may be after another, to carry him in, that he 

paid to creatures ^, might speak to Adam and his wife ; but 

— Unbelievers.] This occasion of the they all refused him, except the serpent, 

devil's fall has some affinity with an opi- who took him between two of his teeth, 

nion which has been pretty much enter- and so introduced him. They add, that 

tained among Christians *, viz., that the the serpent was then of a beautiful form, 

angels being informed of God's intention and not in the shape he now bears ''. 

^ V. Rivin. Serpent, seduct. p. 56. ^ ji^ Moses Haddarshan, in Bereshit rabbah. 
^ Jallalo'ddin. * frencBus, Lad. Greg. Nyssen. &c. •'' Vid. Marracc. in Ale. p. 24. 
^ V. Marracc. in Ale. p. 22. ' Marracc. \n Aic. p, 22. 



II.] AL KORAN. 7 

we said, Get ye down, the one of you an enemy unto 
the other ; and there shall be a dwelling-place for you on 
earth, and a provision for a season. ^^ And Adam learned 
words of prayer from his Lord, and God turned unto him, 
for he is easy to be reconciled, and merciful. ^^ We said, 
Get ye all down from hence ; hereafter shall there come 
unto you a direction from me, and whoever shall follow 
my direction, on them shall no fear come, neither shall 
they be grieved ; ^^ but they, who shall be unbelievers, 
and accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the com- 
panions of hell-fire, therein shall they remain for ever. 
'^^ O children of Israel, remember my favour wherewith I 
have favoured you ; and perform your covenant with me, 
and I will perform my covenant with you ; and revere 
me: '^^ and believe in the revelation which I have sent 
down, confirming that which is with you, and be not the 
first who believe not therein, neither exchange my signs 
for a small price ; and fear rne. ^^ Clothe not the truth 

36 Get ye down.~\ The Mohammedans on two others in the plain, about two mus- 

say, that when they were cast down from ket shots asunder ^, 

paradise, Adam fell on the isle of Ceylon, 38 A direction from me,'] God here 
or Serendib, and Eve near Joddah (the promises Adam that his will should be re- 
port of Mecca) in Arabia ; and that after vealed to him and his posterity ; which 
a separation of 200 years, Adam was, on promise the Mohammedans believe was 
his repentance, conducted by the angel fulfilled at several times by the ministry 
Gabriel to a mountain near Mecca, where of several prophets, from Adam himself, 
he found and knew his wife, the mount- who was the first, to Mohammed, who was 
ain being thence named Arafat^ i. e. the the last. The number of books revealed 
separation ; and that he afterwards retired unto Adam they say was ten ^. 
with her to Ceylon, where they continued 39 SignsJ] This word has various sig- 
to propagate their species ^ nifications in the Koran ; sometimes, as in 

It may not be improper here to mention this passage, it signifies divine revelation, 
another tradition, concerning the gigantic or scripture in general ; sometimes the 
stature of our first parents. Their prophet, verses of the Koran in particular ; and at 
they say, affirmed Adam to have been as other times visible miracles. But the 
tall as a high palm-tree 2 ; but this would sense is easily distinguished by the con- 
be too much, in proportion, if that were text. 

really the print of his foot, which is pre- 40 O children of Israel] The Jews 
tended to be such, on the top of a mount- are here called upon to receive the Ko- 
ain in the isle of Ceylon, thence named ran, as verifying and confirming the Pen- 
Pico de Adam, and by the Arab writers tateuch, particularly with respect to the 
Rahun, being somewhat above two spans unity of God, and the mission of Moham- 
long3; though others say it is seventy med ^. And they are exhorted not to 
cubits long, and that when Adam set one conceal the passages of their law, which 
foot here, he had the other in the sea * ; bear witness to those truths, nor to cor- 
and too little, if Eve were of so enormous rupt them by publishing false copies of the 
a size, as is said, that when her head lay Pentateuch, for which the writers were but 
on one hill near Mecca, her knees rested poorly paid ^. 

^ D'Herhelot, Bibl. Orient, p. 55. 2 Yahya, ^ Moncony's Voyage, Part I. p. 372, 
&c. See Knox's Account of Ceylon. * Anciennes relations des Indes, &c. p. 3. 

^ Monconyy ubi^sup. ^ y^ Hottinger, Hist. Orient, p. 11. Reland. de relig. 

Mohammed, p. 21, ^ Yalnja. ^ Jallaloddin, 



8 AL KORAN. [chap. 

with vanity, neither conceal the truth against your own 
knowledge ; ^^ observe the stated times of prayer, and 
pay your legal alms, and bow down yourselves with those 
who bow down. ^* Will ye command men to do justice, 
and forget your own souls ? yet ye read the book of the 
law : do ye not therefore understand ? ^^ Ask help with 
' perseverance and prayer : this indeed is grievous, unless 
to the humble, ^® who seriously think they shall meet 
their Lord, and that to him they shall return. ^'^ O chil- 
dren of Israel, remember my favour w^herewith I have 
favoured you, and that I have preferred you above all 
nations ; *^ dread the day wherein one soul shall not make 
satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any intercession 
be accepted from them, nor shall any compensation be 
received, neither shall they be helped. ^^ Remember 
when we delivered you from the people of Pharaoh, who 
grievously oppressed you ; they slew your male children, 
and let your females live : therein was a great trial from 
your Lord. ^^ And when we divided the sea for you, and 
delivered you, and drowned Pharaoh's people while ye 
looked on. ^^And when we treated with Moses forty 
nights ; then ye took the calf for your God, and did evil ; 
^^yet afterwards we forgave you, that peradventure ye 
might give thanks. ^^ And when we gave Moses the 
book of the law, and the distinction between good and 
evil, that peradventure ye might be directed. ^*And 
when Moses said unto his people, O my people, verily ye 
have injured your own souls, by your taking the calf for 

50 Looked on,'] See the story of Moses keep them together till the return of Mo- 
and Pharaoh more particularly related, ses ; al Sameri, understanding the found- 
chap, vii. & XX. &c. er's art, put them all together into a fur- 

51 The calf,'] The person who cast this nace, to melt them down into one mass, 
calf, the Mohammedans say, was (not which came out in the form of a calf 3. 
Aaron, but) al Sameri, one of the princi- The Israelites, accustomed to the i^gypt- 
pal men among the children of Israel, ian idolatry, paying a religious worship 
some of whose descendants, it is pretend- to this image, al Sameri went farther, and 
ed, still inhabit an island of that name in took some dust from the footsteps of the 
the Arabian gulf ^ It was made of the horse of the angel Gabriel, who marched 
rings 2 and bracelets of gold, silver, and at the head of the people, and threw it 
other materials, which the Israelites had into the mouth of the calf, which imme- 
borrowed of the Egyptians ; for Aaron, diately began to low, and became ani- 
who commanded in his brother's absence, mated * ; for such was the virtue of that 
having ordered al Sameri to collect those dust ^ One writer says that all the 
ornaments from the people, who carried Israelites adored this calf, except only 
on a wicked commerce with them, and to 12,000 ^. 

* Geogr. Nubiens. p. 45. ^ Koran, c. 7. ^ See Exod. xxxii. 24. * ^ Koran, c. 7- 
5 Jallalo'ddin, Vid. D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient, p. 650. « AbiClfeda, 



II.] AL KORAN. 9 

your God ; therefore be turned unto your Creator, and 
slay those among you who have been guilty of that crime; 
this will be better for you in the sight of your Creator : 
and thereupon he turned unto you, for he is easy to be 
reconciled and merciful. ^^ And when ye said, O Moses, 
we will not believe thee, until we see God manifestly ; 
therefore a punishment came upon you, while ye looked 
on; ^Hhen we raised you to life after ye had been dead, 
that peradventure ye might give thanks. ^^ And we 
caused clouds to overshadow you, and manna and quails 
to descend upon you, saying, Eat of the good things which 
we have given you for food : and they injured not us, but 
injured their own souls. ^^ And when we said, Enter into 
this city, and eat of the provisions thereof plentifully as 
ye will ; and enter the gate worshipping, and say. For- 
giveness ! we will pardon you your sins, and give increase 
unto the well-doers. ^^ But the ungodly changed the ex- 
pression into another, different from what had been 
spoken unto them ; and we sent down upon the ungodly 
indignation from heaven, because they had transgressed. 
^^ And when Moses asked drink for his people, we said, 
Strike the rock with thy rod ; and there gushed thereout 

54 And slay the guilty.'] In this parti- camp in the desert ^, The Arabs call 

cular the narration agrees with that of these birds Salwd, which is plainly the 

Moses, who ordered the Levites to slay same with the Hebrew Salwinif and say 

every man his brother ^ : but the scrip- they have no bones, but are eaten 

ture says, there fell of the people that day whole ^. 

about 3,000 (the Vulgate says 23,000) 58 This city,] Some commentators 

men ^ ; whereas the commentators of the suppose it to be Jericho ; others, Jerusa- 

Koran make the number of the slain to lem. 

amount to 70,000 ; and add, that God — Forgiveness.] The Arabic word is 

sent a dark cloud, which hindered them Hittaton, which some take to signify that 

from seeing one another, lest the sight profession of the unity of God, so fre- 

should move those who executed the sen- quently used by the Mohammedans, La 

tence to compassion 3. ildha ilia *llahOf There is no god but 

56 Dead.] The persons here meant, God. 

are said to have been seventy men who 59 Changed the expression into another.] 

were made choice of by Moses, and heard According to Jallalo'ddin, instead of Hit- 

the voice of God talking with him. But, taton^ they cried Hahhat fi shairatj i. e. a 

not being satisfied with that, they de- grain in an ear of barley ; and in ridicule 

manded to see God ; whereupon they of the divine command to enter the city in 

were all struck dead by lightning, and, on a humble posture, they indecently crept in 

Moses's intercession, restored to life '*. upon their breech. 

57 Quails.] The eastern writers say, — Indignation from heaven.] A pesti- 
these quails were of a peculiar kind, to lence which carried off nearly 70,000 of 
be found no where but in Yaman, from them ^. 

whence they were brought by a south 60 The rock.] The commentators say 
wind in great numbers to the Israelites* this was a stone which Moses brought 

* Exod. xxxii. 26, 27- * Ibid. 28. ^ Jallalo'ddin, &c. * Ismael Ebnali. » Seg 
Psalm Ixxviii. 26. « V. D'Herhcloty Bibl. Orient, p. 477- ^ Jallalo'ddin, 



10 



AL KORAN, 



[chap. 



twelve fountains, according to the number of the tribes, 
and all men knew their respective drinking-place. Eat 
and drink of the bounty of God, and commit not evil in 
the earth, acting unjustly. ^^ And when ye said, O 
Moses, we will by no means be satisfied with one kind 
of food ; pray unto thy Lord therefore for us, that he 
would produce for us of that which the earth bringeth 
forth, herbs, and cucumbers, and garlic, and lentils, and 
onions ; Moses answered. Will ye exchange that which 
is better for that which is worse ? Get ye down into 
Egypt, for there shall ye find what ye desire : and they 
were smitten with vileness and misery, and drew on 
themselves indignation from God. This they suffered, 
because they believed not in the signs of God, and killed 
the prophets unjustly ; this, because they rebelled and 
5 transgressed. ^^ Surely those who believe, and those who 
Judaize, and Christians, and Sabians, whoever believeth 
in God, and the last day, and doth that which is right, 



from mount Sinai, and the same that fled 
away with his garments w^hich he laid 
upon it one day while he washed : they 
add, that Moses ran after the stone naked, 
till he found himself, ere he was aware, in 
the midst of the people, who, on this acci- 
dent, were convinced of the falsehood of a 
report, which had been raised of their 
prophet, that he was bursten,or, as others 
write, an hermaphrodite ^ 

They describe it to be a square piece of 
white marble, shaped like a man's head ; 
wherein they differ not much from the 
accounts of European travellers, who say 
this rock stands among several lesser ones, 
about 100 paces from mount Horeb, and 
appears to have been loosened from the 
neighbouring mountains, having no cohe- 
rence with the others ; that it is a huge 
mass of red granite, almost round on one 
side, and flat on the other; 12 feet high, 
and as many thick, but broader than it 
is high, and about 50 feet in circumfe- 
rence 2. 

60 Twelve fountains.'] Marracci thinks 
this circumstance looks like a Rabbinical 
fiction, or else that Mohammed confounds 
the water of the rock at Horeb with the 
twelve wells at Elim ^ ; for he says, several 
who have been on the spot, affirm there 
are but three orifices whence the water 



issued *. But it is to be presumed, that 
Mohammed had better means of informa- 
tion in this respect, than to fall into such 
a mistake ; for the rock stands within the 
borders of Arabia, and some of his coun- 
trymen must needs have seen it, if he 
himself did not, as it is most probable he 
did. And, in effect, he seems to be in the 
right. For one, who went into those 
parts in the end of the 15th century, tells 
us expressly, that the water issued from 
twelve places of the rock, according to the 
number of the tribes of Israel: egressae 
sunt aquae largissimse in duodecim locis 
petrse, juxta, numerum duodecim tribuum 
Israel ^. A late curious traveller ^ observes 
that there are 24 holes in the stone, which 
may be easily counted ; that is to say, 
twelve on the flat side, and as many on 
the opposite round side, every one being a 
foot deep, and an inch wide ; and he adds, 
that the holes on one side do not commu- 
nicate with those on the other ; which a 
less accurate spectator not perceiving (for 
they are placed horizontally, within two 
feet of the top of the rock) might conclude 
they pierce quite through the stone, and 
so reckon them to be but twelve. 

61 Onions.'] See Numb. xi. 5, &c. 

62 Jews, Christians, and Sabians, who- 
ever believeth, &c.] From these words, 



1 Jallalo' ddiny Yahya. ^ Breydenbach, Itinerar. charta m. p. 1. Sicard, dans les 
Memoires des Missions, torn. 7- p. 14. ^ Exod. xv. 27. Numb, xxxiii. .9. * Marracc, 
Prodr. part. iv. p. 80. ^ Breydenbach, ubi sup. ^ Sicard, ubi sup. 



II.] 



AL KORAN. 



11 



they shall have their reward with their Lord, there shall 
come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. 
^^ Call to mind also when we accepted your covenant, 
and lifted up the mountain of Sinai over you, saying, 
Receive the law which we have given you, with a reso- 
lution to keep it, and remember that which is contained 
therein, that ye may beware. ^* After this ye again 
turned back, so that, if it had not been for God's indul- 
gence and mercy towards you, ye had certainly been 
destroyed. ^^ Moreover, ye know what befel those of 
your nation who transgressed on the sabbath-day ; We 
said unto them, Be ye changed into apes, driven away 



which are repeated in the 5th chapter, 
several writers ^ have wrongly concluded, 
that the Mohammedans hold it to be the 
doctrine of their prophet, that every man 
may be saved in his own religion, provided 
he be sincere, and lead a good life. It is 
true, some of their doctors do agree this to 
be the purport of the words ^; but then 
they say the latitude hereby granted was 
soon revoked, for that this passage is abro- 
gated by several others in the Koran, which 
expressly declare, that none can be saved 
who is not of the Mohammedan faith ; and 
particularly by those words of the 3d chap- 
ter. Whoever followeth any other religion 
than Islam (i. e. Mohammedan), it shall 
not be accepted of him, and at the last 
day he shall be of those who perish ^. 
However, others are of opinion that this 
passage is not abrogated, but interpret it 
differently ; taking the meaning of it to be, 
that no man, whether he be a Jew, a 
Christian, or a Sabian, shall be excluded 
from salvation, provided he quit his erro- 
neous religion, and become a Moslem, 
which they say is intended by the follow- 
ing words, Whoever believeth in God and 
the last day, and doth that which is right. 
And this interpretation is approved by Mr. 
Reland, who thinks the words here import 
no more than those of the apostle. In every 
nation he that feareth God, and worketh 
righteousness is accepted with him * ; from 
which it must not be inferred, that the 
religion of nature, or any other, is sufficient 
to save, without faith in Christ ^. 

6*3 When we lifted up mount Sinai over 
?/ow.] The Mohammedan tradition is, that 



the Israelites refusing to receive the law 
of Moses, God tore up the mountain by 
the roots, and shook it over their heads, 
to terrify them into compliance ^. 

65 Those who transgressed on the sab- 
bath-day, &c.] The story to which this 
passage refers, is as follows. In the days 
of David some Israelites dwelt at Ailah, or 
Elath, on the Red sea, where on the night 
of the sabbath the fish used to come in 
great numbers to the shore, and stay there 
all the sabbath, to tempt them ; but the 
night following they returned into the sea 
again. At length, some of the inhabitants, 
neglecting God's command, catched fish 
on the sabbath, and dressed and ate them ; 
and afterwards cut canals from the sea, 
for the fish to enter, with sluices, which 
they shut on the sabbath, to prevent their 
return to the sea. The other part of the 
inhabitants, who strictly observed the sab- 
bath, used both persuasion and force to 
stop this impiety, but to no purpose, the 
offenders growing only more and more ob- 
stinate ; whereupon David cursed the sab- 
bath-breakers, and God transformed them 
into apes. It is said, that one going to 
see a friend of his that was among them, 
found him in the shape of an ape, moving 
his eyes about wildly ; and, asking him 
whether he was not such a one ? the ape 
made a sign with his head, that it was he : 
whereupon the friend said to him, Did not 
I advise you to desist? at which the ape 
wept. They add, that these unhappy 
people remained three days in this condi- 
tion, and were afterwards destroyed by 
a wind which swept them all into the sea '^, 



^ Selden. de Jure nat. & gentium sec. Hebr. I. c. 12. Angel, a S, Joseph. Gazo- 
phylac. Persic, p. 365. Nic. Cusanus in Cribratione Alcorani, 1. 3. c. 2, &c. ^ ^qq 
Chardin's Voyages, Vol. ii, p. 326. 331. ^ Abu'lkasem Hebatallah de abrpgrante et 
abrogato. ^ Acts x. 35. ^ V. Reland. de rel. Moham. p, 128, &c. ^ Jallalo'ddin* 

7 Ahunfcda. 



12 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



from the society of men. ^® And we made them an 
example unto those who were contemporary with them, 
and unto those who came after them, and a warning to 
the pious. ^^ And when Moses said unto his people, 
Verily God commandeth you to sacrifice a cow ; ^^ they 
answered, Dost thou make a jest of us ? Moses said, 
God forbid that I should be one of the foolish. ^^ They 
said, Pray for us unto thy Lord, that he would show us 
what cow it is. Moses answered. He saith, She is nei- 
ther an old cow, nor a young heifer, but of a middle age, 
between both ; do ye therefore that which ye are com- 
manded. They said. Pray for us unto thy Lord, that 
he would show us what colour she is of Moses an- 
swered. He saith. She is a red cow, intensely red, her 
colour rejoiceth the beholders. ^^ They said. Pray for us 
unto thy Lord, that he would further show us what cow 
it is, for several cows with us are like one another, and 
we, if God please, will be directed. ^^ Moses answered. 
He saith. She is a cow not broken to plough the earth, 
or water the field, a sound one, there is no blemish in 



67 God commandeth you to sacrifice a 
coWf &c.] The occasion of this sacrifice 
is thus related. A certain man at bis 
death left his son, then a child, a cow- 
calf, wlrich wandered in the desert till he 
came to age ; at which time his mother 
told him the heifer was his, and bid him 
fetch her, and sell her for three pieces of 
gold. When the young man came to the 
market with his heifer, an angel in the 
shape of a man accosted him, and bid him 
six pieces of gold for her ; but he would 
not take the money, till he had asked his 
mother's consent ; which when he had 
obtained, he returned to the market-place, 
and met the angel, who now offered him 
twice as much for the heifer, provided he 
would say nothing of it to his mother ; 
but the young man refusing, went and 
acquainted her with the additional offer. 
The woman, perceiving it was an angel, 
bid her son go back, and ask him what 
must be done with the heifer ; whereupon 
the angel told the young man, that in a 
little time the children of Israel would 
buy that heifer of him at any price. And 
soon after it happened that an Israelite, 
named Hammiel, was killed by a relation 
of his, who, to prevent discovery, convey- 
ed the body to a place considerably dis- 



tant from that where the fact was com- 
mitted. The friends of the slain man ac- 
cused some other persons of the murder 
before Moses ; but they denying the fact, 
and there being no evidence to convict 
them, God commanded a cow, of such and 
such particular marks, to be killed : but 
there being no other which answered the 
description, except the orphan's heifer, 
they were obliged to buy her for as much 
gold as her hide would hold ; according to 
some, for her full weight in gold, and, as 
others say, for ten times as much. This 
heifer they sacrificed ; and the dead body 
being, by divine direction, struck with a 
part of it, revived, and, standing up, 
named the person who had killed him ; 
after which it immediately fell down dead 
again ^. The whole story seems to be 
borrowed from the red heifer, which was 
ordered by the Jewish law to be burnt, 
and the ashes kept for purifying those who 
happened to touch a dead corpse ^ ; — and 
from the heifer directed to be slain, for 
the expiation of uncertain murder. See 
Deut. xxii. 1 — 9. 

69 A red cowJ] The epithet in the 
original is yellow ; but this word we 
do not use in speaking of the colour of 
cattle. 



Abu'lfeda. ^ Numb. xix. 



II.] AL KORAN. 13 

her. They said, Now hast thou brought the truth. Then 
they sacrificed her ; yet they wanted but little of leaving 
it undone. ^"^ And when ye slew a man, and contended 
among yourselves concerning him, God brought forth 
to light that which he concealed. ^^ For we said, Strike 
the dead body with part of the sacrificed cow : so God 
raised the dead to life, and showeth you his signs, that 
perad venture ye may understand. ''^ Then were your 
hearts hardened after this, even as stones, or exceeding 
them in hardness : for from some stones have rivers 
bursted forth, others have been rent in sunder, and water 
hath issued from them, and others have fallen down for 
fear of God. But God is not regardless of that which ye 
do. ^^ Do ye therefore desire that the Jews should be- 
lieve you ? yet a part of them heard the word of God, and 
then perverted it, after they had understood it, against 
their own conscience. ^^ And when they meet the true 
believers, they say. We believe : but when they are pri- 
vately assembled together, they say, Will ye acquaint them 
with what God hath revealed unto you, that they may dis- 
pute with you concerning it in the presence of your Lord? 
Do ye not therefore understand ? ^^ Do not they know 
that God knoweth that which they conceal as well as 
that which they publish ? ^^ But there are illiterate men 
among them, who know not the book of the law, but only 
lying stories, although they think otherwise. ^^ And woe 
unto them who transcribe corruptly the book of the law 
with their hands, and then say, This is from God ; that 
they may sell it for a small price. Therefore woe unto 
them because of that which their hands have written ; 
and woe unto them for that which they have gained. 
^^ They say, The fire of hell shall not touch us, but for a 
certain number of days. Answer, Have ye received any 

71 Yet they wanted but little of leaving for a certain number of days.'] — That is, 

it undone.] Because of the exorbitant says Jallalo'ddin, forty; being the num- 

price which they were obliged to pay for her of days that their forefathers wor- 

the heifer. shipped the golden calf; after which they 

73 With part of the cow.] i. e. Her gave out that their punishment should 

tongue, or the end of her tail 1. cease. It is a received opinion among 

79 Of the law.] Mohammed again ac- the Jews at present, that no person, be he 
cuses the Jews of corrupting their scrip- ever so wicked, or of whatever sect, shall 
ture. remain in hell above eleven months, or at 

80 The fire of hell shall not touch us, hut most a year ; except Dathan and Abiram, 

* Jallalo'ddin. 



14 AL KORAN. [chap. 

promise from God to that purpose ? for God will not act 
contrary to his promise : or do ye speak concerning God 
that which ye know not ? ^^ Verily whoso doeth evil, 
and is encompassed by his iniquity, they shall be the com- 
panions of hell-fire, they shall remain therein for ever : 
^^ but they who believe and do good works, they shall be 
the companions of paradise, they shall continue therein 
for ever. ^^ Remember, also, when we accepted the cove- 
nant of the children of Israel, saying. Ye shall not wor- 
ship any other except God, and ye shall show kindness 
to your parents and kindred, and to orphans, and to the 
poor, and speak that which is good unto men, and be 
constant at prayer, and give alms. Afterwards ye turned 
back, except a few of you, and retired afar off. ^* And 
when we accepted your covenant, saying. Ye shall not 
shed your brother's blood, nor dispossess one another of 
your habitations ; then ye confirmed it, and were wit- 
nesses thereto. ^^ Afterwards ye were they who slew 
one another, and turned several of your brethren out of 
their houses, mutually assisting each other against them 
with injustice and enmity; but if they come captives 
unto you, ye redeem them : yet it is equally unlawful for 
you to dispossess them. Do ye therefore believe in part i ^ 
of the book of the law, and reject other part thereof? 
But whoso among you doth this, shall have no oihefi^' 
reward than shame in this life, and on the day of resur- 
rection they shall be sent to a most grievous punishment ; 
for God is not regardless of that which ye do. ^^ These 
are they who have purchased this present life at the price 
of that which is to come; wherefore their punishment 

and atheists, who will be tormented there sage was revealed on occasion of some 

to all eternity ^. quarrels which arose between the Jews 

81 Whoso doeth evil, &c.'J By evil in of the tribes of Koreidha, and those of al 
this place the commentators generally un- Aws, al Nadhir, and al Khazraj, and came 
derstand polytheism, or idolatry ; which to that height that they took arms, and 
sin the Mohammedans believe, unless re- destroyed one another's habitations, and 
pented of in this life, is unpardonable, and turned one another out of their houses ; 
will be punished by eternal damnation ; but, when any were taken captives, they 
but all other sins, they hold, will at length redeemed them. When they were asked 
be forgiven. This therefore is that irre- the reason of their acting in this manner, 
missible impiety, in their opinion, which they answered. That they were command- 
in the New Testament is called the sin ed by their law to redeem the captives, 
against the Holy Ghost. but that they fought out of shame, lest 

85 Ye slew one another, &c.] This pas- their chiefs should be despised 2. 

* V. Bartoloccii Biblioth. Rabbinic, torn. ii. p. 128. & torn. iii. p. 421. ^ Jallalo' ddin. 



II.] AL KORAN. 15 

shall not be mitigated, neither shall they be helped. 
^^ We formerly delivered the book of the law unto Moses, 
and caused apostles to succeed him, and gave evident 
miracles to Jesus the son of Mary, and strengthened 
him with the holy spirit. Do ye, therefore, whenever 
an apostle cometh unto you with that which your souls 
desire not, proudly reject him, and accuse some of impos- 
ture, and slay others ? ^^ The Jews say, Our hearts are 
uncircumcised : but God hath cursed them with their 
infidelity, therefore few shall believe. ^^ And when a 
book came unto them from God, confirming the scrip- 
tures which were with them, although they had before 
prayed for assistance against those who believed not, yet 
when that came unto them which they knew to be from 
God, they would not believe therein : therefore the curse 
of God shall be on the infidels. ^^ For a vile price have 
they sold their souls, that they should not believe in that 
which God hath sent down; out of envy, because God 
sendeth down his favours to such of his servants as he 
pleaseth : therefore they brought on themselves indigna- 
tion on indignation ; and the unbelievers shall suffer an 
ignominious punishment. ^^ When one saith unto them, 
Believe in that which God hath sent down ; they answer, 
WeJbelieve in that which hath been sent down unto us : 
and they reject what hath been revealed since, although 
it be the truth, confirming that which is with them. Say, 
Why, therefore, have ye slain the prophets of God in 
times past, if ye be true believers ? ^'^ Moses formerly 
came unto you with evident signs, but ye afterwards took 
the calf for your god, and did wickedly. ^^ And when we 
accepted your covenant, and lifted the mountain of Sinai 
over you, saying. Receive the law which we have given 
you, with a resolution to perform it, and hear ; they said, 
We have heard, and have rebelled : and they were made 

87 The Holy Spirit.'] We must not ima- Mohammed, (according to the tradition of 

gine Mohammed here means the Holy his followers,) used this prayer ; O God, 

Ghost, in the Christian acceptation. The help us against the unbelievers by the I v^ 

commentators say, this spirit was the prophet, who is to be sent in the last times*. \ 
angel Gabriel, who sanctified Jesus, and 90 Sent down,~\ The Koran. — ) 

constantly attended on him K 91 Unto us.] The Pentateuch. 

89 Although they had before prayed, &c.] 93 Over you.] See before, p. 12. 
The Jews, in expectation of the coming of — They were made to drink down the 



Jallalo'ddin, 2 [bid. 



16 A L KORAN. [chap, 

to drink dowu the calf into their hearts for their unbe- 
lief. Say, A grievous thing hath your faith commanded 
you, if ye be true believers. ^* Say, If the future man- 
sion with God be prepared peculiarly for you, exclusive 
of the rest of mankind, wish for death, if ye say truth : 
^^ but they will never wish for it, because of that which 
their hands have sent before them; God knoweth the 
wicked doers ; ^^ and thou shalt surely find them of all 
men the most covetous of life, even more than the ido- 
laters : one of them would desire his life to be prolonged 
a thousand years; but none shall reprieve himself from 
punishment, that his life may be prolonged : God seeth 
that which they do. ^^ Say, Whoever is an enemy to 
Gabriel, (for he hath caused the Koran to descend on thy 
heart, by the permission of God, confirming that which 
was before revealed, a direction, and good tidings to the 
faithful) ; ^^ whosoever is an enemy to God, or his angels, 
or his apostles, or to Gabriel, or Michael, verily God 
is an enemy to the unbelievers. ^^And now we have 
sent down unto thee evident signs, and none will disbe- 
lieve them but the evil doers. ^^^ Whenever they make 
a covenant, will some of them reject it ? yea, the greater 
part of them do not believe. ^^^ And when there came 

unto them an apo>st1 e from God, confirming that scrip- 
ts o,av/ (^y^ ^-2iOC=pn 

calf, &c.] Moses took the calf which The commentators say, that the Jews 

they had made, and burnt it in the lire, asked, what angel it was that brought the 

and ground it to powder, and strewed it divine revelations to Mohammed ; and 

upon the water (of the brook that de- being told that it was Gabriel, they re- 

scended from the mount), and made the plied, that he was their enemy, and the 

children of Israel drink of it ^ messenger of wrath and punishment ; but 

94 A grievous things &c."| Mohammed if it had been Michael, they would have 
here infers, from their forefathers' disobe- believed on him, because that angel was 
dience in worshipping the calf, at the their friend, and the messenger of peace 
same time that they pretended to believe and plenty. And on this occasion, they 
in the law of Moses, that the faith of the say, this passage was revealed *. 

Jews in his time was as vain and hypo- That Michael was really the protector 

critical, since they rejected him, who was or guardian angel of the Jews, we know 

foretold therein, as an impostor 2. from Scripture ^ ; and it seems that Ga- 

95 Which their hands have sent before briel was, as the Persians call him, the 
them.'] That is, by reason of the wicked angel of revelations, being frequently sent 
forgeries which they have been guilty of on messages of that kind ^ ; for which 
in respect to the scriptures. An expres- reason, it is probable, Mohammed pre- 
sion much like that of St. Paul, where he tended he was the angel from whom he 
says, That some men's sins are open be- received the Koran. 

fore-hand, going before to judgment *. 99 Evident signs.] i.e. the revelations 

97 Whoever is an enemy to Gahriel, &c.] of this book. 

1 Exod. xxxii. 20. Deut. ix. 21. ^ Jallalo' ddin, Yahya,Al Beidawi, ^ 1 Tim. v. 24. 
* JallaW ddin, al Zamakh. Yahya. ^ Dan. xii. 1. ^ Ibid. ch. viii. 16. and ix. 21. 
Luke i. 19, 26. See Hyde de rel. vet. Persar. p. 263. 



II.] 



AL KORAN. 



17 



ture which was with them, some of those to whom the 
scriptures were given, cast the book of God behind their 
backs, as if they knew it not ; ^^^ and they followed the 
device which the devils devised against the kingdom of 
Solomon ; and Solomon was not an unbeliever ; but the 
devils believed not : they taught men sorcery, and that 
which was sent down to the two angels at Babel, Harut, 
and Marut : yet those two taught no man until they had 
said. Verily we are a temptation, therefore be not an 
unbeliever. So men learned from those two a charm by 
which they might cause a division between a man and 
his wife; but they hurt none thereby, unless by God's 
permission; and they learned that which would hurt 
them, and not profit them ; and yet they knew that he 
who bought that art should have no part in the life to 
come : and woeful is the price for which they have sold 
their souls, if they knew it. ^^^ But if they had believed, 



102 They followed the device of the 
devils against Solomon j &c.] The devils 
having, by God's permission, tempted 
Solomon without success, they made use 
of a trick to blast his character. For they 
wrote several books of magic, and hid 
them under that prince's throne, and, after 
his death, told the chief men, that if they 
wanted to know by what means Solomon 
had obtained his absolute power over men, 
genii, and the winds, they should dig under 
his throne ; which having done, they found 
the aforesaid books, which contained im- 
pious superstitions. The better sort refused 
to learn the evil arts therein delivered, but 
the common people did ; and the priests 
published this scandalous story of Solo- 
mon, which obtained credit among the 
Jews, till God, say the Mohammedans, 
cleared that king by the mouth of their 
prophet, declaring that Solomon was no 
idolater '. 

— The devils taught sorcery, and that 
which was sent down to Harut and Marut, 
&c.] Some say only that these were two 
magicians, or angels sent by God to teach 
men magic, and to tempt them 2. But 
others tell a longer fable ; that the angels 
expressing their surprise at the wickedness 
of the sons of Adam, after prophets had 
been sent to them with divine commis- 
sions, God bid them choose two out of 
their own number to be sent down to be 



judges on earth. Whereupon they pitched 
upon Harut and Marut, who executed 
their office with integrity for some time, 
till Zohara, or the planet Venus, descended, 
and appeared before them in the shape of 
a beautiful woman, bringing a complaint 
against her husband (though others say 
she was a real woman). As soon as they 
saw her, they fell in love with her, and 
endeavoured to prevail on her to satisfy 
their desires ; but she flew up again to 
heaven, whither the two angels also re- 
turned, but were not admitted. However, 
on the intercession of a certain pious man, 
they were allowed to choose whether they 
would be punished in this life, or in the 
other ; whereupon they chose the former, 
and now suffer punishment accordingly in 
Babel, where they are to remain till the 
day of judgment. They add, that if a 
man has a fancy to learn magic, he may 
go to them, and hear their voice, but can- 
not see them ^. 

This story Mohammed took directly 
from the Persian Magi, who mention two 
rebellious angels of the same names, now 
hung up by the feet, with their heads 
downwards, in the territory of Babel *. 
And the Jews have something like this, 
of the angel Shamhozai, who, having de- 
bauched himself with women, repented, 
and, by way of penance, hung himself up 
between heaven and earth ^ 



Yahya, Jallalo'ddin. ^ Jallalo' ddin. ^ Yahya. ^ V. Hydei ubi sup. cap. 12. 

^ Bereshit rabbah, in Genes, vi. 2. 
VOL. I. C 



18 AL KORAN. [chap. 

and feared God, verily the reward they would have had 
from God would have been better, if they had known it. 
^^* O true believers, say not to our apostle, Raina ; but 
say, Ondhorna ; and hearken : the infidels shall suffer a 
grievous punishment. ^^^ It is not the desire of the unbe- 
lievers, either among those unto whom the scriptures 
have been given, or among the idolaters, that any good 
should be sent down unto you from your Lord : but God 
will appropriate his mercy unto whom he pleaseth ; for 
God is exceeding beneficent. ^^^ Whatever verse we shall 
abrogate, or cause thee to forget, we will bring a better 
than it, or one like unto it. Dost thou not know that 
God is almighty ? ^^^ Dost thou not know that unto God 
belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth ? neither have 
ye any protector or helper except God. ^^^ Will ye 
require of your apostle according to that which was 
formerly required of Moses ? but he that hath exchanged 
faith for infidelity, hath already erred from the strait way. 
^^^ Many of those unto whom the scriptures have been 
given, desire to render you again unbelievers, after ye 
have believed ; out of envy from their souls, even after 
the truth is become manifest unto them; but forgive 
them, and avoid them, till God shall send his command ; 
for God is omnipotent. ^^^Be constant in prayer, and 
give alms ; and what good ye have sent before for your 
souls, ye shall find it with God; surely God seeth that 
which ye do. ^^^ They say, Verily none shall enter para- 
dise, except they who are Jews or Christians : this is their 
wish. Say, Produce your proof of this, if ye speak truth. 
^^^ Nay, but he who resigneth himself to God, and doth 
that which is right, he shall have his reward with his 
Lord ; there shall come no fear on them, neither shall 

104 Say not unto our apostle^ Raina, 111 None shall enter paradise^ except 

but Ondhorna.'] Those two Arabic words Jews or Christians.'] This passage \yas 

have both the same signification, viz. revealed on occasion of a dispute which 

Look on us ; and are a kind of salutation. Mohammed had with the Jews of Medina, 

Mohammed had a great aversion to the and the Christians of Naj ran, each of them 

first, because the Jews frequently used it asserting, that those of their religion only 

in derision, it being a word of reproach in should be saved ^. 

their tongue i. They alluded, it seems, 112 Resigneth himself , &c.] Literally, 

to the Hebrew verb J?1"i rua, which signi- resigneth his face, &c. 

fies to be bad or mischievous. — ^nd doth that which is right, &c.] 

108 What was formerly required of That is, asserteth the unity of God*. 

Moses.] Namely, to see God manifestly ^. 

* Jallalo'ddin. ^ See before, p. 9. ^ Jallalo'ddin. * Idem. 



ri.] AL KORAN. 19 

they be grieved. ^^^The Jews say. The Christians are 
grounded on nothing ; and the Christians say, The Jews 
are grounded on nothing : yet they both read the scrip- 
tures. So likewise say they who know not the scripture, 
according to their saying. But God shall judge between 
them on the day of the resurrection, concerning that 
about which they now disagree. ^^^ Who is more unjust 
than he who prohibiteth the temples of God ; that his 
name should be remembered therein, and who hasteth to 
destroy them ? Those men cannot enter therein, but with 
fear : ^^^ they shall have shame in this world, and in the 
next a grievous punishment. ^^^ To God belongeth the 
east and the west ; therefore, whithersoever ye turn your- 
selves to pray, there is the face of God ; for God is 
omnipresent and omniscient. ^^^ They say, God hath 
begotten children : God forbid ! To him belongeth what- 
ever is in heaven, and on earth ; ^^^ all is possessed by 
him, the Creator of heaven and earth; and, when he 
decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is. 
^^^And they who know not the scriptures, say. Unless 
God speak unto us, or thou shew us a sign, we will not ""^^ 
believe. So said those before them, according to their 
saying : their hearts resemble each other. We have 
already shewn manifest signs unto people who firmly 
believe ; ^^^ we have sent thee in truth, a bearer of good 
tidings, and a preacher ; and thou shalt not be questioned 
concerning the companions of hell. ^^^ But the Jews will 
not be pleased with thee, neither the Christians, until 
thou follow their religion ; say. The direction of God is 
the true direction. And verily if thou follow their 
desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, 

113 The Jews say, The Christians are Romans had spoiled the temple of Jeru- 

grounded on nothing, &c.] The Jews and salem ; or else when the idolatrous Arabs 

Christians are here accused of denying obstructed Mohammed's visiting the temple 

the truth of each other's religion, notwith- of Mecca, in the expedition of al Hodei- 

standing they read the scriptures. Whereas biya, which happened in the 6th year of 

the Pentateuch bears testimony to Jesus, the Hejra 2. 

and the Gospel bears testimony to Mo- 118 They say y God hath begotten child- 

ses ^. ren.'] This is spoken not only of the 

J 14 Who prohibiteth the temples of God, Christians, and of the Jews (for they are 

&c.] Or hindereth men from paying their accused of holding Ozair, or Ezra, to be 

adorations to God in those sacred places, the son of God), but also the pagan Arabs, 

This passage, says Jallalo'ddin, was re- who imagined the angels to be daughters 

vealed on news being brought, that the of God. 

^Jallalo'ddin, 2 y. Abidfedce vit. Moham, p. 84, &c. 

C 2 



20 AL KORAN. [chap. 

thou shall find no patron or protector against God. 
^^^ They to whom we have given the bool^ of the Koran, 
and who read it with its true reading, they believe therein ; 
and whoever believeth not therein, they shall perish. 
^^^ O children of Israel, remember my favour wherewith 
I have favoured you, and that I have preferred you before 
all nations ; ^^* and dread the day wherein one soul shall 
not make satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any 
compensation be accepted from them, nor shall any inter- 
cession avail, neither shall they be helped. ^^^ Remember 
when the Lord tried Abraham by certain words, which 
he fulfilled ; God said. Verily I will constitute thee a 

,co ^ model of religion unto mankind: he answered. And also 
of my posterity : God said. My covenant doth not com- 

;^ prehend the ungodly. ^^^ And when we appointed the 

holy house of Mecca to be a place of resort for mankind, 
and a place of security ; and said. Take the station of 
Abraham for a place of prayer ; and we covenanted with 
Abraham and Ismael, that they should cleanse my house 
for those who should compass it, and those who should 
be devoutly assiduous there, and those who should bow 
down and worship. ^^^ And when Abraham said. Lord, 
make this a territory of security, and bounteously bestow 
fruits on its inhabitants, such of them as believe in God 
and the last day ; God answered. And whoever believeth 
not, I will bestow on him little ; afterwards I will drive 
him to the punishment of hell-fire ; an ill journey shall it 
be ! ^^^ And when Abraham and Ismael raised the foun- 
dations of the house, saying. Lord, accept it from us, for 
thou art he who heareth and knoweth : ^^^ Lord, make a/ 
us also resigned unto thee, and of__Dur posterity a people ^ 

125 When the Lord tried Abraham, begin the prayers in their mosques, and 

&c.] God tried Abraham chiefly by com- whom all the congregation follow, 
manding him to leave his native country, 126 The holy house, &c.] That is, the 

and to offer his son. But the commenta- Caaba, which is usually called, by way of 

tors suppose the trial here meant related eminence, the House. Of the sanctity of 

only to some particular ceremonies, such this building, and other particulars relat- 

as circumcision, pilgrimage to the Caaba, ing to it, see the Prelim. Disc. § iv. 
several rites of purification, and the like'. — The station of Abraham, &c.] A 

— A model of religion.'] I have rather place so called within the inner inclosure 

expressed the meaning, than truly trans- of the Caaba, where they pretend to shew 

lated the Arabic word Imdm, which an- the print of his foot in a stone 2. 
swers to the Latin ^wiis/e^. This title the 129 Resigned.] The Arabic word is 

Mohammedans give to their priests, who MoslemUna/m the singular, Moslem, which 

1 Jallalo'ddin. ^ See the Prelim. Disc. § iV. 



n.] AL KQRAN. C> 

resigned unto thee, and shew us pur holy ceremonies, and 
be turned unto us, for thou art easy to be reconciled, and 
merciful ; ^^^ Lord, send them likewise an apostle froniTA^^^^-^ 
among them, who may declare thy signs unto them, and 'f^^^^ 
teach them the book of the Koran and wisdom, and may )^4k^ 
purify them ; for thou art mighty and wise. ^^^ Who will ^.:^^. 
be averse to the religion of Abraham, but he whose mind 
is infatuated ? Surely we have chosen him in this world, 
and in that which is to come he shall be one of the 
righteous. ^^^ When his Lord said unto him. Resign 
thyself unto me ; he answered, I have resigned myself 
unto the Lord of all creatures. ^J^A.nd Abraham be- 
queathed this religion to his children, and Jacob; did the 
same, saying. My children, verily God hath chosen this 
religion for you, therefore die not, unless ye also be 
resigned. ^^^ Were ye present when Jacob was at the 
point of death ? when he said to his sons. Whom will ye 
worship after me ? They answered. We will worship thy 
God, and the God of thy fathers Abraham, and Ismael, 
and Isaac, one God, and to him will we be resigned. 
^^^ That people are now passed away, they have what they 
have gained, and ye shall have what ye gain; and ye 
shall not be questioned concerning that which they have 
done. \^LThey say. Become Jews or Christians, that ye 
may be directed. Say, Nay, we follow the religion of 
Abraham the orthodox, who was no idolater, ^l^ Say, 
We believe in God, and that which hath been sent 
down unto us, and that which hath been sent down 
unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and 
the tribes; and that which was delivered unto Moses, 
and Jesus, and that whic h was delivered unto the pro- 
phets from their Lord : we make no distinction between 
any of them, and to God are we resigned. ^^^ Now, if 
they believe according to what ye believe, they are surely 
directed; but, if they turn back, they are in schism. 
God shall support thee against them, for he is the hearer, 
the wise. ^^^ The baptism of God have we received, and 

the Mohammedans take as a title peculiar which they call gain, or acquisition, issuffi- 

to themselves. The Europeans generally ciently explained in the Prelim. Disc, 
write and pronounce it Musulman. 139 The baptism of God.'] By baptism 

]35 What they have gained.'] Or de- is to be understood the religion which 

served. The Mohammedan notion, as to God instituted in the beginning; because 

the imputation of moral actions to man, the signs of it appear in the person who 



23 AL KORAN. [chap. 

who is better than God to baptize ? him do we worship. 

*^^ Say, Will ye dispute with us concerning God, who is 

our Lord, and your Lord ? we have our works, and ye 

have your works, and unto him are we sincerely devoted. 

lii^Will ye say, Truly Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, 

and Jacob, and the tribes, were Jews or Christians ? 

Say, Are ye wiser, or God ? And who is more unjust than 

he who hideth the testimony which he hath received 

from God ? But God is not regardless of that which ye 

do. ^^^That people are passed away, they have what 

they have gained, and ye shall have what ye gain, nor 

shall ye be questioned concerning that which they have 

done. [*II.] ^^^The foolish men will say. What hath 

turned them from their Keblah, towards which they 

formerly prayed ? Say, Unto God belongeth the east and 

the west : he directeth whom he pleaseth into the right 

way. ^^^ Thus have we placed you, O Arabians, an 

intermediate nation, that ye may be witnesses against the 

rest of mankind, and that the apostle may be a witness 

against you. ^^^ We appointed the Keblah towards 

which thou didst formerly pray, only that we might know 

him who followeth the apostle, from him who turneth 

back on his heels; though this change seem a greater 

matter, unless unto those whom God hath directed. But 

God will not render your faith of none effect ; for God is 

professes it, as the signs of water appear in turn towards the temple of Jerusalem, 

the clothes of him that is baptized ^ (probably to ingratiate himself with the 

140 fVill ye dispute with us concertiing Jews,) which continued to be their Keb- 
God ?] These words were revealed, be- lah for six or seven months ; but either 
cause the Jews insisted, that they first finding the Jews too intractable, or despair- 
received the scriptures, that their Keblah ing otherwise to gain the pagan Arabs, 
was more ancient, and that no prophets who could not forget their respect to the 
could arise among the Arabs ! and there- temple of Mecca, he ordered that prayers 
fore, if Mohammed w^as a prophet, he must for the future should be towards the last, 
have been of their nation ^. This change was made in the second year 

141 Who hideth the testimony, Sicl The of the Hejra*, and occasioned many to 
Jews are again accused of corrupting and fall from him, taking offence at his incon- 
suppressing the prophecies in the Penta- stancy'. 

teuch relating to Mohammed. 144 An intermediate nation, Sic.'] This 

143 What hath turned them from their seems to be the sense of the words ; though 

Keblah, &c.] At first Mohammed and his the commentators ^ will have the meaning 

followers observed no particular rite in to be, that the Arabians are here declared 

turning their faces towards any certain to be a most just and good nation, 

place, or quarter of the world, when they 145 Who turneth back on his heels.~\ 

prayed; it being declared to be perfectly i. e. returneth to Judaism, 

indifferent 3. Afterwards, when the pro- — - God will not retider your faith of 

phet fled to Medina, he directed them to none effect.] Or will not suffer it to go 

1 Jallah'ddin. ^ Idem. 3 ggg before, p. 19 ^ V. Abulf. vit. Moham. p. oi. 

^ Jalhlo'ddifi. ^ Jdeni, Yahya, (Vc. 

1 



II.] AL KORAN. 23 

gracious and merciful unto man. ^^^ We have seen thee 
turn about thy face towards heaven with uncertainty, but 
we will cause thee to turn thyself towards a Keblah that 
will please thee. Turn therefore thy face towards the 
holy temple of Mecca ; and, wherever ye be, turn your 
faces towards that place. They to whom the scripture 
hath been given, know this to be truth from their Lord. 
God is not regardless of that which ye do. ^^'^ Verily, 
although thou shouldest shew unto those, to whom the 
scripture hath been given, all kinds of signs, yet they 
will not follow thy Keblah, neither shalt thou follow 
their Keblah; nor will one part of them follow the 
Keblah of the other. And, if thou follow their de- 
sires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, 
verily thou wilt become one of the ungodly. ^^^ They to 
whom we have given the scripture, know our apostle, 
even as they know their own children : but some of them 
hide the truth against their own knowledge. ^^^ Truth is 
from thy Lord, therefore thou shalt not doubt. ^^^ Every 
sect hath a certain tract of heaven to which they turn 
themselves in prayer ; but do ye strive to run after good 
things : wherever ye be, God will bring you all back at 
the resurrection, for God is almighty. ^^^ And, from 
what place soever thou comest forth, turn thy face 
towards the holy temple ; for this is truth from thy 
Lord ; neither is God regardless of that which ye do. 
*^^ From what place soever thou comest forth, turn thy 
face towards the holy temple ; and wherever ye be, 
thitherward turn your faces, lest men have matter of 
dispute against you : but as for those among them who 
are unjust doers, fear them not, but fear me, that I may 
accomplish my grace upon you, and that ye may be 
directed. ^^^ As we have sent unto you an apostle from 
among you, to rehearse our signs unto you, and to purify 
you, and to teach you the book of the Koran and 
wisdom, and to teach you that which ye knew not: 
^^^ therefore remember me, and I will remember you, 
and give thanks unto me, and be not unbelievers. ^^^ O 
true believers, beg assistance with patience and prayer, 

without its reward, while ye pray towards 153 Jn Apostle from among you.'] That 

Jerusalem. is, of your own nation. 



24r AL KORAN. [chap. 

for God is with the patient. ^^^ And say not of thosel^^^ 
who are slain in fight for the religion of God, that they |^ 
are dead : yea, they are living ; but ye do not understand J 
^^^ We will surely prove you by afflicting you in some 
measure with fear, and hunger, and decrease of wealth, 
and loss of lives, and scarcity of fruits : but bear good 
tidings unto the patient ; who, when a misfortune befalleth 
them, ^^^ say. We are God's, and unto him shall we surely 
return. ^^^ Upon them shall be blessings from their Lord 
and mercy, and they are the rightly directed. ^^^ More- 
over Safa and Merwah are two of the monuments of 
God : whoever therefore goeth on pilgrimage to the 
temple of Mecca, or visiteth it, it shall be no crime in 
him if he compass them both. And as for him who 
voluntarily performeth a good work : verily God is grate- 
ful and knowing. ^^^ They who conceal any of the evident 
signs, or the direction which we have sent down, after 
what we have manifested unto men in the scripture, God 
shall curse them : and they who curse shall curse them. 
^^^ But as for those who repent and amend, and make 
known what they concealed, I will be turned unto them, 
for I am easy to be reconciled and merciful. ^^^ Surely 
they who believe not, and die in their unbelief, upon them 

] 56 Who are slain in fight for the reli- sage was revealed because the followers of 

gion of 004.1 The original words are Mohammed made a scruple of going round 

literally, Who are slain in the way of God ; these mountains, as the idolaters did. But 

by which expression, frequently occurring the true reason of his allowing this relic of 

in the Koran, is always meant war under- ancient superstition, seems to be the difR- 

taken against unbelievers for the propaga- culty he found in preventing it. Abu'l 

tion of the Mohammedan faith. Kasem Hebato'llah thinks these last words 

— They are living.'] The souls of mar- are abrogated by those other, Who will 
tyrs (for such they esteem those who die reject the religion of Abraham, except he 
in battle against infidels) says Jallalo'ddin, who hath infatuated his soul 2 ? So that he 
are in the crops of green birds, which will have the meaning to be quite con- 
have liberty to fly wherever they please trary to the letter, as if it had been, It 
in paradise, and feed on the fruits thereof, shall be no crime in him if he do not com- 

158 We are God's^ and unto him shall pass them. However the expositors are 

we surely return.'] An expression fre- all against him 3, and the ceremony of 

quently in the mouths of the Mohamme- running between these two hills is still 

dans, when under any great affliction, or observed at the pilgrimage ^. 

in any imminent danger. 161 They who curse shall curse them.] 

160 Whoever goeth on pilgrimage to That is, the angels, the believers, and all 

Mecca, it shall be no crime in him if he things in general ^. But Yahya interprets 

compass them both.] Safa and Merwah it of the curses which will be given to the 

are two mountains near Mecca, whereon wicked, when they cry out because of the 

were anciently two idols, to which the punishment of the sepulchre 6, by all who 

pagan Arabs used to pay a superstitious hear them ; that is, by all creatures, except 

veneration ^ Jallalo'ddin says this pas- men and genii. 



1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 34. 2 gee before, p. 21. ^ y. Marracc. in Ak. 

p. 60, Src. * See the Prelim. Di^c. § iv. ^ Jalalloddin, ^ fSee Prelim. Disc. § iv. 



II.] AL KORAN. 25 

shall be the curse of God, and of the angels, and of all 
men ; ^^^ they shall remain under it for ever, their punish- 
ment shall not be alleviated, neither shall they be 
regarded. ^^^ Your God is one God ; there is no God 
but He, the most merciful. ^^^ Now in the creation of 
heaven and earth, and the vicissitude of night and day, 
and in the ship which saileth in the sea, loaden with 
what is profitable for mankind, and in the rain-water 
which God sendeth from heaven, quickening thereby 
the dead earth, and replenishing the same with all 
sorts of cattle, and in the change of winds, and the 
clouds that are compelled to do service between heaven 
and earth, are signs to people of understanding : ^^^ j^ 
some men take idols beside God, and love them as with 
the love due to God ; but the true believers are more fer- 
vent in love towards God. Oh that they who act unjustly 
did perceive, when they behold their punishment, that 
all power belongeth unto God, and that he is severe in 
punishing ! ^^^ When those who have been followed, 
slmll separate themselves from their followers, and shall 
see the punishment, and the cords of relation between 
them shall be cut in sunder ; ^^^ the followers shall say. 
If we could return to life, we would separate ourselves 
from them, as they have now separated themselves from 
us. So God will show them their works ; they shall sigh 
grievously, and shall not come forth from the fire of hell. 
170 Q -j^QYi, eat of that which is lawful and good on the 
earth ; and tread not in the steps of the devil, for he is 
your open enemy. ^^^ Verily he commandeth you evil 
and wickedness, and that ye should say that of God which 

164 Regarded'] Or, as Jallalo'ddin Although the ungodly will perceive, &c. 

expounds it, God will not wait for their But some copies, instead of yara, in the 

repentance. third person, read tara, in the second; 

166 Compelled.'] The original word and then it must be rendered, Oh, if thou 
signifies properly, That are pressed or didst see when the ungodly behold their 
compelled to do personal service without punishment, &c. 

hire; which kind of service is often ex- 168 When those who have been followed^ 

acted by the eastern princes of their sub- shall separate themselves from their followers, 

jects, and is called, by the Greek and Latin &c.] That is, when the broachers or heads 

writers, Angaria. The scripture often of new sects shall at the last day forsake or 

mentions this sort of compulsion or force '. wash their hands of their disciples, as if 

167 Oh that they who act unjustly did they were not accomplices in their super- 
perceive, &c.] Or it may be translated, stitions. 

» Matt. V. 41. xxvii. 32, &c. 



26 AL KORAN. [chap. 

ye know not. ^^^And when it is said unto them who 
believe not, Follow that which God hath sent down ; 
they answer. Nay, but we will follow that which we found 
our fathers practise. What ? though their fathers knew 
nothing, and were not rightly directed ? ^^^ The unbe- 
lievers are like unto one who crieth aloud to that which 
heareth not so much as his calling, or the sound of his 
voice. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore do they 
not understand. ^^*0 true believers, eat of the good 
things which we have bestowed on you for food, and 
return thanks unto God, if ye serve him. ^^^ Verily he 
hath forbidden you to eat that which dieth of itself, and 
blood and swine's flesh, and that on which any other name 
but God's hath been invocated. But he who is forced by 
necessity, not lusting, nor returning to transgress, it shall 
be no crime in him if he eat of those things, for God is 
gracious and merciful. ^^^ Moreover, they who conceal 
any part of the scripture which God hath sent down unto 
them, and sell it for a small price, they shall swallow 
into their bellies nothing but fire ; God shall not speak 
unto them on the day of resurrection, neither shall he 
purify them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. 
^^^ These are they who have sold direction for error, and 
pardon for punishment : but how great will their suffering 
be in the fire! This they shall endure, because God sent 
down the book of the Koran with truth : and they who 
disagree concerning that book are certainly in a wide 
mistake. ^^^It is not righteousness that ye turn your 
faces in prayer towards the east and the west, but 
righteousness is of him who believeth in God and the 
last day, and the angels, and the scriptures, and the 
prophets ; who giveth money for God's sake unto his 
kindred, and unto orphans, and the needy, and the 
stranger, and those who ask, and for redemption of cap- 
tives; who is constant at prayer, and giveth alms; and 
of those who perform their covenant, when they have 
covenanted, and who behave themselves patiently in 
adversity, and hardships, and in time of violence : these 

175 Invocated.] For this reason, when- the name of God; which if it be ne- 
ever the Mohammedans kill any animal glected, they think it not lawful to eat 
for food, they alw^ays say Bismi'llah, or. In of it. 



II.] AL KORAN. 27 

are they who are true, and these are they who fear God. 
^^^ O true believers, the law of retaliation is ordained you 
for the slain : the free shall die for the free, and the ser- 
vant for the servant, and a woman for a woman : but he 
whom his brother shall forgive, may be prosecuted, and 
obliged to make satisfaction according to what is just, and 
a fine shall be set on him with humanity. This is indul- 
gence from your Lord, and mercy. And he who shall 
transgress after this, by killing the murtherer, shall suffer 
a grievous punishment. ^^^ And in this law of retaliation 
ye have life, O ye of understanding ! that peradventure ye 
may fear. ^^^ It is ordained you, when any of you is at the 
point of death, if he leave any goods, that he bequeath 
a legacy to his parents, and kindred, according to what 
shall be reasonable. This is a duty incumbent on those 
who fear God. ^^^But he who shall change the legacy, 
after he hath heard it bequeathed by the dying person, 
surely the sin thereof shall be on those who change it, for 
God is he who heareth and knoweth. ^^^ Howbeit he 
who apprehendeth from the testator any mistake or injus- 
tice, and shall compose the matter between them, that 
shall be no crime in him, for God is gracious and merciful. 
^^^0 true believers, a fast is ordained you, as it was 
ordained unto those before you, that ye may fear God. 
^^^ A certain number of days shall ye fast : but he among 
you who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast an equal 
number of other days: and those who can keep it, and do 

179 A woman for a woman.'] This is 181 That he bequeath a legacy to his. 

not to be strictly taken ; for, according to parents and kindred^ according to what 

the Sonna, a man also is to be put to death shall he reasonable, &c.] That is, the 

for the murder of a woman. Regard is legacy was not to exceed a third part of 

also to be had to difference in religion ; so the testator's substance, nor to be given 

that a Mohammedan, though a slave, is where there was no necessity : but this in- 

not to be put to death for an Infidel, though junction is abrogated by the law concern- 

a freeman 1. But the civil magistrates do ing inheritances. 

not think themselves always obliged to 185 Those who can keep it, and do not, 

conform to this last determination of the &c.] The expositors differ much about 

Sonna. the meaning of this passage, thinking it 

— J fine.] This is the common prac- very improbable that people should be left 

tice in Mohammedan countries, particu- entirely at liberty either to fast or not, on 

larly in Persia 2; where the relations of compounding for it in this manner. Jal- 

the deceased may take their choice, either lalo'ddin, therefore, supposes the negative 

to have the murderer put into their hands, particle not to he understood, and that this 

to be put to death ; or else to accept of a is allowed only to those who are notable to 

pecuniary satisfaction. fast, by reason of age or dangerous sickness: 



Jallalo'ddiiu ^ V. Chardin, Voyage de Perse, torn. ii. p. 299, &c. 



28 AL KORAN. [chap. 

not, must redeem their neglect by maintaining of a poor 
man. And he who voluntarily dealeth better with the 
poor man than he is obliged, this shall be better for 
him. But if ye fast it will be better for you, if ye knew 
it. ^^^The month of Ramadan shall ye fast, in which the 
Koran was sent down from heaven, a direction unto men, 
and declarations of direction, and the distinction between 
good and evil. Therefore let him among you who shall 
be present in this month, fast the same month : but he 
who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast the like 
number of other days. God would make this an ease 
unto you, and would not make it a difficulty unto you ; 
that ye may fulfil the number of days, and glorify God, 
for that he hath directed you, and that ye may give 
thanks. ^^^When my servants ask thee concerning me, 
verily I am near; I will hear the prayer of him that 
prayeth, when he prayetli unto me: but let them hearken 
unto me, and believe in me, that they may be rightly 
directed. ^^^ It is lawful for you on the night of the fast 
to go in unto your wives ; they are a garment unto you, 
and ye are a garment unto them. God knoweth that ye 
defraud yourselves therein, wherefore he turneth unto 
you, and forgiveth you. Now therefore go in unto them, 
and earnestly desire that which God ordaineth you ; and 
eat and drink, until ye can plainly distinguish a white 
thread from a black thread by the day-break : then keep 

but afterwards he says, that, in the begin- legal excuse to break it, must redeem it, 

ning of Mohammedism, it was free for &c. 

them to choose whether they would fast 185 By maintaining of a poor man.'] 

or maintain a poor man ; which liberty According to the usual quantity which a 

was soon after taken away, and this pas- man eats in a day, and the custom of the 

sage abrogated by the following : There- country ^. 

fore let him who shall be present in this 186 Koran.] See the Prelim. Disc. § ii. 

month, fast the same month. Yet this — Who shall he present.] i. e. at home, 

abrogation, he says, does not extend to and not in a strange country, where the 

women with child, or that give suck, lest fast cannot be performed, or on a journey, 

the infant suffer. 188 It is lawful for you on the fast to go 

Al Zamakhshari, having first given an in unto your wives by night.] In the begin- 

explanation of Ebn Abbas, who, by a ning of Mohammedism, during the fast, 

different interpretation of the Arabic word they neither lay with their wives, nor ate 

Yotikunaho,which signifies. Can or are able nor drank after supper. But both are 

to fast, renders it. Those who find great permitted by this passage 2. 

difficulty therein, &c., adds an exposition — They are a garment unto you, &c.] 

of his own, by supposing something to be A metaphorical expression, to signify the 

understood ; according to which the sense mutual comfort a man and his wife find in 

will be, Those who can fast, and yet have a each other. 

1 JallaWddin. ^ ibid. ~~" 



II.] AL KORAN. 29 

the fast until niglit, and go not in unto them, but be con- 
stantly present in the places of worship. These are the 
prescribed bounds of God, therefore draw not near them 
to transgress them. Thus God declareth his signs unto 
men, that they may fear him. ^^^ Consume not your 
wealth among yourselves in vain ; nor present it unto 
judges, that ye may devour part of men's substance un- 
justly, against your own consciences. ^^^ They will ask 
thee concerning the phases of the moon ; answer, They 
are times appointed unto men, and to show the season of 
the pilgrimage to Mecca. It is not righteousness that ye 
enter your houses by the back parts thereof, but righte- 
ousness is of him who feareth God. Therefore enter 
your houses by their doors ; and fear God, that ye may 
be happy. ^^^ And Jight for the rel^ of God against 

those who fight against you ; but transgress not by attack- 
ing them first, for God loveth not the transgressors. 
^^^ And kill them wherever ye find them, and turn them 
out of that whereof they have dispossessed you; for 
temptation to idolatry is more grievous than slaughter : 
yet fight not against them in the holy temple, until they 
attack you therein; but if they attack you, slay them 
there. This shall be the reward of the infidels. ^^^ But 
if they desist, God is gracious and merciful. ^^^ Fight 
therefore against them, until there be no temptation to 
idolatry, and the religion be God's, but if they desist, then 
let there be no hostility, except against the ungodly. ^^^ A 
sacred month for a sacred month, and the holy limits of 
Mecca, if they attack you therein, do ye also attack them 
therein in retaliation ; and whoever transgresseth against 
you by so doing, do ye transgress against him in like 
manner as he hath transgressed against you, and fear 
God, and know that God is with those who fear him. 
^^^ Contribute out of your substance toward the defence 
of the religion of God, and throw not yourselves with 
your own hands into perdition ; and do good, for God 

190 Back parts.'] Some of the Arabs months, wherein it was unlawful for the 

had a superstitious custom after they had ancient Arabs to attack one another, see 

been at Mecca (in pilgrimage, as it seems), the Prelim. Disc. § vii. 
on their return home, not to enter their 196 And throw not yourselves awatft 

house by the old door, but to make a 8rc.] i. e. Be not accessary to your own 

hole through the back part for a passage, destruction, by neglecting your contribu- 

which practice is here reprehended. tions towards the wars against infidels, and 

195 Sacred month.] As to these sacred thereby suffering them to gather strength. 



30 A L K O R A N. [chap. 

loveth those who do good. ^^^ Perform the pilgrimage of 
Mecca, and the visitation of God ; and, if ye be besieged 
send that offering which shall be the easiest : and shave 
not your heads, until your offering reacheth the place of 
sacrifice. But, whoever among you is sick, or is troubled 
with any distemper of the head, must redeem the shaving 
his head by fasting, or alms, or some offering. When ye 
are secure from enemies, he who tarrieth in the visitation 
of the temple of Mecca, until the pilgrimage, shall 
bring that offering which shall be the easiest. But he 
who findeth not any thing to offer, shall fast three days 
in the pilgrimage, and seven when ye are returned : they 
shall be ten days complete. This is incumbent on him, 
whose family shall not be present at the holy temple. 
And fear God, and know that God is severe in punishing. 
^^^ The pilgrimage must be performed in the known 
months : whosoever, therefore, purposes to go on pilgrim- 
age therein, let him not know a woman, nor transgress, 
nor quarrel in the pilgrimage. The good which ye do, 
God knoweth it. Make provision for your journey ; but 
the best provision is piety ; and fear me, O ye of under- 
standing. ^^^ It shall be no crime in you, if ye seek an 
increase from your Lord, by trading during the pil- 
grimage. And when ye go in procession from Arafat, 
remember God near the holy monument ; and remember 

197 Shave not your heads, &c.] For original word signifies To rush forward 
this was a sign they had completed their impetuously ; as the pilgrims do when 
vow, and performed all the ceremonies of they proceed from Arafat to Mozdalifa. 
the pilgrimage ^ — Arafat.'] A mountain near Mecca, 

— Must redeem the shaving his head so called because Adam there tnet and 
hy fasting, 82:0.] That is, either by fast- knew his wife, after a long separation 2. 
ing three days, or feeding six poor people, Yet others say that Gabriel, after he had 
or sacrificing a sheep. instructed Abraham in all the sacred cere- 

— He who tarrieth, 8z;c.] This pas- monies, coming to Arafat, there asked him 
sage is somewhat obscure. Yahya inter- if he knew the ceremonies which had 
prets it of him who marries a wife during been shown him ; to which Abraham an- 
tlie visitation, and performs the pilgrimage swering in the affirmative, the mountain 
the year following. But Jallalo'ddin ex- had thence its name ^. 

pounds it of him who stays within the — The holy monument.'] In Arabic, 

sacred enclosures, in order to complete the al Masher al hardm. It is a mountain in 

ceremonies, which (as it should seem) he the farther part of Mozdalifa, where it is 

had not been able to do within the pre- said Mohammed stood praying and prais- 

scribed time. ing God, till his face became extremely 

198 The known months.] i. e. Shawal, shining *. Bobovius calls it Farkh ^, but 
Dhu'lkaada, and Dhu'lhajja. See Prelim, the true name seems to be Kazah ; the 
Disc. sect. iv. variation being occasioned only by the 

199 When ye go in procession.] The different pointing of the Arabic letters. 

* Jallalo'ddin, ^ See before, page 7* note 36. ' Al Hasan. "* Jallalo'ddin. 

5 Bobov. de Peregr. Meccana, p. 15. 



II.] AL KORAN. 31 

him foi' that he hath directed you, although ye were 
before this of the number of those who go astray. 
200 Therefore go in procession from whence the people go 
in procession, and ask pardon of God, for God is gracious 
and merciful. ^^^ And when ye have finished your holy 
ceremonies, remember God according as ye remember 
your fathers, or wdth a more reverend commemoration. 
There are some men who say, O Lord, give us our por- 
tion in this world ; but such shall have no portion in the 
next life : ^^^ and there are others who say, O Lord, give 
us good in this world, and also good in the next world, 
and deliver us from the torment of hell-fire. They shall 
have a portion of that which they have gained : God is 
swift in taking an account. ^^^ Remember God the ap- 
pointed number of days : but if any haste to depart from 
the valley of Mina in two days, it shall be no crime in 
him. And if any tarry longer it shall be no crime in him, 
in him who feareth God. Therefore fear God, and know 
that unto him ye shall be gathered. ^^^ There is a man 
who causeth thee to marvel by his speech concerning 
this present life, and calleth God to witness that which 
is in his heart, yet he is most intent in opposing thee ; 
^^^ and, when he turneth away from thee, he hasteth to 
act corruptly in the earth, and to destroy that which is 
sown, and springeth up : but God loveth not corrupt 
doing. ^^^ And if one say unto him. Fear God ; pride 
seizeth him, together with wickedness ; but hell shall be 
his reward, and an unhappy couch shall it be. ^^^ There 
is also a man who selleth his soul for the sake of those 
things which are pleasing unto God ; and God is gra- 
cious unto his servants. ^^^ O true believers, enter into 
the true religion wholly, and follow not the steps of 

202 God is swift in taking an account.l God here reveals to the prophet his hy- 
For he will judge all creatures, says Jal- pocrisy and wickedness ^. 

lalo'ddin, in the space of half a day. 205 He hasteth to act corruptly, and 

203 The appointed number of days.'\ i.e, to destroy that which is sown, &c.] Set- 
Three days after slaying the sacrifices. ting fire to his neighbour's corn, and kil- 

204 There is a man who causeth thee to ling his asses by night 2. 

marvel, &c.] This person was al Akhnas 207 There is also a man who selleth his 

Ebn Shoraik, a fair-spoken dissembler, soul, &c.] The person here meant was 

who swore that he believed in Moham- one Soheib, who, being persecuted by the 

med, and pretended to be one of his idolaters of Mecca, forsook all he had, and 

friends, and to contemn this world. But fled to Medina ^. 

* Jallalo* ddin. ^ Idem. ' Idem. 



32 A L KORAN. [chap. 

Satan, for he is your open enemy. ^^^ If ye have slipped 
after the declarations of our will have come unto you, 
know that God is mighty and wise. ^^^ Do the infidels 
expect less than that God should come down to them 
overshadowed with clouds, and the angels also ? but the 
thing is decreed, and to God shall all things return. 
^^^ Ask the children of Israel how many evident signs 
we have shewed them; and whoever shall change the 
grace of God, after it shall have come unto him, verily 
God will be severe in punishing him. ^^^The present 
life was ordained for those who believe not, and they 
laugh the faithful to scorn ; but they who fear God shall 
be above them, on the day of the resurrection : for God 
is bountiful unto whom he pleaseth without measure. 
^^^ Mankind was of one faith, and God sent prophets 
bearing good tidings, and denouncing threats, and sent 
down with them the scripture in truth, that it might 
judge between men of that concerning which they dis- 
agreed : and none disagreed concerning it, except those 
to whom the same scriptures were delivered, after the 
declarations of God's will had come unto them out of 
envy among themselves. And God directed those who 
believed, to that truth concerning which they disagreed, 
by his will : for God directeth whom he pleaseth into the 
right way. ^^^ Did ye think ye should enter paradise, 
when as yet no such thing had happened unto you, as 
hath happened unto those who have been before you ? 
They suffered calamity, and tribulation, and were afflict- 
ed ; so that the apostle, and they who believed with him, 
said, When will the help of God come? Is not the 
^^ help of God nigh? ^^^They will ask thee what they 
3\i:^ shall bestow in alms: Answer, The good which ye be- 
C J stow, let it be given to parents and kindred, and orphans, 
^^' and the poor, and the stranger. Whatsoever good ye do, 
God knoweth it. ^^^War is enjoined you against the 
infidels ; but this is hateful unto you : yet perchance ye 
hate a thing which is better for you, and perchance ye 
love a thing which is worse for you : but God knoweth, 
and ye know not. ^^^ They will ask thee concerning the 
sacred month, whether they may war therein : Answer, 
To war therein is grievous ; but to obstruct the way of 



n.] AL KORAN. 33 

God, and infidelity towards him, and to keep men from 
the holy temple, and to drive out his people from thence, 
is more grievous in the sight of God, and the temptation 
to idolatry is more grievous, than to kill in the sacred 
months. They will not cease to war against you, until 
they turn you from your religion, if they be able : but 
whoever among you shall turn back from his religion,lLnJ 
die airinfidel, their works shall be vain in this world, aniT" 
the next; they shall be the companions of hell-fire, they ^^ 
shall remain therein for ever^^^^^^^^But they who believe, 
and who fly for the sake of religion, and fight in God's 
cause, they shall hope for the mercy of God ; for God is 
gracious and merciful. ^^^ They will ask thee concerning 
wine and lots : Answer, In both there is great sin, and 
also some thingfs of use unto men : but their sinfulness is 
greater than their use. They will ask thee also what 
they shall bestow in alms : ^^^ Answer, What ye have to 
spare. Thus God sheweth his signs unto you, that per- 
adventure ye might seriously think of this present world, 
and of the next. ^^^ They wdll also ask thee concerning 
orphans : Answer, To deal righteously with them is best ; 
and if ye intermeddle with the management of what be- 
longs to them, do them no wrong ; they are your bre- 
thren : God knoweth the corrupt dealer from the righ- 
teous ; and if God please, he will surely distress you, for 
God is mighty and wise. ^^^ Marry not women who are^~^ 
idolaters, until they believe ; verily a maid-servant who ) ^4^^ 
believeth, is better than an idolatress, although she please / /i^ J 
you more. And give not women who believe in marriage ( %^ 
to the idolaters, until they believe ; for verily a servant, j ^m^^ 



% 



219 Wine.'] Under the name of wine all hibited^. And the moderate use of 

sorts of strong and inebriating liquors are wine they also think is allowed by these 

comprehended ^. words of the 16th chapter : And of the 

— Lots.'] The original word, al MeiseVf fruits of palm-trees and grapes ye obtain 
properly signifies a particular game per- inebriating drink, and also good nourish- 
formed with arrows, and much in use with ment. But the more received opinion is, 
the Pagan Arabs. But by lots we are here that both drinking wine or other strong 
to understand all games whatsoever, which liquors in any quantity, and playing at 
are subject to chance or hazard, as dice, any game of chance, are absolutely forbid- 
cards, &c. ^ den *. 

— In both there is great sin, and also 221 God will surely distress you.] viz. 
some things of use.~\ From these words By his curse, which will certainly bring 
some suppose that only drinking to ex- to nothing what ye shall wrong the or- 
cess and too frequent gaming are pro- phans of. 

1 See the Prelim. Disc. § v. 2 ggg jbid. 

^ V. Jallald'ddin and al Zamakhshari. * See the Prelim. Disc, ubi sup» 

VOL. I. D 



1 



34 A L KORAN. [chap. 

who is a true believer, is better than an idolater, though 
he please you more. They invite unto hell-fire ; but God 
inviteth unto paradise and pardon through his will, and 
declareth his signs unto men, that they may remember. 
^^^They will ask thee also concerning the courses of 
women : Answer, They are a pollution : therefore sepa- 
rate yourselves from women in their courses, and go not 
near them until they be cleansed. But when they are 
cleansed, go in unto them as God hath commanded you, 
for God lovetli those who repent, and loveth those who 
are clean. ^^'* Your wives are your tillage ; go in there- 
fore unto your tillage in what manner soever ye will : and 
do first some act that may be profitable unto your souls ; 
and fear God, and know that ye must meet him ; and 
bear good tidings unto the faithful. ^^^ Make not God 
the object of your oaths, that ye will deal justly, and 
be devout, and make peace among men ; for God is he 
who heareth and knoweth. ^^^ God will not punish you 
for an inconsiderate word in your oaths; but he will 
punish you for that which your hearts have assented 
unto : God is merciful and gracious. ^^^ They who vow 
to abstain from their wives, are allowed to wait four 
months ; but if they go back from their vow, verily God 

223 As God hath commmided you.l But Some commentators * expound this nega- 

not while they have their courses, nor by tively. That ye will not deal justly, nor 

using preposterous venery ^ be devout, &c. For such wicked oaths, 

224. In what manner soever ye wilLl they say, were customary among the idol- 

That is, in any posture ; either standing, atrous inhabitants of Mecca ; which gave 

sitting, lying, forwards, or backwards, occasion to the following saying of Mo- 

And this passage, it is said, was revealed hammed : When you swear to do a thing, 

to answer the Jews, wVio pretended that and afterwards find it better to do other- 

if a man lay with his wife backwards, he wise, do that which is better, and make 

would get a more witty child ^. It has void your oath. 

been imagined that these words allow that 226 An i7iconsiderate word.~\ When a 

preposterous lust, which the commenta- man swears inadvertently, and without 

tors say is forbidden by the preceding ; design. 

but I question whether this can be proved. 227 They who vow to abstain from their 

— Do first some act that may profit wives, are allowed to wait four months.^ 
your soul.'\ i. e. perform some act of de- That is, they may take so much time to 
votion or charity. consider ; and shall not, by a rash oath, 

225 Make not God the object of your be obliged actually to divorce them. 
oaths.^ i.e. So as to swear frequently by — ^ they go back from their vow, &c.] 

him. The word translated object, pro- i. e. If they be reconciled to their wives 

perly signifies a butt to shoot at with within four months, or after, they may 

arrows^. retain them; and God will dispense with 

— That ye will deal justly, &c.] their oath. 

1 Ebn Abbas, Jallaloddin. 2 Jallalo'ddin, Yahya, Al Zamakhsharl. Vid. 

Lucret. de rer, nat. 1. iv. 1258, &c. ^ JallaWddin. * Idem, Yahya, 



II.] AL KORAN. 35 

is gracious and merciful ; ^^^ and if they resolve on a 
divorce, God is he who heareth and knoweth. ^^^ The 
women who are divorced shall wait concerning themselves 
until they have their courses thrice, and it shall not be 
lawful for them to conceal that which God hath created 
in their wombs, if they believe in God and the last day ; 
and their husbands will act more justly to bring them 
back at this time, if they desire a reconciliation. The 
women ought also to behave towards their husbands in 
like manner as their husbands should behave towards 
them, according to what is just : but the men ought to 
have a superiority over them. God is mighty and wise. 
230 Ye may divorce your wives twice ; and then either 
retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with kind- 
ness. But it is not lawful for you to take away any thing 
of what ye have given them, unless both fear that they 
cannot observe the ordinances of God. And if ye fear 
that they cannot observe the ordinances of God, it shall 
be no crime in either of them on account of that for 
which the wife shall redeem herself. These are the 
ordinances of God ; therefore transgress them not ; for 
whoever transgresseth the ordinances of God, they are 
unjust doers. ^^^ But if the husband divorce her a third 
time, she shall not be lawful for him again, until she 
marry another husband. But if he also divorce her, it 
shall be no crime in them, if they return to each other, 
if they think they can observe the ordinances of God ; 
and these are the ordinances of God, he declareth them 

229 Thrice.'] This is to be understood before the term be accomplished : lest the 
of those only with whom the marriage has first husband's child should, by that means, 
been consummated ; for as to the others go to the second ; or the wife, in case of 
there is no lime limited. Those who are the first husband's death, should set up 
not quite past childbearing, (which a her child as his heir, or demand her main- 
woman is reckoned to be after her courses tenance during the time she went with 
cease, and she is fifty-five lunar years, or such child, and the expenses of her lying- 
about fifty-three solar years, old), and in, under pretence that she waited not her 
those who are too young to have children, full prescribed time ^. 
are allowed three months only ; but they 230 Unless both fear they cannot observe 
who are with child must wait till they be the ordinances of God."] For if there be a 
delivered ^ settled aversion on either side, their con- 

— Thet/ shall not conceal what God tinning together may have very ill, and 

hath created in their wombs.] That is, perhaps fatal, consequences, 
they shall tell the real truth, whether — It shall be no crime if she redeem 

they have their courses, or be with child, herself] i. e. If she prevail on her hus- 

or not ; and shall not, by deceiving their band to dismiss her, by releasing part of 

husband, obtain a separation from him her dowry. 



Jallalo'ddin. ^ Yahya. 

d2 



36 A L KORAN. [chap. 

to people of understanding. ^^^ But when ye divorce 
women, and they have fulfilled their prescribed time, 
either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with 
kindness ; and retain them not by violence, so that ye 
transgress ; for he who doth this, surely injureth his own 
soul. And make not the signs of God a jest; but 
remember God's favour towards you/ aSfflliKat he hath 
sent down unto you the book of the Koran, and wisdom, 
admonishing you thereby ; and fear God, and know that 
God is omniscient. ^^^ But when ye have divorced your 
wives, and they have fulfilled their prescribed time, 
hinder them not from marrying their husbands, when 
they have agreed among themselves according to what is 
honourable. This is given in admonition unto him among 
you who believeth in God, and the last day. This is 
most righteous for you, and most pure. God knoweth, 
but ye know not. ^^* Mothers, after they are divorced, 
shall give suck unto their children two full years, to him 
who desireth the time of giving suck to be completed ; 
and the father shall be obliged to maintain them and 
clothe them in the mean time, according to that which 
shall be reasonable. No person shall be obliged beyond 
his ability, A mother shall not be compelled to what 
is unreasonable on account of her child, nor a father on 
account of his child. And the heir of the father shall be 
obliged to do in like manner. But if they choose to 
wean the child before the end of two years, by common 
consent, and on mutual consideration, it shall be no 
crime in them. And if ye have a mind to provide a 
nurse for your children, it shall be no crime in you, in 
case ye fully pay what ye offfer her, according to that 
which is just. And fear God, and know that God seeth 
whatsoever ye do. ^^^ Such of you as die, and leave 
wives, their wives must wait concerning themselves four 
months and ten days ; and when they shall have fulfilled 
their term, it shall be no crime in you, for that which 
they shall do with themselves, according to what is 

232 And retain them not by force^ so say, before they marry again ; and this is 

that ye transgress,] Viz. by obliging them not only for decency's sake, but that it 

to purchase their liberty with part of their may be known whether they be with child 

dowry. by the deceased or not. 

235 The wives of such as die must wait — For that which they shall do with 

fourmontha and ten days.] That is to themselves.] That is, if they leave off 



II.] AL KORAN. m 

reasonable. God well knoweth that which ye do. ^^^ And 
it shall be no crime in you, whether ye make public 
overtures of marriage unto such women, within the said 
four months and ten days, or whether ye conceal such 
your designs in your minds : God knoweth that ye will 
remember them. But make no promise unto them pri- 
vately, unless ye speak honourable words; and resolve 
not on the knot of marriage, until the prescribed time 
be accomplished; and know that God knoweth that 
which is in your minds, therefore beware of him, and 
know that God is gracious and merciful. ^^'^ It shall be 
no crime in you, if ye divorce your wives, so long as ye 
have not touched them, nor settled any dowry on them. 
And provide for them (he who is at his ease must provide 
according to his circumstances, and he who is straitened 
according to his circumstances) necessaries, according to 
what shall be reasonable. This is a duty incumbent on 
the righteous. ^^^ But if ye divorce them before ye have 
touched them, and have already settled a dowry on them, 
ye shall give them half of what ye have settled, unless 
they release any part, or he release part in whose hand 
the knot of marriage is ; and if ye release the whole, it 
will approach nearer unto piety. And forget not libera- 
lity among you, for God seeth that which ye do. 
^^^ Carefully observe the appointed prayers, and the 
middle prayer, and be assiduous therein, with devotion 
towards God. ^^^ But if ye fear any danger, pray on foot 
or on horseback ; and when you are safe, remember God, 
how he hath taught you what as yet ye knew^ not. 
^^^ And such of you as shall die and leave wives, ought 
to bequeath their wives a year's maintenance, without 
putting them out of their houses : but if they go out 
voluntarily, it shall be no crime in you, for that which 
they shall do with themselves, according to what shall be 
reasonable : God is mighty and wise. ^^^ And unto those 

their mourning weeds, and look out for 239 The middle prayer.'] Yahya inter- 
new husbands. prets this from a tradition of Mohammed, 
238 Unless they or he in whose hand the who, being asked which was the middle 
knot of marriage is, release it, &c.] i. e. Un- prayer, answered. The evening prayer 
less the wife agree to take less than half her which was instituted by the prophet Solo- 
dowry, or unless the husband be so gene- mon. But Jallalo'ddin allows a greater 
rous as to give her more than half, or the latitude, and supposes it may be the after~ 
whole ; which is here approved of as most noon prayer, the morning prayer, the noon 
commendable. prayer, or any other. 

1 



38 AL KORAN. [chap. 

who are divorced, a reasonable provision is also due ; 
this is a duty incumbent on those who fear God. ^^^ Thus 
God declareth his signs unto you, that ye may under- 
stand. ^^^ Hast thou not considered those who left their 
habitations (^nd they were thousands) for fear of death ? 
And God said unto them, Die : then he restored them to 
life, for God is gracious towards mankind ; but the greater 
part of men do not give thanks. ^^^ ^ight for the religion 
of God, and know that God is he who heareth and 
knoweth. ^^^ Who is he that will lend unto God on 
good usury ? verily he will double it unto him manifold ; 
for God contracteth and extendeth his hand as he 
pleaseth, and to him shall ye return. ^^'^ Hast thou not 
considered the assembly of the children of Israel, after 
the time of Moses ; when they said unto their prophet 
Samuel, Set a king over us, that we may fight for the 
religion of God ? ^^^ The prophet answered. If ye are 
enjoined to go to war, will ye be near refusing to fight ? 
They answered. And what should ail us that we should 
not fight for the religion of God, seeing we are dispos- 
sessed of our habitations, and deprived of our children ? 
But when they were enjoined to go to war, they turned 
back, except a few of them : and God knew the ungodly. 
And their prophet said unto them. Verily God hath set 
Talut king over you : they answered, How shall he 
reign over us, seeing we are more worthy of the kingdom 

244 Hast thou not considered those who terity ^. As to the number of these 

left their habitations for fear of death ? &c.] Israelites, the commentators are not agreed ; 

These were some of the children of Israel, they who reckon least say they were 3000, 

who abandoned their dwellings, because and they who reckon most, 70,000. This 

of a pestilence ; or, as others say, to avoid story seems to have been taken from 

serving in a religious war: but as they Ezekiel's vision of the resurrection of dry 

fled, God struck them all dead in a cer- bones ^. 

tain valley. About eight days or more Some of the Mohammedan writers will 

after, when their bodies were corrupted, have Ezekiel to have been one of the 

the prophet Ezekiel, the son of Buzi, judges of Israel, and to have succeeded 

happening to pass that way, at the sight Othniel, the son of Caleb. They also 

of their bones, wept ; whereupon God said call this prophet Ebn al ajUz, or, The son 

to him, Call to them, O Ezekiel, and I of the old woman ; because they say his 

will restore them to life. And accordingly mother obtained him by her prayers in 

on the prophet's call they all arose, and her old age 3. 

lived several years after ; but they re- 246 Who will lend unto God on good 

tained the colour and stench of dead corpses usury ?^ Viz. By contributing towards the 

as long as they lived, and the clothes they establishment of his true religion, 

v/ore changed as black as pitch; which 248 Tdlut.] So the Mohammedans 

qualities they transmitted to their pos- name Saul. 

» Jallalo'ddin, Yahya, Abidfeda, &c. ^ Eze^. xxxvii. 1—10. ' Al Thalahi, 

Aba Ishakf &c. 



II.] AL KORAN. 3^ 

than he, neither is he possessed of great riches ? Samuel 
said, Verily God hath chosen him before you, and hath 
caused him to increase in knowledge and stature, for 
God giveth his kingdom unto whom he pleaseth ; God 
is bounteous and wise. ^*^ And their prophet said unto 
them, Verily the sign of his kingdom shall be, that the 
ark shall come unto you: therein shall be tranquillity 
from your Lord, and the relics which have been left by 
the family of Moses, and the family of Aaron; the 
angels shall bring it. Verily this shall be a sign unto 
you, if ye believe. ^^^ And when Talut departed with his 
soldiers, he said, Verily God will prove you by the river : 
for he who drinketh thereof shall not be on my side (but 
he who shall not taste thereof, he shall be on my side,) 
except he who drinketh a draught out of his hand. And 
they drank thereof, except a few of them. And when 
they had passed the river, he and those who believed with 
him, they said. We have no strength to-day, against 
Jalut and his forces. But they who considered that 
they should meet God at the resurrection, said. How 
often hath a small -army discomfited a great army, by 
the will of God ? and God is with those who patiently 
persevere. ^^^ And wh^n they went forth to battle 
against Jalut and his forces, they said, O Lord, 
pour on us patience, antl confirm our feet, and help us 

249 The ark shall come unto you, &c.] Arabic word ^SaAriwaif, which signifies iJ/a«- 

This ark, says Jallalo'ddin, contained the quillity or security of mind, and is so 

images of the prophets, and was sent down understood by the commentators, may not 

from heaven to x\dam, and at length came improbably mean the divine presence or 

to the Israelites, who put great confidence glory, which used to appear on the ark, 

therein, and continually carried it in the and which the Jews express by the same 

front of their army ; till it was taken by word Shechinah. 

the Amalekites. But on this occasion the — The relics, &c.] These were the 
angels brought it back, in the sight of all shoes and rod of Moses, the mitre of 
the people, and placed it at the feet of Aaron, a pot of manna, and (he broken 
Talut, who was thereupon unanimously pieces of the two tables of the law 2. 
acknowledged for their king. 250 And they drank thereof, except a 
This relation seems to have arisen few, &c.] The number of those who 
from some imperfect tradition of the tak- drank out of their hands were about 31 3 3, 
ing and sending back the ark by the It seems that Mohammed has here con- 
Philistines ^ founded Saul with Gideon, who, by the 

— Therein shall he tranquillity from divine direction, took with him against 

your Lord,~\ That is, because of the great the Midianites such of his army only as 

confidence the Israelites placed in it, hav- lapped water out of their hands, which 

ing won several battles by its miraculous were 300 men *. 

assistance. I imagine, however, that the — Jalut.'] Or Goliath. 

^ 1 Sam. iv. v. and vi. 2 Jallalo'ddin. ^ Idem, Yahya. ^ Judges vii. 



40 ALKORAN. [chap. 

against the unbelieving people. ^^^ Therefore they dis- 
comfited them, by the will of God, and David slew 
Jalut. And God gave him the kingdom and wisdom, 
and tauglit him his will ; and if God had not prevented 
men, the one by the other, verily the earth had been 
corrupted : but God is beneficent towards his creatures. 
^^^ These are the signs of God : we rehearse them unto 
thee with truth, and thou art surely one of those who 
have been sent by God. [*III.] ^^^ These are the apostles; 
we have preferred some of them before others : some of 
them hath God spoken unto, and hath exalted the degree 
of others of them. And we gave unto Jesus the son of 
Mary manifest aigns, and strengthened him with the Holy 
Spirit. And if God had pleased, they who came after 
those apostles would not have contended among them- 
selves, after manifest signs had been shown unto them. 
But they fell to variance; therefore some of them believed, 
and some of them believed not; and if God had so pleased, 
they would not have contended among themselves, but 
God doth what he will. ^^^PO true believers, give alms of 
that which we have bestowed on you, before the day 
Cometh wherein there shall be no merchandising, nor 
friendship, nor intercession.! The infidels are unjust doers. 
^^^ God ! there is no God but he ; the living, the self-sub- 
sisting ; neither slumber nor sleep seizeth him ; to him 
belongeth whatsoever is in heaven, and on earth. Who is 
he that can intercede with him, but through his good 
pleasure? He knoweth that which is past, and that 
which is to come unto them, and they shall not compre- 
hend any thing of his knowledge, but so far as he pleaseth. 
His throne is extended over heaven and earth, and the 
preservation of both is no burthen unto him. He is the 

252 His will.'] Or what he pleased to nificent description of the divine majesty 

teach him. Yahya most rationally under- and providence; but it mustnotbesupposed 

stands hereby the divine revelations which the translation comes up to the dignity of 

David received from God; but Jallalo'ddin, the original. This passage is justly ad- 

the art of making coats of mail (which the mired by the Mohammedans, who recite it 

Mohammedans believe was that prophet's in their prayers ; and some of them wear 

peculiar trade), and the knowledge of the it about them, engraved on an agate, or 

language of birds. other precious stone ^ 

254 Holy Spirit,] See before, p. 15, — His throne is extended over heaven 

note 87. and earth, &c.] This throne, in Arabic 

256 God! there is no God but ?ie, &c.] called Corsi, is, by the Mohammedans, 

The following seven lines contain a mag- supposed to be God's tribunal, or seat of 

1 V. Bobov, de prec. Moham. p. 5. and Reland, Dissert, de gcmmis Arab. p. 235. 239. 



II,] AL KORAN. 41 

high, the mighty. ^^^ Let^there be no violence in religion. 
Now is right direction manifestly distinguished from de- 
ceit : whoever therefore shall deny Tagut, and believe in 
God, he shall surely take hold on a strong handle, which 
shall not be broken ; God is he who heareth and seeth. 
^^^ God is the patron of those who believe ; he shall lead 
them out of darkness into light : but as to those who 
believe not, their patrons are Tagut; they shall lead 
them from the light into darkness; they shall be the 
companions of hell-fire, they shall remain therein for ever. 
^^^ Hast thou not considered him who disputed with 
Abraham concerning his Lord, because God had given 
him the kingdom ? When Abraham said. My Lord is 
he who giveth life, and killeth : he answered, I give life, 
and I kill. Abraham said. Verily God bringeth the sun 
from the east, now do thou bring it from the west. 
Whereupon the infidel was confounded ; for God directeth 
not the ungodly people. ^^^ Or hast thou not considered 
how he behaved who passed by a city which had. been 
destroyed, even to her foundations ? He said. How shall 
God quicken this city, after she hath been dead ? And 
God caused him to die for an hundred years, and after- 
wards raised him to life. And God said. How long hast 
thou tarried here ? He answered, a day, or part of a 
day. God said. Nay, thou hast tarried here an hundred 
years. Now look on thy food and thy drink, they are 
not yet corrupted ; and look on thine ass : and this have 

justice ; being placed under that other caused two men to be brought before him 

called a^^r5^, which they say is his imperial at the same time, one of whom he slew, 

throne. The Corsi) allegorically, signifies and saved the other alive. As to this 

the divine providence, which sustains and tyrant's persecution of Abraham, see chap, 

governs the heaven and the earth, and is 21, and the notes thereon, 
infinitely above human comprehension ^ 260 Hast thou not considered him who 

257 Let there be no violence in religion.~\ passed by a city which had been destroyed f 

This passage was particularly directed to &c.'\ The person here meant was Ozair, 

some of Mohammed's first proselytes, who or Ezra, who, riding on an ass by the ruins 

having sons that had been brought up in of Jerusalem, after it had been destroyed 

idolatry, or Judaism, would oblige them to by the Chaldeans, doubted in his mind by 

embrace Mohammedism by force'. what means God could raise the city and 

— Tdgut.'] This word properly sig- its inhabitants again ; whereupon Gorx 

nifies an idol, or whatever is worshipped caused him to die, and he remained in 

besides God ; particularly the two idols that condition 100 years ; at the end of 

of the Meccans, Alldt and al Vzza ; and which God restored him to life ; and he 

also the devil, or any seducer. found a basket of figs and a cruse of wine, 

259' Him tvho disputed with Abraham, he had with him, not in the least spoiled 

&c.] This was Nimrod; who, as the or corrupted: but his ass was dead, the 

commentators say, to prove his power of bones only remaining ; and these, while 

life and death by ocular demonstration, the prophet looked on, were raised and 

* Vid. D'Herbeloty Bibl. Orient. Art. Corsi. ^ Jallalo'ddin, 



4^ AL KORAN. [chap. 

we done that we might make thee a sign unto men. 
And look on the bones of thine ass, how we raise them, 
and afterwards clothe them with flesh. And when this 
was shown unto him, he said, I know that God is able to 
do all things. ^^' And when Abraham said, O Lord, 
shew me how thou wilt raise the dead; God said. Dost 
thou not yet believe? He answered. Yea; but I ask 
this that my heart may rest at ease. God said. Take 
therefore four birds, and divide them ; then lay a part of 
them on every mountain ; then call them, and they shall 
come swiftly unto thee : and know that God is mighty 
and wise. ^^^ The similitude of those who lay out their 
substance for advancing the religion of God, is as a grain 
of corn which produceth seven ears, and in every ear an 
hundred grains ; for God giveth two-fold unto whom he 
pleaseth : God is bounteous and wise. ^^^ They who lay 
out their substance for the religion of God, and afterwards 
follow not what they have so laid out by reproaches or 
mischief, they shall have their reward with their Lord ; 
upon them shall no fear come, neither shall they be 
grieved. ^^* A fair speech, and to forgive, is better than 
alms followed by mischief. God is rich and merciful. 
^^^ O true believers, make not your alms of none effect 
by reproaching, or mischief, as he who layeth out what 
he hath, to appear unto men to give alms, and believeth 
not in God and the last day. ^^^ The likeness of such a 
one is as a flint covered with earth, on which a violent 

clothed with flesh, becoming an ass again, Abraham cut to pieces, and mingled their 

which being inspired with life, began im- flesh and feathers together, or, as some tell 

mediately to bray ^. us, pounded all in a mortar, and dividing 

This apocryphal story may perhaps have the mass into four parts, laid them on so 

taken its rise from Nehemiah's viewing of many mountains, but kept the heads, 

the ruins of Jerusalem 2. which he had preserved whole, in his hand. 

261 When Abraham said, Lord, show Then he called them each by their name, 

me how thou wilt raise the dead.'] The and immediately one partflew to the other, 

occasion of this request of Abraham is said till they all recovered their first shape, 

to have been on a doubt proposed to him and then came to be joined to their re- 

by the devil, in human form, how it was spective heads ^ 

possible for the several parts of the corpse This seems to be taken from Abraham's 

of a man which lay on the sea-shore, and sacrifice of birds mentioned by Moses ^, 

had been partly devoured by the wild beasts, with some additional circumstances, 
the birds, and the fish, to be brought to- 263 And follow not alms by reproaches 

gether at the resurrection ^ or mischief, &c.] i. e. Either by reproach- 

— Take four birds, and divide them.'] ing the peison whom they have relieved, 

These birds, according to the commen- with what they have done for them, 

tators, were an eagle, (a dove, say others,) or by exposing his poverty to his preju- 

a peacock, a raven, and a cock ; which dice ^. 

1 JalMo'ddin, Yahtja, &c. See D'Herbcl. Bibl. Orient. Art. Ozair. 2 Nehem. ii. 

12, &c. ^ See D'Herbelot, p. 13. ^ Jallalo'ddin. See D'Herbelot, ubi supra. 

5 Gen. XV, ^ Jallalo'ddin. 



II.] AL KORAN. 4S 

rain falleth, and leaveth it hard. They cannot prosper in 
any thing which they have gained, for God directeth not 
the unbelieving people. And the likeness of those who 
lay out their substance from a desire to please God, and 
for an establishment for their souls, is as a garden on a 
hill, on which a violent rain falleth, and it bringeth forth 
its fruits two-fold ; and, if a violent rain falleth not on it, 
yet the dew falleth thereon : and God seeth that which 
ye do. ^^^ Doth any of you desire to have a garden of 
palm-trees and vines, through which rivers flow, wherein 
he may have all kinds of fruits, and that he may attain 
to old age, and have a weak offspring; then a violent 
fiery wind shall strike it, so that it shall be burned. Thus 
God declareth his signs unto you that ye may con- 
sider. ^^^ O true believers, bestow alms of the good 
things which ye have gained, and of that which we 
have produced for you out of the earth, and choose 
not the bad thereof, to give it in alms, such as ye would 
not accept yourselves, otherwise than by connivance : and 
know that God is rich, and worthy to be praised. ^^^ The 
devil threateneth you with poverty, and commandeth you 
filthy covetousness : but God promiseth you pardon from 
himself and abundance : God is bounteous and wise. 
^^^ He giveth wisdom unto whom he pleaseth ; and he 
unto whom wisdom is given, hath received much good : 
but none will consider, except the wise of heart. ^^^ And 
whatever alms ye shall give, or whatever vow ye shall vow, 
verily God knoweth it ; but the ungodly shall have none 
to help them. ^^^ If ye make your alms to appear, it is 
well; but if ye conceal them, and give them unto the 
poor, this will be better for you, and will atone for your 
sins : and God is well informed of that which ye do. 
^^^ The direction of them belongeth not unto thee ; but 
God directeth whom he pleaseth. The good that ye shall 
give in alms shall redound unto yoursehes; and ye shall 
not give unless out of desire of seeing the face of God. 

267 Doihany of you desire a garden, ^c] some amends made by the seller of such 
This garden is an emblem of alms given goods, either by abatement of the price, 
out of hypocrisy, or attended with re- or giving something else to the buyer to 
proaches, which perish, and will be of no make up the value. 

service hereafter to the giver ^ 273 Out of desire of seeing the face 

268 f^y connivance.'] That is, on having of God.] i. le. For the sake of a revvard 



JallaUi ddln. 



44 AL KORAN. [chap. 

And what good thing ye shall give in alms, it shall be 
repaid you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly ; ^^^ unto 
the poor who are wholly employed in fighting for the 
religion of God, and cannot go to and fro in the earth ; 
whom the ignorant man thinketh rich, because of their 
modesty : thou shalt know them by this mark, they ask 
not men with importunity ; and what good ye shall give 
in alms, verily God knoweth it. ^^^ They who distribute 
alms of their substance night and day, in private and in 
public, shall have their reward with their Lord ; on them 
shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved. ^^^ They 
who devour usury shall not arise from, the dead, but as 
he ariseth whom Satan hath infected by a touch : this 
shall happen to them because they say. Truly selling is 
but as usury : and yet God hath permitted selling and 
forbidden usury. He therefore who, when there cometh 
unto him an admonition from his Lord, abstaineth from 
usury for the future, shall have what is past forgiven him, 
and his affair belongeth unto God. But whoever re- 
turneth to usury, they shall be the companions of hell- 
fire, they shall continue therein for ever. ^^'^ God shall 
take his blessing from usury, and shall increase alms : 
for God loveth no infidel, or ungodly person. ^^^But 
they who believe, and do that which is right, and observe 
the stated times of prayer, and pay their legal alms, they 
shall have their reward with their Lord : there shall come 
no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. ^^^O 
true believers, fear God, and remit that which remaineth 
of usury, if ye really believe ; ^^^ but if ye do it not, 
hearken unto war, which is declared against you from 
God and his apostle : yet if ye repent, ye shall have the 
capital of your money. Deal not unjustly with others, 
and ye shall not be dealt with unjustly. ^^\ If there be 
any debtor under a difficulty of paying his debt, let his 
creditor wait till it be easy for him to do it; but if 
ye remit it as alms, it will be better for you, if ye 

hereafter, and not for any worldly consi- 279 Remit what remaineth of usury,'] 
deration ^ Or the interest due before usury was pro- 
276 As he whom Satan hath infected^ hibited. For this some of Mohammed's 
&c.] viz. Like demoniacs or possessed per- followers exacted of their debtors, sup- 
sons, that is, in great horror and distraction posing they lawfully might 2. 
of mind, and convulsive agitation of body. 

* JallaWddin. ^ Idem. 



IT.] A L K O R A N. 45 

knew it. ^^^And fear the day wherein ye shall return 
unto God ; then shall every soul be paid what it hath 
gained, and they shall not be treated unjustly. ^*^ O true 
believers, when ye bind yourselves one to the other in a 
debt for a certain time, write it down ; and let a writer 
write between you according to justice ; and let not the 
writer refuse writing according to what God hath taught 
him ; but let him write, and let him who oweth the debt 
dictate, and let him fear God his Lord, and not diminish 
aught thereof. But if he who oweth the debt "be foolish, 
or w^eak, or be not able to dictate himself, let his agent 
dictate according to equity ; and call to witness two wit- 
nesses of your neighbouring men : but if there be not 
two men, let there be a man and two women of those 
whom ye shall choose for witnesses : if one of those wo- 
men should mistake, the other of them will cause her to 
recollect. And the witnesses shall not refuse, whenso- 
ever they shall be called. And disdain not to write it 
down, be it a large debt, or be it a small one, until its 
time of payment : this will be more just in the sight of 
God, and more right for bearing witness, and more easy, 
that ye may not doubt. But if it be a present bargain, 
which ye transact between yourselves, it shall be no crime 
in you, if ye write it not down. And take witnesses 
when ye sell one to the other, and let no harm be done 
to the writer, nor to the witness ; which if ye do, it will 
surely be injustice in you : and fear God, and God will 
instruct you, for God knoweth all things. ^^* And if ye 
be on a journey, and find no writer, let pledges be taken : 
but if one of you trust the other, let him who is trusted 
return what he is trusted with, and fear God his Lord. 
And conceal not the testimony, for he who concealeth it, 
hath surely a wicked heart : God knoweth that which ye 
do. ^^^ Whatever is in heaven and on earth is God's : 
and whether ye manifest that which is in your minds, or 
conceal it, God will call you to account for it, and will 
forgive whom he pleaseth, and will punish whom he 
pleaseth ; for God is almighty. ^^^ The apostle belie veth 

283 His agent.l Whoever manages his affairs, whether his father, heir, guardian, 
or interpreter ^ 

^ Jallalo'ddin. 



46 AL KORAN. [chap. 

in that which hath been sent down unto him from his 
Lord, and the faithful also. Every one of them believeth 
in God, and his angels, and his scriptures, and his apos- 
tles : we make no distinction at all between his apostles. 
And they say. We have heard, and do obey : we implore 
thy mercy, O Lord, for unto thee must we return. ^^^God 
will not force any soul beyond its capacity : it shall have 
the good which it gaineth, and it shall suffer the evil 
which it gaineth. O Lord, punish us not, if we forget, 
or act sinfully : O Lord, lay not on us a burthen like that 
which thou hast laid on those who have been before us ; 
neither make us, O Lord, to bear what we have not 
strength to bear, but be favourable unto us, and spare us, 
and be merciful unto us. Thou art our patron, help us 
therefore against the unbelieving nations. 

286 We make no distinction between his the commentators tell us, were ordered to 
apostles.'] But this, say the Mohamrae- kill a lamb by way of atonement, to give 
dans, the Jews do, who receive Moses, one-fourth of their substance in alms, and 
but reject Jesus; and the Christians, who to cut off an unclean ulcerous part 2, and 
receive both those prophets, but reject were forbidden to eat fat, or animals that 
Mohammed K divided not the hoof, and were obliged to 

287 Lay not on us such a burthen, as observe the sabbath, and other particulars 
fhou didst lay on those who have been be- wherein the Mohammedans are at li- 

fore usJ] That is, on the Jews, who, as berty^. 

^ Jallalo'ddin. ^ Idem. ^ Yahya. 



CHAPTER HI. 

INTITLED, THE FAMILY OF IMRAN ; REVEALED AT MEDINA. 

In the nanne of the most merciful God. 

^ A. L. M. ^ There is no God but God, the living, the 
self-subsisting : ^ He hath sent down unto thee the book 
oF the Koran with truth, confirming that which was re- 
vealed before it ; for he had formerly sent down the law, 
and the gospel, a direction unto men ; and he had also 
sent down the distinction between good and eviL ^Verily 
those who believe not the signs of God, shall suffer a 
grievous punishment ; ^ for God is mighty, able to re- 
venge. ^ Surely nothing is hidden from God, of that 

Title — Imrdn.] This name is given 1. A. L. M.] For the meaning of these 

in the Koran to the father of the Virgin letters, the reader is referred to the Pre- 
Mary. See below, p. 50. lim. Disc. § iii. 



III.] AL KORAN. ' 47 

which is on earth, or in heaven : it is he who formeth 
you in the wombs, as he pleaseth ; there is no God but 
he, the mighty, the wise. ^ It is he who hath sent down 
unto thee the book, wherein are some verses clear to be 
understood ; they are the foundation of the book ; and 
others are parabolical. But they whose hearts are per- 
verse will follow that which is parabolical therein, out of 
love of schism, and a desire of the interpretation thereof ; 
yet none knoweth the interpretation thereof, except God. 
But they who are well grounded in knowledge say. We 
believe therein, the whole is from our Lord ; and none 
will consider except the prudent. ^ O Lord, cause not 
our hearts to swerve from truth, after thou hast directed 
us : and give us from thee mercy, for thou art he who 
giveth. ^O Lord, thou shalt surely gather mankind to- 
gether, unto a day of resurrection : there is no doubt of 
it, for God will not be contrary to the promise. ^® As 
for the Infidels, their wealth shall not profit them any 
thing, nor their children, against God : they shall be the 
fuel of hell-fire. ^^ According to the wont of the people 
of Pharaoh, and of those who went before them, they 
charged our signs with a lie ; but God caught them in 
their wickedness, and God is severe in punishing. ^^ Say 
unto those who believe not. Ye shall be overcome, and 
thrown together into hell ; an unhappy couch shall it be. 
^^ Ye have already had a miracle shewn you in two armies 
which attacked each other : one army fought for God's 

7 Wherein are some verses clear to he 13 Ye have already had a miracle 

understood, and others are parabolical.~\ shewn you in two armies, &c.] The sign 

This passage is translated according to or miracle here meant, was the victory 

the exposition of al Zamakhshari and al gained by Mohammed in the second year 

Beidawi, which seems to be the truest. of the Hejra, over the idolatrous Meccans, 

The contents of the Koran are here headed by Abu Sofian, in the valley of 

distinguished into such passages as are to Bedr, which is situate near the sea be- 

be taken in the literal sense, and such as tween Mecca and Medina. Mohammed's 

require a figurative acceptation. The for- forces consisted of no more than three 

mer being plain and obvious to be under- hundred and nineteen men, but the ene- 

stood, composed the fundamental part, or, my's army of near a thousand ; notwith- 

as the original expresses it, the mother of standing which odds he put them to flight, 

the book, and contain the principal doc- having killed seventy of the principal Ko- 

trines and precepts; agreeably to, and reish, and taken as many prisoners, with 

consistently with, which, those passages the loss of only fourteen of his own men 2. 

which are wrapt up in metaphors, and This was the first victory obtained by the 

delivered in an enigmatical, allegorical prophet ; and though it may seem no very 

style, are always to be interpreted ^. considerable action, yet it was of great 

^ See the Prelim. Disc. § iii. ' See Elmacin. p. 5. Hottinger. Hist Orient. 

1. 2. c iv. Ahulfed. vit. Moham. p. 66, &c. Prideaux^s Life of Moham. p. 71) &c. 



48 AL KORAN. [chap. 

true religion, but the other were infidels ; they saw the 
faithful twice as many as themselves in their eye-sight ; 
for God strengtheneth with his help whom he pleaseth. 
Surely herein was an example unto men of understanding. 
'* The love and eager desire of wives, and children, and 
sums heaped up of gold and silver, and excellent horses, 
and cattle, and land, is prepared for men : this is the pro- 
vision of the present life ; but unto God shall be the most 
excellent return. ^^ Say, Shall I declare unto you better 
things than this ? For those who are devout are prepar- 
ed, with their Lord, gardens through which rivers flow ; 
therein shall they continue for ever : and they shall enjoy 
wives free from impurity, and the favour of God ; for God 
regardeth his servants; ^^who say, O Lord, we do sin- 
cerely believe; forgive us therefore our sins, and deliver 
us from the pain of hell-fire: ^^the patient, and the 
lovers of truth, and the devout, and the almsgivers, and 
those who ask pardon early in the morning. ^^ God hath 
borne witness that there is no God but he ; and the 
angels, and those who are endowed with wisdom, profess 
the same ; who executeth righteousness ; there is no God 
but he ; the mighty, the wise. ^^ Veril y th e true^^li- 
gion, in the sight of God, is Islam ;^'^iTTB^y wS had 
received the scriptures Hissehted not thereironir^until 
after the knowledge of God's unity had come unto tEem, 
out of envy among themselves : but whosoever believeth 
not in the signs of God, verily God will be swift in 
bringing him to account. ^^ If they dispute with thee, 

advantage to him, and the foundation of dan troops seemed to the infidels to be 

all his future power and success. For twice as many in number as themselves, 

which reason it is famous in the Arabian which greatly discouraged them. And, 

history, and more than once vaunted in 3. God sent down to their assistance, first 

the Koran *, as an effect of the divine a thousand, and afterwards three thou- 

assistance. The miracle, it is said, con- sand angels, led by Gabriel, mounted on 

sisted in three things : 1 . Mohammed, by his horse Hiazum ; and, according to the 

the direction of the angel Gabriel, took a Koran ^ these celestial auxiliaries really 

handful of gravel, and threw it towards did all the execution, though Moham- 

the enemy in the attack, saying, May med's men imagined themselves did it, 

their faces be confounded ; whereupon, and fought stoutly at the same time, 
they immediately turned their backs and 19 Isldm~\ The proper name of the 

fled. But, though the prophet seemingly Mohammedan religion, which signifies the 

threw the gravel himself, yet he is told in resigning or devoting one's self entirely to 

the Koran ^ that it was not he but God God and his service. This, they say, is the 

who threw it ; that is to say, by the mi- religion which all the prophets were sent to 

nistry of his angel. 2. The Mohamme- teach, being founded on the unity of God*. 

1 See this chap, below, and chap. 8, and 32. ^ Chap. 8, not far from the be- 

ginning. ^ Ibid. * Jallalo*ddinj al Beidawi. 



III.] 



AL KORAN. 



49 



say, I have resigned myself unto God, and he who fol- 
loweth me doth the same : and say unto them who have 
received the scriptures, and to the ignorant, Do ye pro- 
fess the religion of Islam ? Now, if they embrace Islam, 
they are surely directed ; but if they turn their backs, 
verily unto thee belongeth preaching only ; for God re- 
gardeth his servants. ^^ And unto those who believe not 
in the signs of God, and slay the prophets without a 
cause, and put those men to death who teach justice ; 
denounce unto them a painful punishment. ^^ These are 
they whose works perish in this world, and in that which 
is to come; and they shall have none to help them. 
^^ Hast thou not observed those unto whom part of the 
scripture was given ? They were called unto the book of 
God, that it might judge between them ; then some of 
them turned their backs, and retired afar off. ^^This 
they did because they said. The fire of hell shall by no 
means touch us, but for a certain number of days : and 



20 The ignorant.'] i. e. The pagan 
Arabs, who had no knowledge of the scrip- 
tures ^. 

23 Those unto whom part of the scrip- 
ture was given.] That is, the Jews. 

— They zvere called unto the book of 
God, &c.] This passage was revealed on 
occasion of a dispute Mohammed had with 
some Jews, which is differently related by 
the commentators. 

Al Beidawi says, that, Mohammed going 
one day into a Jewish synagogue, Nairn 
Ebn Amru an Al Hareth Ebn Zeid asked 
him'what religion he was of? To which 
he answering, Of the religion of Abra- 
ham ; they replied, Abraham was a Jew ; 
but, on Mohammed's proposing that the 
Pentateuch might decide the question, 
they would by no means agree to it. 

But Jallalo'ddin tells us, that two per- 
sons of the Jewish religion having com- 
mitted adultery, their punishment was 
referred to Mohammed, who gave sen- 
tence that they should be stoned, accord- 
ing to the law of Moses. This the Jews 
refused to submit to, alleging there was 
no such command in the Pentateuch ; but, 
on Mohammed's appealing to the book, 
the said law was found therein. Where- 
upon the criminals were stoned, to the 
great mortification of the Jews. 



It is very remarkable that this law of 
Moses concerning the stoning of adul- 
terers is mentioned in the New Testa- 
ment 2, (though I know some dispute the 
authenticity of that whole passage,) but it 
is not now to be found, either in the He- 
brew or Samaritan Pentateuch, or in the 
Septuagint; it being only said that such 
shall be put to death ^. This omission is 
insisted on by the Mohammedans as one 
instance of the corruption of the law of 
Moses by the Jews. 

It is also observable that there was a 
verse once extant in the Koran, command- 
ing adulterers to be stoned; and the com- 
mentators say the words only are abro- 
gated, the sense or law still remaining in 
force *. 

24 A certain number of days,] i. e. 
Forty, the time their forefathers wor- 
shipped the calf ^ A\ Beidawi adds, that 
some of them pretended their punishment 
was to last but seven days, that is, a day 
for every thousand years which they sup- 
posed the world was to endure ; and that 
they imagined they were to be so mildly 
dealt with, either by reason of the inter- 
cession of their fathers the prophets, or 
because God had promised Jacob, that 
his offspring should be punished but 
slightly. 



^ Jallalo'ddin, al Beidawi, ^ John viii. 5. ^ Lev. xx. 10. 

Essay towards restoring the true Text of the Old Test. p. 99, 100. 
Prelim. Disc. § iii. « ggg before, p. 13, Note 80. 

VOL, I. E 



See Whisto7i's 
* See the 



^0 A L KORAN. [chap. 

that which they had falsely devised, hath deceived them 
in their religion. ^^ How then will it be with them, when 
we shall gather them together at the day of judgment, 
of which there is no doubt ; and every soul shall be paid 
that which it hath gained, neither shall they be treated 
unjustly ? ^^ Say, O God, who possessest the kingdom ; 
thou givest the kingdom unto whom thou wilt, and thou 
takest away the kingdom from whom thou wilt : Thou 
exaltest whom thou wilt, and thou humblest whom thou 
wilt. In thy hand is good, for thou art almighty. ^^ Thou 
makest the night to succeed the day : thou bringest forth 
the living out of the dead, and thou bringest forth the 
dead out of the living ; and providest food for whom thou 
wilt, without measure. ^^ Let not the faithful take the 
infidels for their protectors, rather than the faithful : he 
who doth this, shall not be protected of God at all ; un- 
less you fear any danger from them ; but God warneth 
you to beware of himself; for unto God must ye return. 
^^ Say, Whether ye conceal that which is in your breasts, 
or whether ye declare it, God knoweth it; for he knoweth 
whatever is in heaven, and whatever is on earth ; God is 
almighty. ^^ On the last day every soul shall find the 
good which it hath wrought, present ; and the evil which 
it hath wrought, it shall wish that between itself and that 
were a wide distance : but God warneth you to beware of 
himself; for God is gracious unto his servants. ^^ Say, if 
ye love God, follow me : then God shall love you, and 
forgive you your sins ; for God is gracious and merciful. 
^^ Say, Obey God, and his apostle: but if ye go back, 
verily God loveth not the unbelievers. ^^God hath 
surely chosen Adam and Noah, and the family of Abra- 
ham, and the family of Imran, above the rest of the 

25 How will it he with them, &c.] The 33 Imrdn,^^ or Amran, is the name of 
Mohammedans have a tradition, that the two several persons, according to the Mo- 
first banner of the infidels that shall be hammedan tradition. One was the father 
set up, on the day of judgment, will be of Moses and Aaron, and the other was 
that of the Jews ; and that God will first the father of the Virgin Mary ^ ; but he is 
reproach them with their wickedness, called, by some Christian writers, Joachim, 
over the heads of those who are present, The commentators suppose the first, or 
and then order them to hell ^ rather both of them, to be meant in this 

27 Thou bringest forth the living out place ; however, the person intended in 

of the dead, and the dead out of the living.'] the next passage, it is agreed was the 

As a man from seed, and a bird from an latter ; who, besides Mary, the mother of 

G^^ ; and vice versa 2. Jesus, had also a son, named Aaron *, and 

^ Al Beiddwi, ^ Jallalo'ddin. ^ Al Zamakhshari, al Beiddwi, * Koran, c. 19. 



III.] 



AL KORAN. 



51 



world; ^*a race descending the one from the other: 
God is he who heareth and knoweth. ^^ Remember 
when the wife of Imran said. Lord, verily I have vowed 
unto thee that which is in my womb, to be dedicated 
to thy service: accept it therefore of me; for thou art 
he who heareth and knoweth. ^^And when she was 
delivered of it, she said. Lord, verily I have brought 
forth a female, (and God well knew what she had brought 
forth,) and a male is not as a female: I have called 
her Mary ; and I commend her to thy protection, and 
also her issue, against Satan driven away with stones. 



a sister, named Isha, (or Elizabeth,) who 
married Zacharias, and was the mother of 
John the Baptist : whence that prophet 
and Jesus are usually called by the Mo- 
hammedans, The two sons of the aunt, 
or the cousin-germans. 

From the identity of names, it has been 
generally imagined by Christian writers ^ 
that the Koran here confounds Mary, the 
mother of Jesus, with Mary, or Miriam, the 
sister of Moses and Aaron, which intolerable 
anachronism, if it were certain, is sufficient 
of itself to destroy the pretended authority 
of this book. But though Mohammed may 
be supposed to have been ignorant enough 
in ancient history and chronology, to have 
committed so gross a blunder ; yet I do 
not see how it can be made out from the 
words of the Koran. For it does not fol- 
low, because two persons have the same 
name, and have each a father and brother 
who bear the same names, that they must 
therefore necessarily be the same person : 
besides, such a mistake is inconsistent with 
a number of other places in the Koran, 
whereby it manifestly appears, that Mo- 
bammed well knew, and asserted, that 
Moses preceded Jesus several ages. And 
the commentators accordingly fail not to 
tell us, that there had passed about one 
thousand eight hundred years between 
Amran, the father of Moses, and Amran, 
the father of the Virgin Mary. They also 
make them the sons of different persons : 
the first, they say, was the son of Yeshar, 
or Izhar, (though he was really his bro- 
ther 2,) the son of Kahath, the son of 
Levi ; and the other was the son of Ma- 
than 3, whose genealogy they trace, but in 



a very corrupt and imperfect manner, up 
to David, and thence to Adam*. 

It must be observed, that though the 
Virgin Mary is called, in the Koran ^, the 
sister of Aaron, yet she is nowhere called 
the sister of Moses : however some Mo- 
hammedan writers have imagined, that 
the same individual Mary, the sister of 
Moses, was miraculously preserved alive 
from his time till that of Jesus Christ, 
purposely to become the mother of the 
latter ^. 

35 The wife of Imrdn.~\ The Imran 
here mentioned, was the father of the 
Virgin Mary ; and his wife's name was 
Hannah, or Ann, the daughter of Fakudh. 
This woman, say the commentators, being 
aged and barren, on seeing a bird feed her 
young ones, became very desirous of issue, 
and begged a child of God, promising to 
consecrate it to his service in the temple : 
whereupon she had a child, but it proved 
a daughter 7. 

— Dedicated to thy service.'] The Arabic 
word is, literally, free, but here signifies 
particularly one that is free or detached 
from all worldly desires and occupations, 
and wholly devoted to God's service ^. 

36 A male is not as a female.] Because 
a fem.ale could not minister in the temple, 
as a male could ^. 

— Satan driven away with stones,] This 
expression alludes to a tradition, that 
Abraham, when the deyil tempted him to 
disobey God in not sacrificing his son, 
drove the fiend away by throwing stones 
at him ; in memory of which the Moham- 
medans, at the pilgrimage of Mecca, throw 
a certain number of stones at the devil. 



1 V. Reland. de rel. Moham. p. 211. Marracc. in Ale. p. 115, &c. Prideaux, Letter 
to the Deists, p. 185. 2 Exod. vi. 18. ^ ji Zamakh. al BeiddwL * V. Reland. 
ubi sup. D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient, p. 583. & chap. 19. ^ V. Guadagnol. Apolog. 
pro rel. Christ, contra Ahmed Ebn Zein al Abedin. p. 279. ' Al Beiddwi, al Thalabi, 
^ Jallalo*ddin, al Zamakhshari. ^ Jallalo'ddin. 

E 2 • 



52 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



^'^ Therefore the Lord accepted her with a gracious 
acceptance, and caused her to bear an excellent off- 
spring. And Zacharias took care of the child. When- 
ever Zacharias went into the chamber to her, he 
found provisions with her: and he said, O Mary, whence 
hadst thou this? She answered, This is from God: 
for God provideth for whom he pleaseth without mea- 
sure. ^^ There Zacharias called on his Lord, and said, 
Lord, give me from thee a good offspring, for thou art the 
hearer of prayer. ^^ And the angels called to him, while 
he stood praying in the chamber, saying. Verily God pro- 
miseth thee a son named John, who shall bear witness to 
the Word which cometh from God ; an honourable person, 
chaste, and one of the righteous prophets. ^^ He an- 
swered. Lord, how shall I have a son, when old age hath 
overtaken me, and my wife is barren ? The angel said, 



with certain ceremonies, in the valley of 
Mina ^ 

It is not improbable that the pretended 
immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary 
is intimated in this passage. For, accord- 
ing to a tradition of Mohammed, every 
person that comes into the world, is 
touched at his birth by the devil, and 
therefore cries out, Mary and her son only 
excepted ; between whom and the evil 
spirit, God placed a veil, so that his touch 
did not reach them ^. And for this rea- 
son they say, neither of them were guilty 
of any sin, like the rest of the children of 
Adam ^ ; which peculiar grace they ob- 
tained by virtue of this recommendation 
of them by Hannah to God's protection. 

37 The Lord accepted her, &c.] Though 
the child happened not to be a male, yet 
her mother presented her to the priests 
who had the care of the temple, as one 
dedicated to God ; and, they having re- 
ceived her, she was committed to the care 
of Zacharias, as will be observed by-and- 
by, and he built her an apartment in the 
temple, and supplied her with necessa- 
ries *. 

— Whenever Zacharias wetit into the 
chamber, he found provisions with her, &c.] 
The commentators say that none went 
into Mary's apartment but Zacharias him- 
self, and that he locked seven doors upon 
her ; yet he found she had always winter- 



fruits in summer, and summer-fruits in 
winter ^. 

— Without measure,'] There is a story 
of Fatima, Mohammed's daughter, that 
she once brought two loaves and a piece 
of flesh to her father, who returned them 
to her, and having called for her again, 
when she uncovered the dish, it was full of 
bread and meat; and, on Mohammed's 
asking her whence she had it? she an- 
swered in the words of this passage. This 
is from God ; for God provideth for whom 
he pleaseth without measure. Whereupon 
he blessed God, who thus favoured her, as 
he had the most excellent of the daughters 
of Israel^. 

39 The angels."] Though the word be in 
the plural, yet the commentators say, it was 
the angel Gabriel only. The same is to be 
understood where it occurs in the following 
passages. 

— The Word.] That is, Jesus ; who, 
al Beidawi says, is so called, because he 
was conceived by the word or command 
of God, without a father. 

— Chaste.] The original word signi- 
fies one who refrains not only from women, 
but from all other worldly delights and 
desires. Al Beidawi mentions a tradition, 
that, during his childhood, some boys in- 
vited him to play, but he refused, saying, 
that he was not created to play. 

40 When old age hath overtaken me, &c.] 



* See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. ^ J allalo' ddin, al Beidawi. ^ Kitada. ^ Jallalo'ddin, 
al Beiddwi. V. Lud. de Dieu, in not. ad Hist. Christi Xaverii, p. 642. * /ll Beiddwi. 
y. de Bieuy ubi sup. p. 548. ^ Al Beiddwi. 



in.] AL KORAN. 53 

So God doth that which he pleaseth. *^ Zacharias an- 
swered, Lord, give me a sign. The angel said, Thy sign 
shall be, that thou shalt speak unto no man for three 
days, otherwise than by gesture : remember thy Lord 
often, and praise him evening and morning. ^^ And then 
the angels said, O Mary, verily God hath chosen thee, 
and hath purified thee, and hath chosen thee above all 
the women of the world : ^^ O Mary, be devout towards 
thy Lord, and worship, and bow down with those who 
bow down. ^* This is a secret history : we reveal it unto 
thee, although thou wast not present with them when 
they threw in their rods to cast lots which of them should 
have the education of Mary; neither wast thou with 
them, when they strove among themselves. ^^ When 
the angels said, O Mary, verily God sendeth thee g;og^ 
tidings, that thou shalt bear the Word, proceeding from 
himself; his name shall be GHRiCT Jesus the son of Mary, 
honourable in this world and in the world to come, and 
one of those who approach near to the presence of GoDj'^ 
*^ and he shall speak unto men in the cradle, and when he 

Zacharias was then ninety-nine years old, eipate, a Mohammedan writer, of no very 

and his wife eighty-nine ^ great credit indeed, tells two stories, one 

41 Thou shalt speak unto no man for of Jesus's speaking while in his mother's 

three days.'] Though he could not speak womb, to reprove her cousin Joseph for 

to any body else, yet his tongue was at his unjust suspicions of her *, and another 

liberty to praise God; as he is directed to of his giving an answer to the same person 

do by the following words. soon after he was born. For Joseph being 

44 When they threw in their rods, &c.] sent by Zacharias to seek Mary, (who had 

When Mary was first brought to the tern- gone out of the city by night to conceal 

pie, the priests, because she was the daugh • her delivery,) and having found her, be- 

ter of one of their chiefs, disputed among gan to expostulate with her, but she made 

themselves who should have the education no reply, whereupon the child spoke these 

of her. Zacharias insisted that he ought words: Rejoice, O Joseph, and be of good 

to be preferred, because he had married cheer ; for God hath brought me forth 

her aunt ; but, the others not consenting from the darkness of the womb to the 

that it should be so, they agreed to decide light of the world ; and I shall go to the 

the matter by casting of lots : whereupon children of Israel, and invite them to the 

twenty-seven of them went to the river obedience of God ^. 

Jordan, and threw in their rods, (or arrows These seem all to have been taken from 

without heads or feathers, such as the some fabulous traditions of the eastern 

Arabs used for the same purpose,) on Christians, one of which is preserved to 

which they had written some passages of us in the spurious gospel of the Infancy of 

the law ; but they all sunk, except that of Christ ; where we read that Jesus spoke 

Zacharias, which floated on the water ; while yet in the cradle, and said to his 

and he had thereupon the care of the child mother, Verily I am Jesus the Son of 

committed to him 2. God, the Word which thou hast brought 

46 He shall speak unto men in the cradle."] forth, as the angel Gabriel did declare unto 

Besides an instance of this given in the thee ; and my Father hath sent me to save 

Koran itself 3, which I shall not here anti- the world ^. 

^ Al Beiddwi. 2 idem, Jallalo'' ddin^ &c. ^ Chap. 19. * V. Sikii notas in 

Evang. Infant, p. 5. ^ Al Kessai, apud eundem. ^ Evang. Infant, p. 5, 



54 AL KORAN. [chap. 

is grown up ; and he shall be one of the righteous ; ^^ she 
answered. Lord, how shall I have a son, since a man hath 
not touched me ? The angel said, So God createth that 
which he pleaseth : when he decreeth a thing, he only 
saith unto it. Be, and it is : ^^ God shall teach him the 
scripture and wisdom, and the law and the gospel ; and 
shall appoint him his apostle to the children of Israel ; 
and he shall say, Verily I come unto you with a sign from 
your Lord ; for I will make before you, of clay, as it 
were the figure of a bird; then I will breathe thereon, and 
it shall become a bird, by the permission of God : and I 
will heal him that hath been blind from his birth ; and the 
leper; and I will raise the dead by the permission of 
God: and I will prophesy unto you what ye eat, and 
what ye lay up for store in your houses. Verily herein 
will be a sign unto you, if ye believe. ^^ And I come to 
confirm the Law which was revealed before me, and to 
allow unto you, as lawful, part of that which hath been 
forbidden you : and I come unto you with a sign from your 

— And when he is grown upJ] The Jesus, whom they held to be a sor- 

Arabic word properly signifies a man in cerer*. 

full age, that is, between thirty or thirty- — By the permission of God.'] The 

four and fifty-one ; and the passage may commentators observe that these words are 

relate to Christ's preaching here on earth, added here, and in the next sentence, lest 

But, as he had scarce attained this age it should be thought Jesus did these mira- 

when he was taken up into heaven, the cles by his own power, or was GoD^ 

commentators choose to understand it of — I will raise the dead, &c.] Jalla- 

his second coming ^ lo'ddin mentions three persons whom 

48 I will make the figure of a bird, 8ic.~\ Christ restored to life, and who lived 

Some say it was a bat 2, though others sup- several years after, and had children ; viz. 

pose Jesus made several birds of different Lazarus, the widow's son, and the publi- 

sorts^. can's (I suppose he means the ruler of the 

This circumstance is also taken from the synagogue's) daughter. He addsj that he 

following fabulous tradition, which may be also raised Shem, the son of Noah, who, 

found in the spurious gospel above-men- as another writes ^, thinking he had been 

tioned. Jesus being seven years old, and called to judgment, came out of his grave 

at play with several children of his age, with his head half grey, whereas men did 

they made several figures of birds and not grow grey in his days ; after which he 

beasts, for their diversion, of clay ; and, immediately died again, 

each preferring his own workmanship, 49 And to allow you part of that which 

Jesus told them, that he would make his hath been forbidden you.] Such as the 

walk and leap ; which accordingly, at his eating of fish that have neither fins nor 

command, they did. He made also several scales, the caul and fat of animals, and 

figures of sparrows, and other birds, which camel's flesh, and to work on the sabbath, 

flew about or stood on his hands as he These things, say the commentators, being 

ordered them, and also ate and drank when arbitrary institutions in the law of Moses, 

he offered them meat and drink. The were abrogated by Jesus ; as several of 

children telling this to their parents, the same kind instituted by the latter, 

were forbidden to play any more with have been since abrogated by Mohammed*^. 

* Jallalo' ddifi , al Beiddwi. ^ JaUalo'' ddin. ^ Al Thalabi. * Evang. Infant, 

p. Ill, &c. Jl Beiddwi, &c. ^ ji Thalabi. ^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin. 



III.] 



AL KORAN, 



55 



Lord ; therefore fear God, and obey me : ^^ Verily God 
is my Lord, and your Lord : therefore serve him. This 
is the right way. ^^ But when Jesus perceived their un- 
belief, he said, Who will be my helpers towards God ? 
The apostles answered, We will be the helpers of God ; 
we believe in God, and do thou bear witness that we are 
true believers. ^^ O Lord, we believe in that which thou 
hast sent down, and we have followed thy apostle ; write 
us down therefore with those who bear witness of him. 
^^ And the Jews devised a stratagem against him ; but 
God devised a stratagem against them ; and God is the 



51 The apostles^ In Arabic, al Ha- 
wdriyiin ; which word they derive from 
Hdra, to he wJiite^ and suppose the apos- 
tles were so called, either from the can- 
dour and sincerity of their minds, or be- 
cause they were princes, and wore white 
garments, or else because they w^ere by 
trade fullers ^ According to which last 
opinion, their vocation is thus related : 
That, as Jesus passed by the sea-side, he 
saw some fullers at work, and accosting 
them, said. Ye cleanse these clothes, but 
cleanse not your hearts ; upon which they 
believed on him. But the true etymology 
seems to be from the Ethiopic verb 
Hawyra, to go; whence Hawdiya sig- 
nifies one that is sentf a messenger or apos- 
tle 2. 

53 The Jews devised a stratagem against 
him.'] i. e. They laid a design to take 
away his life. 

— But God devised a stratagem against 
them.] This stratagem of God's was the 
taking of Jesus up into heaven, and 
stamping his likeness on another person, 
who was apprehended and crucified in his 
stead. For it is the constant doctrine of 
the Mohammedans, that it was not Jesus 
himself who underwent that ignominious 
death, but somebody else in his shape and 
resemblance ^. The person crucified some 
will have to be a spy that was sent to 
entrap him ; others that it was one Titian, 
who, by the direction of Judas, entered 
in at a window of the house where Jesus 
was, to kill him ; and others that it was 
Judas himself, who agreed with the rulers 
of the Jews to betray him for thirty pieces 



of silver, and led those who were sent to 
take him. 

They add, that Jesus, after his cruci- 
fixion in effigy, was sent down again to 
the earth, to comfort his mother and dis- 
ciples, and acquaint them how the Jews 
were deceived ; and was then taken up a 
second time into heaven *. 

It is supposed by several that this story 
was an original invention of Mohammed's ; 
but they are certainly mistaken ; for seve- 
ral sectaries held the same opinion long 
before his time. The Basilidians ^, in the 
very beginning of Christianity, denied 
that Christ himself suffered, but that 
Simon the Cyrenean was crucified in his 
place. The Cerinthians before them, and 
the Carpocratians next, (to name no more 
of those who affirmed Jesus to have been 
a mere man,) did believe the same thing ; 
that it was not himself, but one of his 
followers, very like him, that was cruci- 
fied. Photius tells us, that he read a 
book, entitled the Journeys of the Apos- 
tles, relating the acts of Peter, John, An- 
drew, Thomas, and Paul; and, among 
other things contained therein, this was 
one, that Christ was not crucified, but 
another in his stead, and that therefore 
he laughed at his crucifiers ^, or those who 
thought they had crucified him ^. 

I have in another place ^ mentioned an 
apocryphal gospel of Barnabas, a forgery 
originally of some nominal Christians, but 
interpolated since by Mohammedans, which 
gives this part of the history of Jesus 
with circumstances too curious to be omit- 
ted. It is therein related, that the mo- 



* Jl Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin. ^ y. Ludolfi Lexic. ^Ethiop. col. 40. et Golii notas 

ad cap. 61. Korani, c. 14. ^ gee Koran, c. 4. * V. Marracc. in Ale. p. 113, 

&c. et in Prodr. part. 3. p. 63, &c. ^ Ireficeus, 1. 1. c. 23, &c. Epiphan. Haeres. 

24. num. 3. ^ Photius, Bibl. Cod. 114. col. 291. "^ Toland's Nazarenus, 

p. 17, &c. 8 Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 88. 



56 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



best deviser of stratagems. ^^ When God said, O Jesus, 
verilj^I wil^ thee to die, and I will take thee lipr 

unto me, and I will deliver thee from the unbelievers f 
and I will place those who follow thee above the unbe- 
lievers until the day of resurrection : then unto me shall 
ye return, and I will judge between you of that con cera- 
ihg which ye disagree. ^^ Moreover as for the infidels, I 
will punish them with a grievous punishment in this 



ment the Jews were going to apprehend 
Jesus in the garden, he was snatched up 
into the third heaven, by the ministry of 
four angels, Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, 
and Uriel ; that he will not die till the 
end of the world ; and that it was Judas 
who was crucified in his stead ; God hav- 
ing permitted that traitor to appear so 
like his master, in the eyes of the Jews, 
that they took and delivered him to Pi- 
late. That this resemblance was so great, 
that it deceived the Virgin Mary, and the 
apostles themselves; butthat Jesus Christ 
afterwards obtained leave of God to go 
and comfort them. That Barnabas hav- 
ing then asked him, why the divine good- 
ness had suffered the mother and disciples 
of so holy a prophet to believe even for 
one moment that he had died in so igno- 
minious a manner? Jesus returned the 
following answer : *' O Barnabas, believe 
me that every sin, how small soever, is 
punished by God with great torment, be- 
cause God is offended with sin. My 
mother, therefore, and faithful disciples, 
having loved me with a mixture of earthly 
love, the just God has been pleased to 
punish this love with their present grief, 
that they might not be punished for it 
hereafter in the flames of hell. And as 
for me, though 1 have myself been blame- 
less in the world, yet other men having 
called me God, and the son of God; 
therefore God, that I might not be mocked 
by the devils at the day of judgment, has 
been pleased that in this world I should 
be mocked by men with the death of 
Judas, making every body believe that I 
died upon the cross. And hence it is that 
this mocking is still to continue till the 
coming of Mohammed, the messenger of 
God ; who, coming into the world, will 
undeceive every one who shall believe in 
thelaw of God, from this mistake ^ 
\5^ I will cause thee to die^ &c.] It 



is the opinion of a great many Moham- 
medans, that Jesus was taken up into 
heaven without dying ; which opinion is 
consonant to what is delivered in the spu- 
rious gospel above mentioned. Vv^here- 
fore several of the commentators say, that 
there is a hysteron proteron in these 
words, I will cause thee to die, and 1 will 
take thee up unto me ; and that the co- 
pulative does not import order, or that he 
died before his assumption ; the meaning 
being this, viz. that God would first take 
Jesus up to heaven, and deliver him from 
the infidels, and afterwards cause him to 
die ; which they suppose is to happen 
when he shall return into the world again 
before the last day 2. Some, thinking the 
order of the words is not to be changed, 
interpret them figuratively, and suppose 
their signification to be, that Jesus was 
lifted up while he was asleep, or that 
God caused him to die a spiritual death 
to all worldly desires. But others ac- 
knowledge that he actually died a natural 
death, and continued in that state three 
hours, or, according to another tradition, 
seven hours ; after which he was restored 
to life, and then taken up to heaven 3. 

— And I will take thee up unto me.] 
Some Mohammedans say this was done 
by the ministry of Gabriel ; but others 
that a strong whirlwind took him up from 
mount Olivet*. 

— / will place those who follow thee 
above the unbelievers, until the day of re- 
surrection.] That is, they who believe 
in Jesus (among whom the Mohamme- 
dans reckon themselves) shall be for ever 
superior to the Jews, both in arguments 
and in arms. And accordingly, says al 
Beidawi, to this very day the Jews have 
never prevailed either against the Chris- 
tians or Moslems, nor have they any king- 
dom or established government of their 
own. 



^ See the Menagiana, torn. iv. p. 326, &c. ^ Sgg Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 95. 

3 Jl Beiddwi. ^ Al Thalahi. See 2 Kings ii. 1. U. 



III.] AL KORAN. 57 

world, and in that which is to come ; and there shall be 
none to help them. ^^But they who believe, and do that 
which is right, he shall give them their reward ; for God 
loveth not the wicked doers. ^^ These signs and this 
prudent admonition do we rehearse unto thee. ^^ Verily 
the likeness of Jesus, in the sight of God, is as the like- 
ness of Adam : he created him out of the dust, and then 
said unto him, Be : and he was. ^^ This is the truth from 
thy Lord ; be not therefore one of those who doubt : 
^^ and whoever shall dispute with thee concerning Him, 
after the knowledge which hath been given thee, say 
unto them. Come, let us call together our sons, and your 
sons, and our wives, and your wives, and ourselves and 
yourselves : then let us make imprecations, and lay the 
curse of God on those who lie. ^^ Verily this is a true 
history: and there is no God, but God ; and God is most 
mighty and wise. ^^ If they turn back, God well knoweth 
the evil-doers. ^^ Say, O ye who have received the scri^-^ 
ture, come to a just determination between us and you ; 
that we worship not any except God, and associate no 
creature with him ; and that the one of us take not the 
other for lords, beside God. But, if they turn back, say, 
Bear witness that we are true believers. ^^ O ye to whom 
the scriptures have been given, why do ye dispute concern- 
ing Abraham, since the Law and the Gospel were not sent 
down until after him? Do ye not therefore understand? 

58 Jesus in the sight of God is as his prayers. But, when they saw him 
Adam, &c.] He was like to Adam in kneel down, their resolution failed them, 
respect of his miraculous production by and they durst not venture to curse him, 
the immediate power of God ^ but submitted to pay him tribute '^. 

59 Him.'] Namely, Jesus. 63 Let us come to a just determination 

60 Let us call together our sons, &c. between us and you, &c.] That is, to such 
and imprecate the curse of God on those terms of agreement as are indisputably 
who lie.] To explain this passage the consonant to the doctrine of all the pro 
commentators tell the following story : phets and scriptures, and therefore cannot 
That some Christians, with their bishop, be reasonably rejected 3. 

named Abu Hareth, coming to Moham- — Jnd that the one of us take not the 

med as ambassadors from the inhabitants other for lords, &c.] Besides other charges 

of Najran, and entering into some dis- of idolatry on the Jews and Christians, 

putes with him touching religion and the Mohammed accused them of paying too 

history of Jesus Christ, they agreed the implicit an obedience to their priests and 

next morning to abide the trial here men- monks, who took upon them to pronounce 

tioned, as a quick way of deciding which wliat things were lawful, and what un- 

of them were in the wrong. Mohammed lawful, and to dispense with the laws of 

met them accordingly, accompanied by his God *. 

daughter Fatima, his son-in-law AH, and 64 Why do ye dispute concerning J bra- 

his two grandsons, Hasan and Hosein, ham.] Viz. By pretending him to have 

and desired them to wait till he had said been of your religion. 



Jallafoddin, &c. 2 Jallalo'ddin, at BiidduL ^ Idem, * Jallah'ddin. 



58 A L KORAN. [chap. 

^^ Behold ye are they who dispute concerning that which ye 
have some knowledge in ; why therefore do ye dispute con- 
cerning that which ye have no knowledge of? God knoweth, 
but ye know not. ^^ Abraham was neither a Jew, nor a 
Christian; but he was of the true religion, one resigned 
unto God, and was not of the number of the idolaters. 
^^ Verily the men who are the nearest of kin unto Abra- 
ham, are they who follow him ; and this prophet, and 
they who believe on him : God is the patron of the faith- 
ful. ^^ Some of those who have received the scriptures 
desire to seduce you ; but they seduce themselves only, 
and they perceive it not. ^^ O ye who have received tlie^ 
scriptures, why do ye not believe in the signs of God, 
since ye are witnesses of them ? ^^ O ye who have re-^ 
ceived the scriptures, why do ye clothe truth with vanity, 
and knowingly hide the truth ?^ ^^ And some of those to 
whom the scriptures were given, say. Believe in that 
which hath been sent down unto those who believe, in 
the beginning of the day; and deny it in the end thereof; 
that they may go back from their faith : ^^ and believe 
him only who foUoweth your religion. Say, Verily the 
true direction is the direction of God, that there may be 
given unto some other a revelation like unto what hath 
been given unto you. Will they dispute with you before 

65 Ye dispute concerning that which to explain this passage, say, that Caab 

ye have some knowledge in ; why therefore Ebn al Ashraf and Malec Ebn al Seif 

do ye dispute concerning that which ye (two Jews of Medina) advised their com- 

have no knowledge off] i.e. Ye per- panions, when the Keblah was changed '% 

versely dispute even concerning those to make as if they believed it was done 

things which ye find in the Law and the by the divine direction, and to pray to- 

Gospel, whereby it appears, that they wards the Caaba in the morning ; but 

were both sent down long after Abra- that in the evening they should pray, as 

ham's time ; why then will ye offer to formerly, towards the temple of Jerusa- 

dispute concerning such points of Abra- lem ; that Mohammed's followers, ima- 

ham's religion, of which your scriptures gining the Jews were better judges of 

say nothing, and of which ye consequently this matter than themselves, might imi- 

can have no knowledge ^ tate their example. But others say, these 

68 Some of those to whom the scriptures were certain Jewish priests of Khaibar, 

were given seek to seduce you, &c.] This who directed some of their people to pre- 

passage was revealed when the Jews en- tend in the morning that they had em- 

deavoured to pervert Hodheifa, Ammar, braced Mohammedism ; but, in the close 

and Moadh, to their religion ^. of the day, to say, that they had looked 

70 Why do ye clothe truth with vanity, into their books of scripture, and con- 
and knowingly hide the truth ?~\ The Jews suited their Rabbins, and could not find 
and Christians are again accused of cor- that Mohammed was the person described 
rupting the scriptures, and stifling the and intended in the law; by which trick 
prophecies concerning Mohammed. they hoped to raise doubts in the minds 

71 Go back, &c.~\ The commentators, of the Mohammedans "*. 

1 Al Bciddwi, ^ Idem. ^ ^ce before, c. ii. p. 22. * Jl Beiddwi. 



III.] AL KORAN. 59 

your Lord ? Say, Surely excellence is in the hand of 
God ; he giveth it unto whom he pleaseth ; God is boun- 
teous and wise ; ^^ he will confer peculiar mercy on whom 
he pleaseth ; for God is endued with great beneficence. 
^^ There is of those who have received the scriptures, 
unto whom if thou trust a talent, he will restore it unto 
thee ; and there is also of them, unto whom if thou trust 
a dinar, he will not restore it unto thee, unless thou stand 
over him continually with great urgency. This they do, 
because they say. We are not obliged to observe justice 
with the Heathen : but they utter a lie against God 
knowingly. ^^ Yea, whoso keepeth his covenant, and 
feareth God, God surely loveth those who fear him. ^^But 
they who make merchandise of God's covenant, and of 
their oaths, for a small price, shall have no portion in the 
next life ; neither shall God speak to them, or regard 
them, on the day of resurrection ; nor shall he cleanse 
them ; but they shall suffer a grievous punishment. ^'^And 
there are certainly some of them who read the scriptures 
perversely, that ye may think what they read to be really 
in the scriptures, yet it is not in the scripture ; and they 

74 There is of those who have received slain in that battle, and reflecting very 
the scriptures, unto whom if thou trust a severely on Mohammed ; and he after- 
talent, he will restore z7.] As an instance wards returned to Medina, and had the 
of this, the commentators bring Abd'allah boldness to repeat them publicly there 
Ebn Salam, a Jew, very intimate with also ; at which Mohammed was so ex- 
Mohammed *, to whom one of the Koreish ceedingly provoked, that he proscribed 
lent 1200 ounces of gold, which he very him ; and sent a party of men to kill him, 
punctually repaid at the time appoint- and he was circumvented and slain by 
ed 2. Mohammed Ebn Moslema in the third 

— There is also of them unto whom if year of the Hejra^. Dr. Prideaux * has 

thou trust a dinar, he will not restore it, confounded the Caab we are now speaking 

&c.] Al Beidawi produces an example of, with another very different person of 

of such a piece of injustice in one Phineas the same name, and a famous poet, but 

Ebn Azura, a Jew, who borrowed a dinar, who was the son of Zohair, and no Jew ; 

which is a gold coin worth about ten shil- as a learned gentleman has already ob- 

lings, of a Koreishite, and afterwards had served ^. In consequence of which mis- 

the conscience to deny it. take, the doctor attributes what the Ara- 

But the person more directly struck at bian historians write of the latter to the 

in this passage, was the above mentioned former, and wrongly affirms that he was 

Caab Ebn al Ashraf, a most inveterate not put to death by Mohammed, 
enemy of Mohammed, and his religion, of Some of the commentators, however, 

whom Jallalo'ddin relates the same story suppose that, in the former part of this 

as al Beidawi does of Phineas. This Caab, passage, the Christians are intended, who, 

after the battle of Bedr, went to Mecca, they say, are generally people of some 

and there, to excite the Koreish to re- honour and justice ; and, in the latter part, 

venge themselves, made and recited verses, the Jews, who, they think, are more given 

lamenting the death of those who were to cheating and dishonesty ^. 



* See Prideaux's Life of Moham. p. 33. 2 ji Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin, ^ J I 

Jannabi, Elmacin. ^ Life of Moham. p. 78, &c. ^ y, Qagnier, in Not. ad AbuU 

fed, Vit. Moh. p. 64 and 122. 6 ^/ Beiddwi. 



60 AL KORAN. [chap. 

say, This is from God ; but it is not from God : and they 
speak that which is false concerning God, against their 
own knowledge. ^^ It is not fit for a man, that God 
should give him a book of revelations, and wisdom, and 
prophecy ; and then he should say unto men. Be ye wor- 
shippers of me, besides God : but he ought to say, Be ye 
perfect in knowledge, and in works, since ye know the 
scriptures, and exercise yourselves therein. ^^ God hath 
not commanded you to take the angels and the prophets 
for your Lords : Will he command you to become infi- 
dels, after ye have been true believers ? ^^ And remem- 
ber when God accepted the covenant of the prophets, 
saying. This verily is the scripture and the wisdom which 
I have given you : hereafter shall an apostle come unto 
you, confirming the truth of that scripture which is with 
you ; ye shall surely believe on him, and ye shall assist 
him. God said. Are ye firmly resolved, and do ye accept 
my covenant on this condition? They answered. We 
are firmly resolved. God said. Be ye therefore wit- 
nesses ; and I also bear witness with you : ^^ and whoso- 
ever turneth back after this, they are surely the trans- 
gressors. ^^ Do they therefore seek any other religion 
but God's? since to him is resigned whosoever is in 
heaven or on earth, voluntarily, or of force : and to him 
shall they return. ®^ Say, We believe in God, and that 
which hath been sent down unto us, and that which was 
sent down unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and 
Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered to 
Moses, and Jesus, and the prophets, from their Lord ; 
we make no distinction between any of them ; and to him 
are we resigned. ^* Whoever followeth any other reli- 
gion than Islam, it shall not Be accepted of him : and in 

78 It is 7iot fit for a marii &c.] This the prophets, &c.] Some commentators 

passage was revealed, say the commenta- interpret this of the children of Israel 

tors, in answer to the Christians, who in- themselves, of whose race the prophets 

sisted that Jesus had commanded them to were. But others say, the souls of all the 

worship him as God. A1 Beidawi adds, prophets, even of those who were not then 

that two Christians, named Abu Rafe al born, were present on Mount Sinai when 

Koradhi and al Seyid al Najrani, offered God gave the law to Moses, and that they 

to acknowledge Mohammed for their Lord entered into the covenant here mentioned 

and to worship him ; to which he an- with him. A story borrowed by Moham • 

swered, God forbid that we should wor- med from the Talmudists, and therefore 

ship any besides God. most probably his true meaning in this 

80 When God accepted the covenant of place. 



III.] A L KORAN. 61 

the next life he shall be of those who perish, ^^ How 
shall God dir^ who have become infidels after 

they had believed, and borne witness that the apostle was 
true, and manifest declarations of the divine will had 
come unto them? for God directeth not the ungodly 
people. ^^ Their reward shall be, that on them shall fall 
the curse of God, and of angels, and of all mankind : 
^^ they shall remain under the same for ever : their tor- 
ment shall not be mitigated, neither shall they be re- 
garded ; ^^ except those who repent after this, and amend ; 
for God is gracious and merciful. ^^ Moreover they who 
become infidels after they have believed, and yet increase 
in infidelity, their repentance shall in no wise be ac- 
cepted ; and they are those who go astray. ^^ Verily 
they who believe not, and die in their unbelief, the w^orld 
full of gold shall in no wise be accepted from any of 
them, even though he should give it for his ransom : they 
shall suffer a grievous punishment, ^^ and they shall have 
none to help them. [*IV.] ^^ Ye will never attain unto 
righteousness, until ye give in alms of that which ye 
love: and whatever ye give, God knoweth it. ^^All 
food was permitted unto the children of Israel, except 
what Israel forbade unto himself, before the Pentateuch 
was sent down. Say unto the Jews, Bring hither the 
Pentateuch, and read it, if ye speak truth. ^^ Whoever 
therefore contriveth a lie against God after this, they will 
be evil-doers. ^^ Say, God is true; follow ye therefore 

84 Those who perish.'] See before, ch. ii. with the sciatica, that, if he were cured, 

p. 10 and IL Note 62. he would eat no more of that meat which 

93 All food was permitted unto the he liked best ; and that was camel's flesh : 

children of Israel, except what Israel for- but others supposed he abstained from it 

lade unto himself] This passage was by the advice of physicians only 2. 

revealed on the Jews reproaching Mo- This exposition seems to be taken from 

hammed and his followers with their the children of Israel's not eating of the 

eating of the flesh and milk of camels ^ sinew on the hollow of the thigh, because 

which they said was forbidden Abraham, the angel with whom Jacob wrestled at 

whose religion Mohammed pretended to Peniel, touched the hollow of his thigh in 

follow. In answer to vi^hich he tells them, the sinew that shrank 3. 

that God ordained no distinction of meats — Before the Pentateuch was sent 

before he gave the law to Moses, though down."] Wherein the Israelites, because 

Jacob voluntarily abstained from the flesh of their wickedness and perverseness, 

and milk of camels; which some commen- were forbidden to eat certain animals 

tators say, was the consequence of a vow which had been allowed their prede- 

made by that Patriarch, when afflicted cessors *. 



* See Lev. xi. 4. Deut. xiv. 7- ^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin. ^ Gen. xxxii. 32. 
* Kordn, c. 4. See the notes there. 



62 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



the religion of Abraham the orthodox ; for he was no 
idolater. ^® Verily the first house appointed unto men to 
worship in was that which is in Becca ; blessed, and a 
direction to all creatures. ^^ Therein are manifest signs : 
the place where Abraham stood ; and whoever entereth 
therein, shall be safe. And it is a duty towards God, 
incumbent on those who are able to go thither, to visit 
this house : but whosoever disbelieveth, verily God need- 
eth not the service of any creature. ^^ Say, O ye who 
have received the scriptures, why do ye not believe in the 
signs of God ? ^^ Say, O ye who have received the scrip- 
tures, why do ye keep back, from the way of God, him 
who believeth ? Ye seek to make it crooked, and yet 
are witnesses that it is the right : but God will not be 
unmindful of what ye do. ^^° O true believers, if ye obey 
some of those who have received the scripture, they will 



96 The first house appointed unto men, 
was that which is in BeccaJ] Mohammed 
received this passage, when the Jews said 
that their Keblah, or the temple of Jeru- 
salem, was more ancient than that of the 
Mohammedans, or the Caaba ^ Becca is 
another name of Mecca 2. Al Beidawi 
observes that the Arabs used the M and B 
promiscuously in several words. 

— A direction to all creatures.'] i. e. the 
Keblah, towards which they are to turn 
their faces in prayer. 

97 Therein are manifest signs.] Such 
as the stone wherein they show the print 
of Abraham's feet, and the inviolable 
security of the place, immediately men- 
tioned ; that the birds light not on the 
roof of the Caaba, and wild beasts put off 
their fierceness there ; that none who came 
against it in a hostile manner ever pros- 
pered 3, as appeared particularly in the 
unfortunate expedition of Abraha al Ash- 
ram * ; and other fables of the same stamp, 
which the Mohammedans are taught to 
believe. 

— Those who are able to go thither.] 
According to an exposition of this passage, 
attributed to Mohammed, he is supposed 
to be able to perform the pilgrimage who 
can supply himself with provisions for the 
journey, and a beast to ride upon. Al 
Shafei has decided that those who have 
money enough, if they cannot go them- 
selves, must hire some other to go in their 
room. Malec Ebn Ans thinks he is to be 



reckoned able, who is strong and healthy, 
and can bear the fatigue of the journey on 
foot, if he has no beast to ride, and can 
also earn his living by the way. But 
Abu Hanifa is of opinion, that both money 
sufficient, and health of body, are requisite 
to make the pilgrimage a duty ^. 

100 If ye obey some of those who have 
received the scripture, &c.] This passage 
was revealed on occasion of a quarrel 
excited between the tribes of al Aws and 
al Khazraj, by one Shas Ebn Kais, a 
Jew ; who passing by some of both tribes 
as they were sitting and discoursing fami- 
liarly together, and being inwardly vexed 
at the friendship and harmony which 
reigned among them on their embracing 
Mohammedism, whereas they had been, 
for 120 years before, most inveterate and 
mortal enemies, though descendants of two 
brothers ; in order to set them at variance, 
sent a young man to sit down by them, 
directing him to relate the story of the 
battle of Boath (a place near Medina,) 
wherein, after a bloody fight, al Aws had 
the better of al Khazraj, and to repeat 
some verses on that subject. The young 
man executed his orders; whereupon those* 
of each tribe began to magnify them- 
selves, and to reflect on and irritate the 
other, till, at length, they called to arms : 
and, great numbers getting together on 
each side, a dangerous battle had ensued, 
if Mohammed had not stepped in and 
reconciled them; by representing to them 



^ Al Beidawi, Jallalo' ddin. 2 gge the Prelim. Disc. § i. p. 4. ^ Jallalo'ddin, 

A I Beidawi. * Seethe Koran, c. 105. ^ Al Beiddwi. 

1 



III.] A L KORAN. 63 

render you infidels, after ye have believed : ^^^ and how 
can ye be infidels, when the signs of God are read unto 
you, and his apostle is among you ? But he who cleav- 
eth firmly unto God, is already directed into the right 
way. ^^^ O believers, fear God with his true fear ; and 
die not, unless ye also be true believers. ^^^ And cleave 
all of you unto the covenant of God, and depart not 
from it ; and remember the favour of God towards you : 
since ye were enemies, and he reconciled your hearts, and 
ye became companions and brethren by his favour : and 
ye were on the brink of a pit of fire, and he delivered 
you thence. Thus God declareth unto you his signs, that 
ye may be directed. ^^* Let there be people among you, 
who invite to the best religion ; and command that which 
is just, and forbid that which is evil ; and they shall be 
happy. ^^^And be not as they who are divided, and 
disagree in matters of religion, after manifest proofs have 
been brought unto them : they shall suffer a great tor- 
ment. ^^^ On the day of resurrection some faces shall be- 
come white, and other faces shall become black. And unto 
them whose faces shall become black, God will say. Have 
ye returned unto your unbelief, after ye had believed? 
therefore taste the punishment, for that ye have been 
unbelievers : ^^^ but they whose faces shall become white, 
shall be in the mercy of God ; therein shall they remain 
for ever. ^^^ These are the signs of God : we recite them 
unto thee with truth. God will not deal unjustly with 
his creatures. ^^^ And to God belongeth whatever is 
in heaven and on earth; and to God shall all things 
return. "^ Ye are the best nation that hath been raised 
up unto mankmHTj^comn^^^^ 

how much they would be to blame, if they as holding by a rope is to prevent one's 

returned to Paganism, and revived those falling into a well, or other like place, 

animosities which Islam had composed, It is said that Mohammed used, for 

and telling them, that what had hap- the same reason, to call the Koran Habl 

pened was a trick of the devil, to disturb Allah al mating i. e. The sure cord of 

their present tranquillity ^ God 2. 

103 Cleave unto the covenant of God, 105 And he not as those who are di^ 

&c.] Literally, Hold fast by the cord of vided, &c.] i. e. As the Jews and Christ- 

God. That is, Secure yourselves by ad- ians, who dispute concerning the unity of 

hering to Islam, which is here meta- God, the future state, &c.3 
phorically expressed by a cord, because 106 On the daij of resurrection, the faces 

it is as sure a means of saving those of some shall become white, &c.] Seethe 

who profess it from perishing hereafter, Prelim. Disc. § iv. 

^ Al Beiddwi. 2 j^jeni. » Idem. 



64 A L KORAN. [chap. 

ye forbid that which^is^ unjust, and ye believe in j3rod. 
And, if they who have received the scriptures had 
believed, it had surely been the better for them : there 
are believers among them, but the greater part of them 
are transgressors. ^^^ They shall not hurt you, unless 
vrith a slight hurt ; and, if they fight against you, they 
shall turn their backs to you ; and they shall not be 
helped. ^^^ They are smitten with vileness, wheresoever 
they are found, unless they obtain security by entering 
into a treaty with God, and a treaty with men : and they 
draw on themselves indignation from God, and they are 
afflicted with poverty. This they suffer, because they 
disbelieved the signs of God, and slew the prophets 
unjustly ; this, because they were rebellious, and trans- 
gressed. ^^^ Yet they are not all alike : there are of those 
who have received the scriptures, upright people ; they 
meditate on the signs of God in the night season, and 
worship ; ^^* they believe in God, and the last day ; and 
command that which is just, and forbid that which is 
unjust, and zealously strive to excel in good works : these 
are of the righteous. ^^^ And ye shall not be denied the 
reward of the good which ye do ; for God knoweth the 
pious. ^^^ As for the unbelievers, their wealth shall not 
profit them at all, neither their children, against God ; 
they shall be the companions of hell-fire ; they shall 
continue therein for ever. ^^'^ The likeness of that which 
they lay out in this present life, is as a wind wherein 
there is a scorching cold : it falleth, on the standing corn 
of those men who have injured their own souls, and 
destroyeth it. And God dealeth not unjustly with them ; 

110 There are believers among them.~\ tering into a treaty with God, and a treaty 
As Abd'allah Ebn Salam and his com- with men.] i. e. Unless they either profess 
panions ^, and those of the tribes of al the Mohammedan religion, or submit to 
Aws and al Khazraj, who had embraced pay tribute. 

Mohammedism. 113 I'here are, of those who have re- 

111 And they shall not be helped.] This ceived the scriptures, upright people,'\ 
verse, al Beidawi says, is one of those Those, namely, who have embraced 
whose meaning is mysterious, and relates Islam. 

to something future, intimating the low — The signs of God.] That is, the 

condition to which the Jewish tribes of Koran. 

Koreidha, Nadir, Banu Kainoka, and those 115 Ye shall not be denied, &c.] Some 

who dwelt at Kaibar, were afterwards re- copies have a different reading in this 

duced by Mohammed. passage, which they express in the third 

112 Unless they obtain security by en- person: They shall not be denied, &c. 



J I Beiddwi, 



III.] AL KORAN. . 65 

but they injure their own souls. ^^* O true believers, 
contract not an intimate friendship with any besides 
yourselves : they will not fail to corrupt you. They 
wish for that which may cause you to perish : their 
hatred hath already appeared from out of their mouths ; 
but what their breasts conceal is yet more inveterate. 
We have already shewn you signs of their ill-will towards 
you, if ye understand. ^^^ Behold, ye love them, and 
they do not love you : ye believe in all the scriptures ; 
and when they meet you, they say. We believe ; but, 
when they assemble privately together, they bite their 
fingers' ends out of wrath against you. Say unto them. 
Die in your wrath : verily God knoweth the innermost 
part of your breasts. ^^^ If good happen unto you, it 
grieveth them ; and if evil befal you, they rejoice at it. 
But if ye be patient, and fear God, their subtlety shall 
not hurt you at all; for God comprehendeth whatever 
they do. ^^^ Call to mind when thou wentest forth early 
from thy family, that thou mightest prepare the faithful 
a camp for war ; and God heard and knew it ; ^^^ when 
two companies of you were anxiously thoughtful, so that 

118 Besides yourselves,'] i.e. Ofadif- rounded, he placed fifty archers in the 

ferent religion. rear, with strict orders not to quit their 

121 When thou wentest forth to prepare post. When they came to engage, Mo- 

a campy &c.] This was at the battle of hammed had the better at first ; but after- 

Ohod, a mountain about four miles to the wards by the fault of his archers, who left 

north of Medina. The Koreish, to re- their ranks for the sake of the plunder, 

venge their loss at Bedr i, the next year, and suffered the enemy's horse to encom- 

being the third of the Hejra, got together pass the Mohammedans, and attack them 

an army of 3000 men, among whom there in the rear, he lost the day, and was very 

were 200 horses, and 700 armed with near losing his life ; being struck down by 

coats of mail. These forces marched a shower of stones, and wounded in the 

under the conduct of Abu Sofian, and sat face with two arrows, on pulling out of 

down at Dhu'lholeifa, a village about six which his two fore-teeth dropped out. 

miles from Medina. Mohammed, being Of the Moslems 70 men were slain, and 

much inferior to his enemies in number, among them Hamza, the uncle of Moham- 

at first determined to keep hims^elf within med ; and of the infidels 22 2. To excuse 

the town, and receive them there ; but the ill success of this battle, and to raise 

afterwards, the advice of some of his com- the drooping courage of his followers, is 

panions prevailing, he marched out against Mohammed's drift in the remaining part 

them at the head of 1000 men, (some say of this chapter. 

he had 1050 men, and others but 900,) of 122 When two companies of you were 

whom 100 were armed with coats of anxiously thoughtful, &c.] These were 

mail ; but he had no more than one horse, some of the families of Banu Salma, of the 

besides his own, in his whole army, tribe of al Khazraj, and Banu'l Hareth, of 

With these forces he formed a camp in a the tribe of al Aws, who composed the two 

village near Ohod, which mountain he wings of Mohammed's army. Some ill 

contrived to have on his back; and, the impression had been made on them by 

better to secure his men from being sur- Abd'allah Ebn Obba Solul, then an infidel, 

^ See before p. 47, 48. 2 ^htdfeda, i« vita Moham. p. 64, &c. Elmacin, \. L 

Prideaux's Life of Moham. p. 80. 

VOL. L F 



66 A L KORAN. [chap. 

ye became faint-hearted ; but God was the supporter of 
them both ; and in God let the faithful trust. ^^^ And 
God had already given you the victory at Bedr, when ye 
were inferior in number ; therefore fear God that ye may 
be thankful. ^^* When thou saidst unto the faithful, Is it 
not enough for you, that your Lord should assist you 
with three thousand angels, sent down from heaven? 
125 Yerily if ye persevere, and fear God, and your enemies 
come upon you suddenly, your Lord will assist you with 
five thousand angels, distinguished by their horses and 
attire. ^^^ And this God designed only as good tidings 
for you, that your hearts might rest secure : for victory is 
from God alone, the mighty, the wise. ^^^ That he should 
cut off the uttermost part of the unbelievers, or cast them 
down, or that they should be overthrown and unsuccess- 
ful, is nothing to thee. ^^^ It is no business of thine, 
whether God be turned unto them, or whether he punish 
them ; they are surely unjust doers. ^^^ To God belongeth 
whatsoever is in heaven and on earth ; he spareth whom 
he pleaseth, and he punisheth whom he pleaseth; for 
God is merciful. ^^^ O true believers, devour not usury, 
doubling it two-fold ; but fear God, that ye may prosper ; 
'^^ and fear the fire which is prepared for the unbelievers ; 
^^^and obey God, and his apostle, that ye may obtain 
mercy. ^^^ And run with emulation to obtain remission 
from your Lord, and paradise, whose breadth equaleth 
the heavens and the earth, which is prepared for the 
godly; ^^* who give alms in prosperity and adversity; 
who bridle their anger, and forgive men : for God loveth 

who, having drawn ofFSOO men, told them God be turned unto them, &c.] This pas- 
that they were going to certain death, and sage was revealed when Mohammed re- 
advised them to return back with him ; ceived the wounds above-mentioned at 
but he could prevail on but a few, the the battle of Ohod, and cried out. How 
others being kept firm by the divine in- shall that people prosper who have stained 
fluence, as the following words intimate '. their prophet's face with blood, while he 
123 Bedr.'] See before, p. 47, 48. called them to their Lord ? The person 

125 Distinguished, &c.] The angels who wounded him was Otba, the son of 
who assisted the Mohammedans at Bedr, Abu Wakkas 2. 

rode, say the commentators, on black and 134 Forgive men.'] It is related of 

white horses, and had on their heads white Hasan, the son of Ali, that a slave, having 

and yellow sashes, the ends of which hung once thrown a dish on him boiling hot, as 

down between their shoulders. he sat at table, and fearing his master's 

126 As good tidings for you.] i. e. As resentment, fell immediately on his knees, 
an earnest of future success. and repeated these words, Paradise is for 

128 It is no business of thine whether those who bridle their anger. Hasan an- 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. Abulfed. ubi supra. 



III.] AL KORAN. 67 

the beneficent. ^^^ And who, after they have committed 
a crime, or dealt unjustly with their own souls, remember 
God, and ask pardon for their sins, (for who forgiveth sins 
except God?) and persevere notMn what they have done 
knowingly: ^^^ their reward shall be pardon from their 
Lord, and gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall remain 
therein for ever : and how excellent is the reward of those 
who labour ! ^^^ There have already been before you 
examples of punishment of infidels, therefore go through 
the earth, and behold what hath been the end of those 
who accuse God's apostles of imposture. ^^^ This book is 
a declaration unto men, and a direction, and an admoni- 
tion to the pious. ^^^ And be not dismayed, neither be 
ye grieved ; for ye shall be superior to the unbelievers, 
if ye believe. ^^^ If a wound hath happened unto you in 
war, a like wound hath already happened unto the un- 
believing people: and we cause these days of different 
success interchangeably to succeed each other among 
men ; that God may know those who believe, and may 
have martyrs from among you ; (God loveth not the 
workers of iniquity ;) ^'^^ and that God might prove those 
who believe, and destroy the infidels. ^^^ Did ye imagine 
that ye should enter paradise, when as yet God knew not 
those among you who fought strenuously in his cause : nor 
knew those who persevered with patience ? ^^^ Moreover 
ye did sometime wish for death before that ye met it ; 
but ye have now seen it, and ye looked on, but retreated 
from it. ^^* Mohammed is no more than an apostle : the 

swered, I am not angry. The slave pro- which was so ordered by God for a reason 
ceeded, And for those who forgive men. to be given elsewhere 2. 
I forgive you, said Hasan. The slave, 143 Ye wished for death, &c.] Several 
however, finished the verse, adding, For of Mohammed's followers, who were not 
God loveth the beneficent. Since it is so, present at Bedr, wished for an opportunity 
replied Hasan, I give you your liberty, of obtaining, in another action, the like 
and four hundred pieces of silver*. A honour as those had gained who fell mar- 
noble instance of moderation and gene- tyrs in that battle ; yet were discouraged 
rcsity. on seeing the superior numbers of the 

140 If a wound hath happened unto you idolaters in the expedition of Ohod. On 

in war.~\ That is, by your being worsted which occasion this passage was revealed ^. 

at Ohod. 144 Mohammed is no more than an apos- 

— /^ like wound hath happened to the tie, &c.] These words were revealed when 

infidels.'} When they were defeated at it was reported in the battle of Ohod, that 

Bedr. It is observable, that the number Mohammed was slain ; whereupon the 

of Mohammedans slain at Ohod, was equal idolaters cried out to his followers, Since 

to that of the idolaters slain at Bedr ; your prophet is slain, return to your an- 

1 V. D'Herheloty Bibl. Orient, Art. Hasan. 2 j^ not. ad cap. 8. ^ At Beiddwi, 

F 2 



68 A L KORAN. [chap. 

other apostles have already deceased before him : if he 
die therefore, or be slain, will ye turn back on your 
heels? But he who turneth back on his heels, will not 
hurt God at all ; and God will surely reward the thank- 
ful. ^^^ No soul can die unless by the permission of God, 
according to what is written in the book containing the 
determinations of things. And whoso chooseth the re- 
ward of this world, we will give him thereof: but whoso 
chooseth the reward of the world to come, we will give 
him thereof; and we will surely reward the thankful. 
^^^ How many prophets have encountered those who had 
many myriads of troops ! and yet they desponded not in 
their mind for what had befallen them in fighting for the 
religion of God ; and were not weakened, neither behaved 
themselves in an abject manner : God loveth those who 
persevere patiently. ^*^ And their speech was no other 
than that they said. Our Lord, forgive us our offences, 
and our transgressions in our business ; and confirm our 
feet, and help us against the unbelieving people. ^^^ And 
God gave them the reward of this world, and a glorious 
reward in the life to come ; for God loveth the well- 
doers. ^^^ O ye who believe, if ye obey the infidels, they 
will cause you to turn back on your heels, and ye will be 
turned back and perish: ^^^ but God is your Lord; and 
he is the best helper. ^^^ We will surely cast a dread 
into the hearts of the unbelievers, because they have 

dent religion, and to your friends ; if and pre-determined by God, and that 

Mohammed had been a prophet, he had those who fell in the battle, could not have 

not been slain. It is related that a Mos- avoidedtheir fate, had they stayed at home; 

lem, named Ans Ebn al Nadar, uncle to whereas they had now obtained the glo- 

Ans Ebn Malec, hearing these words, said rious advantage of dying martyrs for the 

aloud to his companions. My friends, faith. Of the Mohammedan doctrine of 

though Mohammed be slain, certainly absolute predestination I have spoken in 

Mohammed's Lord liveth, and dieth not; another place 2. 

therefore value not your lives, since the 149 If ye obey the infidels, they will 

prophet is dead, but fight for the cause for cause you to turn hacky &c.] This passage 

which he fought. Then he cried out, O was also occasioned by the endeavours of 

God, I am excused before thee, and ac- the Koreish to seduce the Mohammedans 

quitted in thy sight of what they say ; and to their old idolatry, as they fled in the 

drawing his sword, fought valiantly till he battle of Ohod. 

was killed '. 151 We will surely cast a dread into the 

145 No soul can die unless by the per- hearts of the unbelievers, &c.] To this 

mission of God, &c.] Mohammed, the more Mohammed attributed the sudden retreat 

effectually to still the murmurs of his party of Abu Sofian and his troops, without 

on their defeat, represents to them, that making any farther advantage of their 

the lime of every man's death is decreed success ; only giving Mohammed a chal- 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Prelim. Disc. § iv. 



III.] AL KORAN. 69 

associated with God that concerning which he sent them 
down no power : their dwelling shall be the fire of hell ; 
and the receptacle of the wicked shall be miserable. 
^^2 God had already made good unto you his promise, 
when ye destroyed them by his permission, until ye 
became faint-hearted, and disputed concerning the com- 
mand of the apostle, and were rebellious ; after God had 
shewn you what ye desired. ^^^ Some of you chose this 
present world, and others of you chose the world to come. 
Then he turned you to flight from before them, that he 
might make trial of you; (but he hath now pardoned 
you ; for God is indued with beneficence towards the 
faithful ;) ^^* when ye went up as ye fled, and looked not 
back on any ; while the apostle called you, in the utter- 
most part of you. ^^^ Therefore God rewarded you with 
affliction on affliction, that ye be not grieved hereafter 
for the spoils which ye fail of, nor for that which befalleth 
you ; for God is well acquainted with whatever ye do. 
Then he sent down upon you, after affliction, security ; 
a soft sleep, which fell on some part of you : but other 

lenge to meet them next year at Bedr, 163 Some of you chose this present world, 

which he accepted. Others say, that as and others of you chose the world to come.^ 

they were on their march home, they re- The former were they, who, tempted by 

pented they had not utterly extirpated the the spoil, quitted their post ; and the lat- 

Mohammedans, and began to think of ter, they who stood firm by their leader, 
going back to Medina for that purpose; 154 ^nd the apostle called you^ &c.] 

but were prevented by a sudden con- Crying aloud. Come hither to me, O ser- 

sternation, or panic fear, which fell on vants of God : I am the apostle of God ; 

them from God ^. he who returneth back shall enter para- 

152 God had already made good unto dise. But, notwithstanding all his en- 

you his promise^ &c.] i. e. In the begin- deavours to rally his men, he could not 

ning of the battle, when the Moslems had get above thirty of them about him. 
the advantage, putting the idolaters to 155 Therefore God rewarded you with 

flight, and killing several of them. affliction, &c.] i. e. God punished your 

— Till ye became faint-hearted, and avarice and disobedience, by suffering you 

disputed the command of the apostle, &c.] to be beaten by your enemies, and to be 

That is, till the bow-men, who were placed discouraged by the report of your pro- 

behind to prevent their being surrounded, phet's death; that ye might be inured to 

seeing the enemy fly, quitted their post, patience under adverse fortune, and not 

contrary to Mohammed's express orders, repine at any loss or disappointment for 

and dispersed themselves to seize the the future. 

plunder ; whereupon Khaled Ebn al — Then he sent down upon you a soft 
Walid, perceiving their disorder, fell on sleep, &c.] After the action, those who 
their rear with the horse which he com- had stood firm in the battle were refreshed, 
manded, and turned the fortune of the as they lay in the field, by falling into an 
day. It is related, that though Abda'llah agreeable sleep, so that the swords fell out 
Ebn Jobair, their captain, did all he could of their hands ; but those who had be- 
to make them keep their ranks, he had haved themselves ill were troubled in their 
not ten that stayed with him out of the minds, imagining they were now given 
whole fifty 2. over to destruction 3. 

^ Al Beiddwi. 2 idem, V. Abulfed. vit. Moh. p. 65, 66, and not. ib. 

^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalnddiu. 



70 AL KORAN. [chap. 

part were troubled by their own souls ; falsely thinking 
of God a foolish imagination, saying, Will any thing of 
the matter happen unto us ? Say, Verily the matter 
belongeth wholly unto God. They concealed in their 
minds what they declared not unto thee ; saying, If any 
thing of the matter had happened unto us, we had not 
been slain here. Answer, If ye had been in your houses, 
verily they would have gone forth to fight, whose 
slaughter was decreed, to the places where they died : 
and this came to pass, that God might try what was 
in your breasts, and might discern what was in your 
hearts; for God knoweth the innermost parts of the 
breasts of men. ^^^ Verily they among you who turned 
their backs on the day whereon the two armies met each 
other at Ohod, Satan caused them to slip, for some 
crime which they had committed : but now hath God 
forgiven them ; for God is gracious and merciful. '^^ O 
true believers, be not as they who believed not, and said 
of their brethren, when they had journeyed in the land, 
or had been at war. If they had been with us, those had 
not died, nor had these been slain : whereas what befel 
them was so ordained that God might make it matter of 
sighing in their hearts, God giveth life, and causeth to 
die : and God seeth that which ye do. ^^^ Moreover, if 
ye be slain, or die in defence of the religion of God ; 
verily pardon from God, and mercy, is better than what 
they heap together of worldly riches. ^^^ And if ye die, 
or be slain, verily unto God shall ye be gathered. /^^ And 
as to the mercy granted unto the disobedient from God, 
thou, O Mohammed ! hast been mild towards them ; but 
if thou hadst been severe, and hard-hearted, they had 
surely separated themselves from about thee. Therefore 
forgive them, and ask pardon for them : and consult them 
in the affair of war ; and, after thou hast deliberated, 

155 Will any tJdng of the matter happen us according to his promise ; or, as others 

unto us ?'] That is, Is there any appear- interpret the words, if we had taken the 

ance of success, or of the divine favour advice of Abdallah Ebn Obba Solul, and 

and assistance, which we have been pro- had kept within the town of Medina, our 

mised ^ ? companions had not lost their lives 2. 

— Sayingf&c.'] i.e. To themselves or 156 For some crime which they had 
to one another in private. committed.'] viz. For their covetous- 

— If any thing of the matter had hap- ness in quitting their post to seize the 
pened unto us, &c.] If God had assisted plunder. 



* Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin. ^ Idem. 



III.] A L K O R A N. 71 

trust in God ; for God loveth those who trust in him. 
^^^ If God help you, none shall conquer you; but if he 
desert you, who is it that will help you after him ? 
Therefore in God let the faithful trust. ^^^ It is not the 
part of a prophet to defraud; for he who defraudeth, 
shall bring with him what he hath defrauded any one of 
on the day of the resurrection. Then shall every soul be 
paid what he hath gained : and they shall not be treated 
unjustly. ^^^ Shall he therefore who followeth that which 
is well-pleasing unto God, be as he who bringeth on 
himself wrath from God, and whose receptacle is hell ? 
an evil journey shall it be thither. ^^^ There shall be 
degrees of rewards and punishments with God, for God 
seeth what they do. ^^^ Now hath God been gracious 
unto the believers when he raised up among them an 
apostle of their own nation, who should recite his signs 
unto them, and purify them, and teach them the book of 
the Koran and wisdom ; whereas they were before in 
manifest error. ^^^ After a misfortune hath befallen you 
at Ohod, (ye had already obtained two equal advantages,) 
do ye say. Whence cometh this ? Answer, This is from 
yourselves : for God is Almighty. ^^^ And what happened 
unto you, on the day whereon the two armies met, was 
certainly by the permission of God ; ^^^ and that he might 
know the faithful, and that he might know the ungodly. 

162 It is not the part of a prophet to tradition of Mohammed, whoever cheateth 

defraud, &c.] This passage was revealed, another, will on the day of judgment carry 

as some say, on the division of the spoil his fraudulent purchase publicly on his 

at Bedr ; when some of the soldiers sus- neck. 

pected Mohammed of having privately 165 Of their own nation.'] Some copies, 

taken a scarlet carpet, made of all silk, instead of min anfosihim, i. e. Of them- 

and very rich, which was missing i. selves, read min anfasihim, i. e. Of the 

Others suppose the archers, who occa- noblest among them ; for such was the 

sioned the loss of the battle of Ohod, left tribe of Koreish, of which Mohammed was 

their station because they imagined Mo- descended 3. 

hammed would not give them their share — ^nd wisdom.] i. e. The Sonna*. 

of the plunder ; because, as it is related, 166 Ye had already obtained two equal 

he once sent out a party, as an advanced advantages.] viz. In the battle of Bedr, 

guard, and in the mean time, attacking where ye slew seventy of the enemy, 

the enemy, took some spoils, which he equalling the number of those who lost 

divided among those who were with him their lives at Ohod, and also took as many 

in the action, and gave nothing to the prisoners 5. 

party who was absent on duty ^. — This is from yourselves.] It was 

— He who defraudeth shall bring with the consequence of your disobeying the 

him what he hath defrauded any one of on orders of the prophet, and abandoning 

the day of resurrection.] According to a your post for the sake of plunder. 

^ Al Beiddtvi, Jallalo'ddin. 2 ji Beiddwi. ^ Idem. * Idem. « See before, 47, 48. 



n AL KORAN. [chap. 

It was said unto them, Come, fight for the religion of 
God, or drive back the enemy : they answered, If we had 
known ye went out to fight, we had certainly followed 
you. They were on that day nearer unto unbelief, than 
they were to faith ; they spake with their mouths, what 
was not in their hearts : but God perfectly knew what 
they concealed ; ^^^ who said of their brethren, while 
themselves stayed at home, If they had obeyed us, they 
had not been slain. Say, Then keep back death from 
yourselves, if ye say truth. ^^^Thou shalt in no wise 
reckon those who have been slain At Ohod in the cause 
of God, dead ; nay, they are sustained alive with their 
Lord, ^^^ rejoicing for what God of his favour hath granted 
them ; and being glad for those, who, coming after them, 
have not as yet overtaken them ; because there shall no 1 
fear come on them, neither shall they be grieved. ^^^ Theyw 
are filled with joy for the favour which they have re-p- 
ceived from God, and his bounty ; and for that God suf-| 
fereth not the reward of the faithful to perish. ^^^ They 
who hearkened unto God and his apostle, after a 
wound had befallen them at Ohod, such of them as do 
good works, and fear God, shall have a great reward ; 

^ 68 If we had know}i ye went out to fight f Honiara al Asad, about eight miles from 
&c.] That is, if we had conceived the that town, notwithstanding several of his 
least hopes of success when ye marched men were so ill of their wounds that they 
out of Medina to encounter the infidels, were forced to be carried ; but a panic 
and had not known that ye went rather fear having seized the army of the Ko- 
to certain destruction, than to battle, we reish, they changed their resolution, and 
had gone with you. But this Mohammed continued their march home ; of which 
here tells them was only a feigned excuse ; Mohammed having received intelligence, 
the true reason of their staying behind he also went back to Medina : and, ac- 
being their want of faith and firmness in cording to some commentators, the Koran 
their religion ^, here approves the faith and courage of 

170 Alive.l See before, p. 24. those who attended the prophet on this 

171 Being glad for those, who, coming occasion. Others say, the persons in- 
after them, have not as yet overtaken tended in this passage were those who 
them.'] i. e. Rejoicing also for their sakes, went with Mohammed the next year, to 
who are destined to suffer martyrdom, but meet Abu Sofian and the Koreish, accord- 
have not as yet attained it 2. ing to their challenge at Bedr^, where 

173 They who hearkened to God and they waited some time for the enemy, and 

his apostle, &c.] The commentators differ then returned home ; for the Koreish, 

a little as to the occasion of this passage, though they set out from Mecca, yet never 

When news was brought to Mohammed, came so far as the place of appointment, 

after the battle of Ohod, that the enemy, their hearts failing them on their march ; 

repenting of their retreat, were returning which Mohammed attributed to their be- 

towards Medina, he called about him those ing struck with a terror from God *. This 

who had stood by him in the battle, and expedition the Arabian historians call the 

marched out to meet the enemy as far as second or lesser expedition of Bedr. 

» Al BeiddwL 2 y. Revel, vi. 11. 3 See before, p. 68, note 151. * Al 

Beiddwi, 



III.] AL KORAN. 73 

*^^ unto whom certain men said, Verily the men of Mecca 
have already gathered forces against yon, be ye therefore 
afraid of them ; but this increased their faith, and they 
said, God is our support, and the most excellent patron. 
175 Wherefore they returned with favour from God, and 
advantage ; no evil befel them : and they followed what 
was well pleasing unto God ; for God is endowed with 
great liberality. ^^^ Verily that devil would cause you to 
fear his friends : but be ye not afraid of them ; but fear 
me, if ye be true believers. ^^'^ They shall not grieve thee, 
who emulously hasten unto infidelity ; for they shall never 
hurt God at all. God will not give them a part in the 
next life, and they shall suflfer a great punishment. 
*^^ Surely those who purchase infidelity with faith, shall 
by no means hurt God at all, but they shall suffer a 
grievous punishment. ^^^And let not the unbelievers 
think, because we grant them lives long and prosperous, 
that it is better for their souls : we grant them long and 
prosperous lives only that their iniquity may be increased ; 
and they shall suffer an ignominious punishment. *^^GoD 
is not disposed to leave the faithful in the condition 
which ye are now in, until he sever the wicked from the 
good ; nor is God disposed to make you acquainted with 
what is a hidden secret ; but God chooseth such of his 
apostles as he pleaseth, to reveal his mind unto ; believe 

174 Unto whom certain men said, Verily them went with him. And accordingly 

those of Mecca have already gathered forces he set out with seventy horsemen, every 

against you, &c.] The persons who thus one of them crying out, Hashna Allah, 

endeavoured to discourage the Moham- i.e. God is our support^. 

medans, were, according to one tradition, 175 Wherefore they returned with ad- 

some of the tribe of Abd Kais, who, going vantage.'] While they stayed at Bedr, ex- 

to Medina, were bribed by Abu Sofian pecting the enemy, they opened a kind of 

with a camel's load of dry raisins ; and, fair there, and traded to very considerable 

according to another tradition, it was profit 2. 

Noaim Ebn Masud al Ashjai, who was 176 T/m^6?em7.] Meaning either Noaim 

also bribed with a she-camel ten months or Abu Sofian himself, 

gone with young (a valuable present in 180 God will not leave the faithful in 

Arabia). This Noaim, they say, finding the condition ye are now in, &c.] That 

Mohammed and his men preparing for the is, he will not suffer the good and sincere 

expedition, told them that Abu Sofian, to among you, to continue indiscriminately 

spare them the pains of coming so far as mixed with the wicked and hypocritical. 

Bedr, would seek them in their own — Nor is God disposed to acquaint 

houses, and that none of them could pos- you with what is a hidden secret, but God 

sibly escape, otherwise than by timely chooseth such of his apostles as he pleaseth.] 

flight. Upon which Mohammed, seeing This passage was revealed on the rebel- 

his followers a little dispirited, swore that lious and disobedient Mohammedans tell- 

he would go himself, though not one of ing Mohammed, that if he was a true 

^ J I Beiddivi, Jallalo'ddin, ^ Al Beiddwi. 



74 A L KORAN. [chap. 

therefore in God, and his apostles : and if ye believe, and 
fear God, ye shall receive a great reward. ^^^ And let 
not those who are covetous of what God of his bounty 
hath granted them, imagine that their avarice is better 
for them : nay, rather it is worse for them. That which 
they have covetously reserved shall be bound as a collar 
about their neck, on the day of the resurrection : unto 
God belongeth the inheritance of heaven and earth ; and 
God is well acquainted with what ye do. ^^^ God hath 
already heard the saying of those who said, Verily God 
is poor, and we are rich : we will surely write down what 
they have said, and the slaughter which they have made 
of the prophets without a cause ; and we will say unto 
them. Taste ye the pain of burning. ^^^ This shall they 
suffer for the evil which their hands have sent before 
them, and because God is not unjust towards mankind : 
^^^ w^ho also say. Surely God hath commanded us, that 
we should not give credit to any apostle, until one should 
come unto us with a sacrifice, which should be consumed 

prophet, he could easily distinguish those peculiar proof of the mission of all the 

who sincerely believed from the dissem- prophets sent to them, that they could, 

biers ^ by their prayers, bring down fire from 

181 That which they have covetously heaven to consume the sacrifice, and there- 
reserved shall be bound as a collar about fore they expected Mohammed should do 
their neck, &c.] Mohammed is said to the like. And some Mohammedan doc- 
have declared, that whoever pays not his tors agree that God appointed this miracle 
legal contribution of alms duly, shall have as the test of all their prophets, except 
a serpent twisted about his neck at the only Jesus and Mohammed ^ ; though 
resurrection 2. others say any other miracle was a proof 

182 God hath heard the saying of those full as sufficient as the bringing down fire 
who said f God is poor, and we are rich. ~\ from heaven ^. 

It is related that Mohammed, writing to The Arabian Jews seem to have drawn 

the Jews of the tribe of Kainoka to invite a general consequence from some pauicu- 

them to Islam, and exhorting them, among lar instances of this miracle in the Old 

other things, in the words of the Koran 3, Testament 7. And the Jews, at this day, 

to knd unto God on good usury : Phineas say, that first, the fire which fell from 

Ebn Azura on hearing that expression, heaven on the altar of the tabernacle 8, 

said, Surely God is poor, since they ask after the consecration of Aaron and his 

to borrow for him. Whereupon Abu Beer, sons, and afterwards that which descended 

who was the bearer of that letter, struck on the altar of Solomon's temple, at the 

him on the face, and told him, that if it dedication of that structure ^, was fed and 

had not been for the truce between them, constantly maintained there by the priests 

he would have struck off his head ; and on both day and night, without being suf- 

Phineas's complaining to Mohammed of fered once to go out ; till it was extin- 

Abu Beer's ill usage, this passage was re- guished, as some think, in the reign of 

vealed *. Manasses^^; but according to the more 

184 Consiimed by fire.l The Jews, say received opinion, when the temple was 

the commentators, insisted that it was a destroyed by the Chaldeans. Several 

1 Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem, Jallalo'ddin. » ch. ii. p. 43. * At Beiddwi. 

« JallaWddin. ^ Al Beiddwi, ^ Lev. ix. 24. 1 Chron. xxi. 26. 2 Chron. 

vii. 1. 1 Kings xviii. 38. » Levit. ix. 24. » 2 Chron. vii. 1. 10 Talmud. 

Zebachim, c, 6. 



III.] AL KORAN. 75 

by fire. Say, Apostles have already come unto you be- 
fore me, with plain proofs, and with the miracle which ye 
mention : why therefore have ye slain them, if ye speak 
truth ? ^^^ If they accuse thee of imposture, the apostles 
before thee have also been accounted impostors, who 
brought evident demonstrations, and the scriptures, and 
the book which enlighteneth the understanding. ^^^ Every 
soul shall taste of death, and ye shall have your rewards 
on the day of resurrection ; and he who shall be far re- 
moved from hell-fire, and shall be admitted into paradise, 
shall be happy : but the present life is only a deceitful 
provision. ^^^ Ye shall surely be proved in your posses- 
sions, and in your persons ; and ye shall hear from those 
unto whom the scripture was delivered before you, and 
from the idolaters, much hurt : but if ye be patient, and 
fear God, this is a matter that is absolutely determined. 
^^^ And when God accepted the covenant of those to whom 
the book of the law was given, saying. Ye shall surely pub- 
lish it unto mankind, ye shall not hide it : yet they threw 
it behind their backs, and sold it for a small price ; but 
w^oeful is the price for which they have sold it. ^^^ Think 
not that they who rejoice at what they have done, and ex- 
pect to be praised for what they have not done ; ^^^ think 
not, O prophet, that they shall escape from punishment, 
for they shall suffer a painful punishment ; ^^^ and unto 
God belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth : God 
is almighty. ^^^ Now in the creation of heaven and earth, 

Christians ^ have given credit to this as- bridle of fire on the day of resurrec- 

sertion of the Jews, with what reason I tion. 

shall not here inquire ; and the Jews, in 189 fVho rejoice at what\they have done, 

consequence of this notion, might pro- and expect to be praised for what they 

bably expect, that a prophet, who came to have not done.~\ i. e. Who think they have 

restore God's true religion, should rekin- done a commendable deed in concealing 

die for them this heavenly fire, which they and dissembling the testimonies in the 

have not been favoured with since the Pentateuch concerning Mohammed, and 

Babylonish captivity. in disobeying God's commands to the con- 

184 Apostles have already come unto trary. It is said, that Mohammed, once 

you before me.~\ Among these the com- asking some Jews concerning a passage 

mentators reckon Zacharias and John the in their law, they gave him an answer 

Baptist. very different from the truth, and were 

188 Woeful is the price for which they mightily pleased that they had, as they 

have sold it. '\ i.e. Dearly shall they pay thought, deceived him. Others, however, 

hereafter for taking bribes to stifle the think this passage relates to some pre- 

truth. Whoever concealeth the know- tended Mohammedans, who rejoiced in 

ledge which God has given him, says their hypocrisy, and expected to be com- 

Mohammed, God shall put on him a mended for their wickedness 2, 

^ See Prideauxs Connect, part i. book iii. p. 158. ' Al Beiddwi. 



76 A L KORAN. [chap. 

and the vicissitude of night and day, are signs unto those 
who are indued with understanding ; who remember God 
standing, and sitting, and lying on their sides : and medi- 
tate on the creation of heaven and earth, saying, O Lord, 
thou hast not created this in vain ; far be it from thee : 
therefore deliver us from the torment of hell-fire. ^^^ O 
Lord, surely whom thou shalt throw into the fire, thou 
wilt also cover with shame : nor shall the ungodly have 
any to help them. '^* O Lord, we have heard a preacher 
inviting us to the faith, and saying. Believe in your 
Lord : and we believed. O Lord, forgive us therefore 
our sins, and expiate our evil deeds from us, and make 
us to die with the righteous. ^^^ O Lord, give us also the 
reward which thou hast promised by thy apostles ; and 
cover us not with shame on the day of resurrection ; for 
thou art not contrary to the promise. ^^^ Their Lord 
therefore answereth them, saying, I will not suffer the 
work of him among you who worketh to be lost, whether 
he be male or female : the one of you is from the other. 
They therefore who have left their country, and have 
been turned out of their houses, and have suffered for my 
sake, and have been slain in battle ; verily I will expiate 
their evil deeds from them, and I will surely bring them 
into gardens watered by rivers ; a reward from God : and 
with God is the most excellent reward. ^^^ Let not the 
prosperous dealing of the unbelievers in the land deceive 
thee : it is but a slender provision ; and then their recep- 
tacle shall be hell : an unhappy couch shall it be. ^^^ But 
they who fear their Lord shall have gardens through 
which rivers flow, they shall continue therein for ever: 

192 }Vho remember God standings and often made mention of the men who fled 

sitting, and lying on their sides.^ viz. At their country for the sake of their faith, 

all times and in all postures. Al Beidawi but took no notice of the women *. 
mentions a saying of Mohammed to one 197 Let not the prosperous dealing, Sicl 

Imran Ebn Hosein, to this purpose ; Pray The original word properly signifies, suc- 

standing, if thou art able ; if not, sitting ; cess in the affairs of life, and particularly 

and, if thou canst not sit up, then as thou in trade. It is said that some of Moham- 

liest along. Al Shafe'i directs that the med's followers, observing the prosperity 

sick should pray lying on their right side, the idolaters enjoyed, expressed their re- 

194 We have heard a preacher, &c.] gret that those enemies of God should live 

viz. Mohammed with the Koran. in such ease and plenty, while themselves 

196 Whether he be male or female.^ were perishing for hunger and fatigue; 

These words were added, as some relate, whereupon this passage was revealed -. 
on 0mm Salma, one of the prophet's wives, — A slender provision.^ Because of 

telling him that she had observed God its sliort continuance. 

^ Al Beidawi. 2 Jdem. 



IV.] AL KORAN. 77 

this is the gift of God, for what is with God shall be 
better for the righteous than short-lived worldly pros- 
perity. ^^^ There are some of those who have received 
the scriptures, who believe in God, and that which hath 
been sent down unto you, and that which hath been 
sent down to them, submitting themselves unto God ; 
they sell not the signs of God for a small price: these 
shall have their reward with their Lord ; for God is 
swift in taking an account. ^^^ O true believers, be 
patient, and strive to excel in patience, and be constant- 
minded, and fear God, that ye may be happy. 

199 There are some of tJiose who have him the news of the death of Ashama, 

received the scriptures, who believe in God, king of Ethiopia, who had embraced the 

&c.] The persons here meant, some will Mohammedan religion some years before *, 

have to be Abdallah Ebn Salam ^ and his prayed for the soul of the departed ; at 

companions ; others suppose they were which some of his hypocritical followers 

forty Arabs of Najran, or thirty-two Ethio- were displeased, and wondered that he 

pians, or else eight Greeks, who were should pray for a Christian proselyte whom 

converted from Christianity to Moham- he had never seen ^. 

medism ; and others say this passage was — God is swift in taking an account.'] 

revealed in the ninth year of the Hejra, See before, p. 31, and the Prelim. Disc, 

when Mohammed, on Gabriel's bringing § iv. 

1 See before, p. 59. ^ See the Prelim. Disc. p. 53. ^ ji Beiddwi. 



CHAPTER IV. 

INTITLED, women; REVEALED AT MEDINA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ O MEN ! fear your Lord, who hath created you out of 
one man, and out of him created his wife, and from them 
two hath multiplied many men, and women : and fear 
God by whom ye beseech one another ; and respect 
women who have borne you, for God is watching over 
you. ^ And give the orphans, when they come to age, 
their substance; and render them not in exchange bad 
for good : and devour not their substance by adding it to 

Title, Women.'] This title was given - — Women.] Literally, the wombs. 

to this chapter, because it chiefly treats of 2 Render them not in exchange bad 

matters relating to women ; as marriages, for good.] That is, take not what ye 

divorces, dower, prohibited degrees, &c. find of value among their effects to your 

1 By whom ye beseech one another.] own use, and give them worse in its 

Saying, I beseech thee, for God's sake *. stead. 

^ ' /ll Beiddwi. 



78 AL KORAN. [chap. 

your own substance : for this is a great sin. ^ And if ye 
fear that ye shall not act with equity towards orphans of 
the female sex, take in marriage of such other women 
as |3lease you, two, or three, or four, and not more. Bui 
if ye fear that ye cannot act equitably towards so many7 
marry one only, or the slaves which ye shall have ac- 
quired. This will be easier, that ye swerve not from 
righteousness. And give women their dowry freely : but 
if they voluntarily remit unto you any part of it, enjoy it 
with satisfaction and advantage. ^ And give not unto 
those who are weak of understanding, the substance which 
God hath appointed you to preserve for them ; but main- 
tain them, thereout, and clothe them, and speak kindly 
unto them. ^ And examine the orphans until they attain 
the age of marriage : but if ye perceive they are able to 
manaofe their affairs well, deliver their substance unto 
them : and waste it not extravagantly, or hastily, because 
they grow up. Let him who is rich abstain entirely from 
the orphans' estates ; and let him who is poor take thereof 
according to what shall be reasonable. And when ye 

3 And if ye fear that ye cannot act with cation was a crime as well as wronging of 

equity towards orphans of the female sex, orphans, they ought to avoid that also, by 

&c.] The commentators understand this marrying according to their abilities 2. 
passage differently. The true meaning — Or the slaves which ye shall have 

seems to be, as it is here translated ; acquired.'] For slaves requiring not so 

Mohammed advising his followers, that if large a dower, nor so good and plentiful a 

they found they should wrong the female maintenance as free women, a man might 

orphans under their care, either by marry- keep several of the former as easily as one 

ing them against their inclinations, for of the latter. 

the sake of their riches or beauty, or by 5 Examine the orphans, &c.] i. e. Try 

not using or maintaining them so well as whether they be well grounded in the 

they ought, by reason of their having al- principles of religion, and have sufficient 

ready several wives, they should rather prudence for the management of their 

choose to marry other women, to avoid all affairs. Under this expression is also 

occasion of sin^. Others say, that when comprehended the duty of a curator's in- 

this passage was revealed, many of the structiug his pupils in those respects. 
Arabians, fearing trouble and temptation, — Until they attain the age of mar- 

refused to take upon them the charge of riageJ] Or age of maturity, which is 

orphans, and yet multiplied wives to a generally reckoned to be fifteen, a decision 

great excess, and used them ill ; or, as supported by a tradition of their prophet ; 

others write, gave themselves up to forni- though Abu Hanifah thinks eighteen the 

cation ; which occasioned the passage, proper age ^. 

And, according to these, its meaning must — Because they grow up,] i. e. Because 

be either, that if they feared they could they will shortly be of age, to receive 

not act justly towards orphans, they had as what belongs to them, 
great reason to apprehend they could not — According to what shall he reasona- 

deal equitably with so many wives, and ble.] That is, no more than what shall 

therefore are commanded to marry but a make sufficient recompense for the trouble 

certain number ; or else, that, since forni- of their education. 

1 Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem, JallaWddin. ^ Al Beiddwi. 



IV.] AL KORAN. 79 

deliver their substance unto them, call witnesses thereof, 
in their presence : God taketh sufficient account of your 
actions. ^ Men ought to have a part of what their parents 
and kindred leave behind them when they die : and 
women also ought to have a part of what their parents 
and kindred leave, whether it be little, or whether it be 
much ; a determinate part is due to them. ^ And when 
they who are of kin are present at the dividing of what is 
left, and also the orphans and the poor ; distribute unto 
them some part thereof; and if the estate be too small, 
at least speak comfortably unto them. ^ And let those 
fear to abuse orphans, who, if they leave behind them a 
weak offspring, are solicitous for them : let them there- 
fore fear God, and speak that which is convenient. 
^ Surely they who devour the possessions of orphans 
unjustly, shall swallow down nothing but fire into their 
bellies, and shall broil in raging flames. ^^ God hath thus 
commanded you concerning your children. A male shall 
have as much as the share of two females : but if they be 
females only, and above two in number, they shall have 
two-third parts of what the deceased shall leave ; and if 
there be but one, she shall have the half And the 
parents of the deceased shall have each of them a sixth 
part of what he shall leave, if he have a child : but if he 
have no child, and his parents be his heirs, then his 
mother shall have the third part. And if he have 

6 Women ought to have a part of what there be two, and no more, they will have 

their parents and kindred leave.~\ This the same share. And the remaining third 

law was given to abolish a custom of the part, or the remaining moiety of the es- 

pagan Arabs, who suffered not women or tate, which is not here expressly disposed 

children to have any part of their bus- of, if the deceased leaves behind him no 

band's or father's inheritance; on pretence son, nor a father, goes to the public trea- 

that they only should inherit who were sury. It must be observed that Mr. Selden 

able to go to war K is certainly mistaken, when, in explaining 

8 Let them speak that which is conve- this passage of the Koran, he says, that, 

nient.'\\\z. Either to comfort the children, where there is a son and an only daugh- 

or to assure the dying father they shall be ter, each of them will have a moiety ^ ; for 

justly dealt by 2. the daughter can have a moiety but in one 

10 A male shall have as much as the case only, that is, where there is no son ; 

share of two females.] This is the general for if there be a son, she can have but a 

rule to be followed in the distribution of third, according to the above-mentioned 

the estate of the deceased, as may be ob- rule, 
served in the following cases ^. — His mother shall have the third part.] 

— If there be above two in number^ they And his father consequently the other 

shall have two-third pai'ts, &c.] Or if two-thirds ^, 

* Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ V. Prelim. Disc. § vi. * Selden^ de Success, 

ad leges Ebraeor. 1. i. c. i. ^ Al Beiddwi, 



80 AL KORAN. [chap. 

brethren, his mother shall have a sixth part, after the 
legacies which he shall bequeath, and his debts be paid. 
Ye know not whether your parents or your children be 
of greater use unto you. This is an ordinance from God, 
and God is knowing and wise. ^^ Moreover you may 
claim half of what your wives shall leave, if they have no 
issue ; but if they have issue, then ye shall have the 
fourth part of what they shall leave, after the legacies 
which they shall bequeath, and the debts be paid. They 
also shall have the fourth part of what ye shall leave, in 
case ye have no issue ; but if ye have issue, then they 
shall have the eighth part of what ye shall leave, after 
the legacies which ye shall bequeath, and your debts be 
paid. And if a man or woman's substance be inherited 
by a distant relation, and he or she have a brother or 
sister : each of them two shall have a sixth part of the 
estate. But if there be more than this number, they 
shall be equal sharers in a third part, after payment of 
the legacies which shall be bequeathed, and the debts 
without prejudice to the heirs. This is an ordinance 
from God ; and God is knowing and gracious. ^^ These 
are the statutes of God. And whoso obeyeth God and 
his apostle, God shall lead him into gardens wherein 
rivers flow, they shall continue therein for ever ; and this 
shall be great happiness. ^^ But whoso disobeyeth God, 
and his apostle, and transgresseth his statutes, God shall 
cast him into hell-fire ; he shall remain therein for ever, 
and he shall suffer a shameful punishment. ^* If any of 
your women be guilty of whoredom, produce four wit- 
nesses from among you against them, and if they bear 
witness against them, imprison them in separate apart- 
ments until death release them, or God affordeth them a 

10 The legacies.'] By legacies in this &c.] Here, and in the next case, the brother 
and the following passages are chiefly and sister are made equal sharers, which 
meant those bequeathed to pious uses ; for is an exception to the general rule, of 
the Mohammedans approve not of a per- giving a male twice as much as a female ; 
son's giving away his substance from his and the reason is said to be, because of the 
family and near relations on any other smallness of the portions, which deserves 
account. not such exactness of distribution ; for, in 

11 RelationJ] For this may happen by other cases, the rule holds between brother 
contract, or on some other special occa - and sister, as well as other relations ^ 
^ion. 14 Whoredom.'] Either adultery or 

— Each of them shall have a sixth part, fornication. 



' See this chap, near the end. 
1 



IV.] 



AL KORAN, 



81 



way to escape. ^^ And if two of you commit the like 
wickedness, punish them both : but if they repent 
and amend, let them both alone : for God is easy to 
be reconciled and merciful. ^^ Verily repentance will 
be accepted with God, from those who do evil igno- 
rantly, and then repent speedily ; unto them will 
God be turned : for God is knowing and wise. ^^ But 
no repentance shall be accef)ted from those who do evil 
until the time when death presenteth itself unto one of 
them, and he saith, Verily I repent now ; nor unto those 
who die unbelievers : for them have we prepared a griev- 
ous punishment. ^^ O true believers, it is not lawful for 
you to be heirs of women against their will, nor to hinde?^^ 
t'B^^^frpm. marrying others, that ye may take away part 
oTwfiat ye have given^them in dqwry ; unless they have 
been guilty of a manifest crime: but converse kindly 
And, IT ye hate them, it may happen that 



wUgJnem 

— Imprison them — till death release 
them, &c.] Their punishment in the be- 
ginning of Mohammedisro, was to be 
inimured till they died; but afterwards 
this cruel doom was mitigated, and they 
might avoid it by undergoing the punish- 
ment ordained in its stead by the Sonna ; 
according to which the maidens are to be 
scourged with a hundred stripes, and to 
be banished for a full year ; and the mar- 
ried women to be stoned ^ 

15 And if two of you commit the like 
wickedness, &c.] The commentators are 
not agreed whether the text speaks of 
fornication or sodomy. Al Zamakhshari, 
and from him, al Beidawi, suppose the 
former is here meant : but Jallalo'ddin is 
of opinion that the crime intended in this 
passage must be committed between two 
men, and not between a man and a wo- 
man ; not only because the pronouns are 
in the masculine gender, but because both 
are ordered to suffer the same slight 
punishment, and are both allowed the 
same repentance and indulgence ; and 
especially, for that a different and much 
severer punishment is appointed for the 
women in the preceding words. Abu'l 
Kasem Hebatallah takes simple fornication 
to be the crime intended, and that this 
passage is abrogated by that of the 24th 
chapter, where the man and the woman, 
who shall be guilty of fornication, are 



ordered to be scourged with a hundred 
stripes each. 

— Punish them both.'] The original is. 
Do them some hurt or damage : by which 
some understand that they are only to 
reproach them in public 2, or strike them 
on the head with their slippers ^ (a great 
indignity in the east) ; though some ima- 
gine they may be scourged*. 

}8 It is not lawful for you to be heirs 
of women against their will.l It was cus- 
tomary among the pagan Arabs, when a 
man died, for one of his relations to claim 
a right to his widow, which he asserted by 
throwing his garment over her ; and then 
he either married her himself, if he thought 
fit, on assigning her the same dower that 
her former husband had done, or kept her 
dower and married her to another ; or 
else refused to let her marry, unless she 
redeemed herself by quitting what she 
might claim of her husband's goods ^ This 
unjust custom is abolished by this passage. 

— Nor to hinder them from marrying 
others,] Some say these words are di- 
rected to husbands who used to imprison 
their wives without any just cause, and 
out of covetousness, merely to make them 
relinquish their dower or their inherit- 
ance^. 

— A manifest crime.] Such as dis- 
obedience, ill behaviour, immodesty, and 
the like 7. 



^ Jallalo'ddin. 
3 Jallalo'ddin, Al Beiddwi. 
"^ Idem. 



Idem. Yahya, AbuH Kdsem Hebatallah, Al Beiddwi. 
* Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. 



VOL. L 



G 



82 A L KORAN. [chap. 

ye may hate a thing wherein God hath placed much good. 
If ye be desirous to exchange a wife for another wife, and 
ye have already given one of them a talent, take not away 
any thing therefrom : will ye take it by slandering her, 
and doing her manifest injustice? ^^And how can ye 
take it, since the one of you hath gone in unto the other, 
and they have received from you a firm covenant? 
^^ Marry not women whom your fathers have had to wife ; 
(except what is already past ;) for this is uncleanness, and 
an abomination, and an evil way. ^^ Ye are forbidden to 
marry your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, 
and your aunts, both on the father's and on the mother's 
side, and your brother's daughters, and your sister's daugh- 
ters, and your mother's who have given you suck, and 
your foster-sisters, and your wives' mothers, and your 
daughters-in-law which are under your tuition, born of 
your wives unto whom ye have gone in, (but, if ye have 
not gone in unto them, it shall be no sin in you to marry 
them,) and the wives of your sons who proceed out of 
your loins, and ye are also forbidden to take to wife two 
sisters, except what is already past : for God is gracious 
and merciful. [^V.] ^^ Ye are also forbidden to take to 
wife free women who are married, except those women 
whom your right hand shall possess as slaves. This is 
ordained you from God. Whatever is beside this, is 
allowed you ; that ye may, with your substance provide 
wives for yourselves, acting that which is right and avoid- 
ing whoredom. ^^ And, for the advantage which ye re- 
ceive from them, give them their reward, according to 
what is ordained : but it shall be no crime in you to make 
any other agreement among yourselves, after the ordi- 

18 If ye he desirous to exchange a wife less she be legally parted from her hus- 

for another wife, &c.] That is, by di- band by divorce ; but it is lawful to marry 

vorcing one, and marrying another. those who are slaves or taken in war, 

— A talent.'] i. e. Ever so large a dower, after they shall have gone through the 

See also c. 2. proper purifications, though their husbands 

21 Ye are forbidden to take to wife two be living. Yet, according to the decision 
sisters.'] The same was also prohibited of Abu Hanifah, it is not lawful to marry 
by the Levitical law ^ such whose husbands shall be taken, or 

22 Ye are forbidden to take to wife free in actual slavery with them 2. 

women who are married, except those wo- 23 Give them their reward.'^ That is, 

men whom ye shall possess as slaves.] Ac- assign them their dower, 

cording to this passage, it is not lawful to — It shall be no crime in you to make 

marry a free woman that is already mar- any other agreement among yourselves, &c.] 

ried, be she a Mohammedan or not, un- That is, either to increase the dower, or 

1 Levit. xviii. 18, ^ Al Beiddwi. 



o 



IV.] AL KORAN. 8( 

nance shall be complied with ; for God is knowing and 
wise. ^* Whoso among you hath not means sufficient 
that he may marry free women, who are believers, let 
him marry with such of your maid-servants whom your 
right hands possess as are true believers ; for God w^ell 
knoweth your faith. Ye are the one from the other : 
therefore marry them with the consent of their masters ; 
and give them their dower according to justice ; such as 
are modest, not guilty of whoredom, nor entertaining 
lovers. And, when they are married, if they be guilty of 
adultery, they shall suffer half the punishment which is 
appointed for the free women. This is allowed unto him 
among you, who feareth to sin by marrying free women ; 
but, if ye abstain from marrying slaves, it will be better 
for you : God is gracious and merciful. ^^ God is willing 
to declare these things unto you, and to direct you ac- 
cording to the ordinances of those who have gone before 
you, and to be merciful unto you. God is knowing and 
wise. ^^ God desireth to be gracious unto you ; but they 
who follow their lusts, desire that ye should turn aside 
from the truth with great deviation. ^'^ Gojoja minded to 
maJke^JuB^ for man was created 

weak. ^^ O true believers ! consume not your wealth 
among yourselves in vanity; unless there be merchan- 
dising among you by mutual consent : nehhe£ sl^a^^^^ 
selves; for God is merciful towards you : ^^ and whoever 

to abate some part, or even the whole Magians, who formerly were frequently 

of it. guilty of incestuous marriages, their pro- 

24 Ye are one from the other,'] Being phet Zerdusht having allowed them to 
alike descended from Adam, and of the take their mothers and sisters to wife ; and 
same faiths also to the Jews, who likewise might 

— The slaves f if guilty of adultery f shall marry within some of the degrees here 

suffer half the punishment of the free wo- prohibited *. 

men.'] The reason of this is, because they 27 For man was created weak.] Being 

are not presumed to have had so good unable to refrain from women, and too 

education. A slave, therefore, in such subject to be led away by carnal appe- 

case, is to have fifty stripes, and to be tites ^ 

banished for half a year ; but she shall 28 Consume not your wealth in vanity.] 

not be stoned, because it is a punishment That is, employ it not in things prohibited 

which cannot be inflicted by halves ^. by God ; such as usury, extortion, rapine, 

25 Of those who have been before you.] gaming, and the like ^. 

viz. Of the prophets, and other holy and — Neither slay yourselves.] Literally, 

prudent men of former ages^ slay not your souls; i. e. says Jallalo'ddin, 

26 They who follow their lustSy &c.] by committing mortal sins, or such crimes 
Some commentators suppose that these as will destroy them. Others, however, 
words have a particular regard to the are of opinion, that self-murder, which 

' Al Beiddwi. 2 Idem. ^ Jallalo' ddin, Al Beiddwi. ^ Al Beiddwi, 

^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin, ^ Idem. 

G 2 



84 



AL KORAN. 



[chap, 



doth this maliciously and wickedly, he will surely cast him 
to be broiled in hell-fire ; and this is easy with God. ^^ If 
ye turn aside from the grievous sins of those which ye are 
forbidden to commit, we will cleanse you from your 
smaller faults ; and will introduce you into paradise with 
an honourable entry. ^^ Covet not that which God hath 
bestowed on some of you preferably to others. Unto the 
men shall be given a portion of what they shall have 
gained ; and unto the women shall be given a portion of 
what they shall have gained : therefore ask God of his 
bounty ; for God is omniscient. ^^ We have appointed 
unto every one kindred, to inherit part of what their 
parents and relations shall leave at their deaths. And 
unto those with whom your right hands have made an 
alliance, give their part of the inheritance ; for God is 
witness of all things. ^^ Men shall have the pre-emi- 
nence above women, because of those advantages wherein 
God hath caused the one of them to excel the other, and 



the Gentile Indians did, and still do, often 
practise in honour of their idols, or else 
the taking away the life of any true be- 
liever, is hereby forbidden ^. 

29 Maliciously.'] See Wisdom xvi. 14. 
in the vulgate. 

30 Grievous sins.'\ These sins al Bei- 
dawi, from a tradition of Mohammed, 
reckons to be seven, (equalling in number 
the sins called deadly by Christians;) that 
is to say, idolatry, murder, falsely accusing 
modest women of adultery, wasting the 
substance of orphans, taking of usury, de- 
sertion in a religious expedition, and dis- 
obedience to parents. But Ebn Abbas 
says, they amount to near seven hundred; 
and others suppose that idolatry only, of 
different kinds, in worshipping idols, or 
any creature, either in opposition to, or 
jointly with, the true God, is here in- 
tended ; that sin being generally esteemed 
by Mohammedans, and, in a few lines 
after declared by the Koran itself, to be 
the only one which God will not par- 
don 2. 

31 Covet not that which God hath he- 
stowed on some of you preferably to others.~\ 
Such as honour, power, riches, and other 
worldly advantages. Some, however, un- 
derstand this of the distribution of inhe- 
ritances according to the preceding deter- 



minations, whereby some have a larger 
share than others ^. 

— Unto the men shall he given a por- 
tion of what they shall have gained^ &c.] 
That is, they shall be blessed according to 
their deserts ; and ought, therefore, in- 
stead of displeasing God, by envying of 
others, to endeavour to merit his favour 
by good works, and to apply to him by 
prayer. 

32 Unto those with whom ye have made 
an alliance, give their part, &c.] A pre- 
cept conformable to an old custom of the 
Arabs, that, where persons mutually en- 
tered into a strict friendship or confe- 
deracy, the surviving friend should have 
a sixth part of the deceased's estate. But 
this was afterwards abrogated, according 
to Jallalo'ddin and al Zamakhshari, at 
least as to infidels. The passage may 
likewise be understood of a private con- 
tract, whereby the survivor is to inherit a 
certain part of the substance of him that 
dies first*. 

33 Because of those advantages where- 
in God hath caused the one to excel the 
other.~\ Such as superior understanding 
and strength, and the other privileges of 
the male sex, which enjoys the dignities 
in church and state, goes to war in de- 
fence of God's true religion, and claims a 



* A I Beiddwi, 
* V. Al Beiddwi. 



2 Idem. See before, chap, 2. 



3 Idem, Jallalo'ddin. 



IV.] AL KORAN. 85 

for that which they expend of their substance in main- 
taining their wives. The honest women are obedient, 
careful in the absence of their husbands, for that God 
preserveth them, by committing them to the care and 
protection of the men. But those whose perverseness ye 
shall be apprehensive of, rebuke ; and remove them into 
separate apartments, and chastise them. But, if they 
shall be obedient unto you, seek not an occasion of quar- 
rel against them ; for God is high and great. ^^ And, if 
ye fear a breach between the husband and wife, send a 
judge out of his family, and a judge out of her family : if 
they shall desire a reconciliation, God will cause them to 
agree ; for God is knowing and wise. ^^ Serve God, and^ 
associate no creature with hhnj^ 

parent^j^3IIxe]^tions, and orphans, anJ the poor^ and 
your neighbour jwho is of kin to you, and also your neisE- 
bouf who is a stranger, and to your familiar companion, 
and the traveller, and the captives whom your rigHt hands 
s^all p^ not the proud or vam- 

glorious, ^^who are covetous, and recommend covetous- 
ness unto men, and conceal that which God of his bounty 
hath given them ; (we have prepared a shameful punish- 
ment for the unbelievers ;) ^^ and who bestow their wealth 
in charity to be observed of men, and believe not in God, 
nor in the last day : and whoever hath Satan for a com- 
panion, an evil companion hath he ! ^^ And what harm 
would befal them if they should believe in God, and the 
last day, and give alms out of that which God hath be- 
stowed on them ? since God knoweth them who do this. 
^^ Verily God will not wrong any one, even the weight 
of an ant : and, if it be a good action, he will double it, 

double share of their deceased ancestor's 34 Send a judge, &c.] i. e. Let the 

estates ^ magistrate first send two arbitrators or 

— Careful in the absence of their hus- mediators, one on each side, to compose 
bands.] Both to preserve their husbands' the difference, and prevent, if possible, the 
substance from loss or waste, and them- ill consequences of an open rupture, 
selves from all degrees of immodesty ^. 35 Your neighbour who is of kin to 

— Remove them into separate apart- you.] Either of your own nation or re- 
ments.] That is, banish them from your ligion. 

hed. 36 And conceal that which God of his 

— And chastise them.] By this pas- bounty hath given them.] Whether it be 
sage the Mohammedans are, in plain wealth, knowledge, or any other talent, 
terms, allowed to beat their wives, in case whereby they may help their neighbour, 
of stubborn disobedience; but not in a 39 God will not wrong any one the weight 
violent or dangerous manner ^, of an ant.] Either by diminishing the 

^ V. At Beiddwi. 2 ^i BeiddivL Jallalo' ddin, ^ Al Beiddwi, 



86 AL KORAN. [chap. 

and will recompense it in his sight with a great reward. 
^^ How will it be with the unbelievers, when we shall 
bring a witness out of each nation against itself, and shall 
bring thee, O Mohammed ! a witness against these peo- 
ple ? ^^ In that day they who have not believed, and have 
rebelled against the apostle of God, shall wish the earth 
was levelled with them ; and they shall not be able to 
hide any matter from God. ^^ O true believers ! come 
not to prayers when ye are drunk, until ye understand 
what ye say ; nor when ye are polluted by emission of 
seed, unless ye be travelling on the road, until ye wash 
yourselves. But, if ye be sick, or on a journey, or any 
of you come from easing nature, or have touched women, 
and find no water, take fine clean sand, and rub your 
faces and your hands therewith ; for God is merciful, and 
inclined to forgive. ^^ Hast thou not observed those unto 
whom part of the scripture was delivered ? they sell error, 
and desire that ye may wander from the right way ; but 
God well knoweth your enemies. God is a sufficient 
patron, and God is a suflScient helper. ^^Of the Jews 
there are sonie who peryert wprds^^fr^ places^J^sSSI 

say^ We have heard, and have disobeyed ; and do thou 
Kear without understanding our meaning, and look upon 

recompense due to his good actions, or to pray ; but, being overcome with liquor, 

too severely punishing his sins. On the made a shameful blunder, in reciting a 

contrary, he will reward the former in passage of the Koran ; whereupon, to 

the next life, far above their deserts. The prevent the danger of any such inde- 

Arabic word Dharra, which is translated cency for the future, this passage was re- 

an ant, signifies a very small sort of that vealed ^. 

insect, and is used to denote a thing that — Take sand, and rub your faces and 

is exceeding small, as a mite. yo?ir hands therewith.'] See the Prelim. 

40 When we shall bring a witness out Disc. § iv. 

of each nation, &c.] When the prophet, 43 Those unto whom part of the scrip- 

who was sent to each nation in particular, tare was delivered.] Meaning the Jews, 

shall, on the last day, be produced to give and particularly their Rabbins, 

evidence against such of them as refused 44 Who pervert ivords from their places.] 

to believe on him, or observed not the That is, (according to the commentators,) 

laws which he brought. who change the true sense of the Penta- 

— J gainst these people.] That is, the teuch, by dislocating passages, or by wrest- 

Arabians, to whom Mohammed was, as ing the words according to their own 

he pretended, more peculiarly sent ^. fancies and lusts ^ But Mohammed seems 

42 Come not to prayers when ye are chiefly to intend here the Jews bantering 

drunk, &c.] It is related, that, before the of him in their addresses, by making use 

prohibition of wine, Abd'alrahman Ebn of equivocal words, seeming to bear a gbod 

Awf made an entertainment, to which he sense in Arabic, but spoken by them in 

invited several of the apostle's compa- derision according to their acceptation in 

nions ; and after they had eat and drank Hebrew; an instance of which he gives 

plentifully, the hour of evening prayer in the following words, 

being come, one of the company rose up — Without understanding.] Literally, 

1 See before, c. 2. p. "^ Al Beiddwi. ' Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin. 



IV.} 



AL KORAN, 



87 



us : perplexing with their tongues, and reviling the true 
religion. But if they had said, We have heard, and do 
obey ; and do thou hear, and regard us : certainly it were 
better for them, and more right. But God hath cursed 
them hj reason of their j^jBidieliiy: 

tEem'^only shffl ^^ O ye to whom the scriptures 

Iffave been ofiven [believe in the revelation which we have 
sent down, confirming that which is with you ; before we 
deface your countenances, and render them as the back 
parts thereof; or curse them, as we cursed those who 
transgressed on the sabbath-day, and the command of 
God was fulfilled. ^^ Surely God will not pardon the 
giving him an equal ; but will pardon any other sin, ex- 
cept that, to whom he pleaseth :^and whoso giveth a 
companion unto God, hath devised a great wickedness. 
^^ Hast thou not observed those who justify themselves ? 
But God justifieth whomsoever he pleaseth, nor shall 
they be wronged a hair. ^^ Behold, how they imagine a 
lie against God ; and therein is iniquity sufficiently mani- 
fest. ^^ ^SLSt thou not considered those to wjigmpartjotf 
tibe scripUire^ giveiiT They 1^ f^ls& 

gods aSd idc^s^^Sffj^lOfeS^.,^^ These 



without being made to hear or apprehend 
what we say. 

— Look upon us.l The original word 
is Rama) which being a terra of reproach 
in Hebrew, Mohammed forbad their using 
it to him 1. 

— And regard W5.] In Arabic, Ond- 
horna ; which, having no ill equivocal 
meaning, the prophet ordered them to use 
instead of the former. 

• 45 And render them as the back parts 
thereof. '\ That is, perfectly plain, with- 
out eyes, nose or mouth. The original, 
however, may also be translated, and turn 
them behind, by wringing their necks 
backward. 

— Those who transgressed on the sah- 
hath-day.~\ And were therefore changed 
into apes 2. 

46 The giving him an equal.^ That is, 
idolatry of all kinds. 

— To whom he pleaseth.^ Viz. To those 
who repent 3. 

47 2'hose who justify themselves,^ i. e. 
The Christians and Jews, who called 



themselves the children of God, and his 
beloved people *. 

— A hair.'] The original word sig- 
nifies a little skin in the cleft of a date- 
stone, and is used to express a thing of 
no value. 

49 In false gods and idols.] The Ara- 
bic is, in Jibt and Taghut. The former 
is supposed to have been the proper name 
of some idol ; but it seems rather to sig- 
nify any false deity in general. The lat- 
ter we have explained already ^. 

It is said, that this passage was revealed 
on the following occasion : Hoyai Ebn 
Akhtab and Caab Ebn al Ashraf^ two 
chief men among the Jews, with several 
others of that religion, went to Mecca, 
and offered to enter into a confederacy 
with the Koreish, and to join their forces 
against Mohammed. But the Koreish, 
entertaining some jealousy of them, told 
them, that the Jews pretended to have a 
written revelation from heaven, as well as 
Mohammed, and their doctrines and wor- 
ship approached much nearer to what he 



1 See before, c. 2. ^ Idem. 

Jallalo'ddin. See c. 5, not far from the beginning, 
before, p. 58, note 71' 



3 A I Beiddwi. 
5 See p. 41, note 25?. 



* Idem, 
6 See 



88 AL KORAN. [chap. 

are more rightly directed in the way of truth, than they 
who believe on Mohammed., ^^ Those are the men whom 
God hath cursed ; and unto him whom God shall curse, 
thou shalt surely find no helper. ^^ Shall they have a 
part of the kingdom, since even then they would not 
bestow the smallest matter on men ? ^^ Do they envy 
other men that which God, of his bounty, hath given 
them ? We formerly gave unto the family of Abraham 
a book of revelations and wisdom ; and we gave them a 
great kingdom. ^^ There is of them who believeth on 
him; and there is of them who turneth aside from him: 
but the raging fire of hell is a sufficient punishment. 
^^ Verily those who disbelieve our signs, we will surely 
cast to be broiled in hell-fire; so often j,st^ 
shall be well burned, we will giive them other skins in 
exchange, that they may taste tKe sharper torment ; for 
God is mighty and wise. ^^^ But those who believe, and 
do that which is right, we will bring into gardens watered 
by rivers, therein shall they remain for ever, and there 
shall they enjoy wives free from all impurity ; and we 
will lead them into perpetual shades. ^^ Moreover, God 
commandeth you to restore what ye are trusted with to 
the owners ; and when ye judge between men, that ye 
judge according to equity : and surely an excellent virtue 

taught, than the religion of their tribe ; — We gave them a great kingdom^ 

Wherefore, said they, if you will satisfy Wherefore God will doubtless shew equal 

us that you are sincere in the matter, do favour to this prophet (a descendant also 

as we do, and worship our gods. Which of Abraham), and those who believe on 

proposal, if the story be true, these Jews him ^. 

complied with, out of their inveterate 53 Who believeth on him.'} Namely, on 

hatred to Mohammed ^, Mohammed. 

51 Shall they have a pari of the king- 56 God commandeth you to return what 
dom, &c.] For the Jews gave out that ye are intrusted with to the owners.} This 
they should be restored to their ancient passage, it is said, was revealed on the 
power and grandeur 2 ; depending, it is to day of the taking of Mecca, the primary 
be presumed, on the victorious Messiah design of it being to direct Mohammed to 
whom they expected. return the keys of the Caaba to Othman 

— The smallest matter.} The original Ebn Telha Ebn Abdaldar, who had then 

word properly signifies a small dent on the the honour to be keeper of that holy 

back of a date-stone ; and is commonly place *, and not to deliver them to his 

used to express a thing of little or no uncle al Abbas, who, having already the 

value. custody of the well Zemzem, would fain 

52 Do they envy other men that which have had also that of the Caaba. The 
Godf of his bounty^ hath given them ?} prophet obeying the divine order, Othman 
Viz. The spiritual gifts of prophecy, and was so affected with the justice of the 
divine revelations ; and the temporal bless- action, notwithstanding he had, at first, 
ings of victory and success, bestowed on refused him entrance, that he immediately 
Mohammed and his followers. embraced Mohammedism; whereupon the 

1 Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem, ^ Idem. * See P;7(:?t;a?<a'5 Life of Mahom. p. 2. 



IV.] A L KORAN. 89 

it is to which God exhorteth you ; for God both heareth 
and seeth. ^^ O true believers ! obey God, and obey the 
apostle, and those who are in authority among you; and 
if ye differ in any thing, refer it unto God and the apos- 
tle, if ye believe in God, and the last 4ay : this is better, 
and a fairer method of determination. ^^ Hast thou not 
observed those who pretend they believe in what hath 
been revealed unto thee, and what hath been revealed 
before thee ? They desire to go to judgment before 
Taghut, although they have been commanded not to 
believe in him ; and Satan desireth to seduce them into 
a wide error. ^^ And, when it is said unto them, Come 
unto the book which God hath sent down, and to the 
apostle ; thou seest the ungodly turn aside from thee 
with great aversion. ^^ But how will they behave when 
a misfortune shall befal them, for that which their hands 
have sent before them ? Then will they come unto thee, 
and swear by God, saying. If we intended any other, 
than to do good, and to reconcile the parties. ^^ God 
knoweth what is in the hearts of these men ; therefore 
let them alone, and admonish them, and speak unto them 
a word which may affect their souls. ^^ We have not 
sent any apostle, but that he might be obeyed by the per- 
mission of God : but if they, after they have injured 

guardianship of the Caaba was confirmed Mohammedan confessing this to be true, 

to this Othman and his heirs for ever*. Omar bid them stay a little, and, fetching 

57 Unto God.'] i. e. To the decision his sword, struck off the obstinate Mos- 
of the Koran. lem's head, saying aloud. This is the re- 

58 They desire to go to judgment before ward of him who refuseth to submit to 
Taghiit.~\ That is, before the tribunals of the judgment of God and his apostle, 
infidels. This passage was occasioned by And, from this action, Omar had the sur- 
the following remarkable accident. A name of al Faruk, which alludes both to 
certain Jew having a dispute with a his separating that knave's head from his 
wicked Mohammedan, the latter appealed body, and to his distinguishing between 
to the judgment of Caab Ebn al Ashraf, truth and falsehood 2. The name of Tag- 
a principal Jew, and the former to Mo- hut ^, therefore, in this place, seems to be 
hammed. But, at length, they agreed to given to Caab Ebn al Ashraf. 

refer the matter to the prophet singly, 60 Thet/ will swear they intended no 
who giving it in favour of the Jew, the other than to do good, &c.] For this 
Mohammedan refused to acquiesce in his was the excuse of the friends of the Mo- 
sentence, but would needs have it reheard hammedan whom Omar slew, when they 
by Omar, afterwards Khalif. When they came to demand satisfaction for his 
came to him, the Jew told him that Mo- blood ^. 

hammed had already decided the affair in 62 After they have injured their own 

his favour; but that the other would not souls.] Viz. By acting wickedly, and ap- 

submit to his determination; and the pealing to the judgment of infidels. 

1 Al Beiddwi. See D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient, p. 220, 221. 2 Jallalo' ddin, Al 

BeiddwL See D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient, p. 688. and Ochley's Hist, of the Sarac. v. U 
p. 365. 3 See before, p. 41, note 257. ^ Al Beiddwi, 



90 AL KORAN. [chap. 

their own souls, come unto thee, and ask pardon of God, 
and the apostle ask pardon for them, they shall surely 
find God easy to be reconciled, and merciful. ^^ And by 
thy Lord they will not perfectly believe, until they make 
thee judge of their controversies; and shall not after- 
wards find in their own minds any hardship in what thou 
shalt determine ; but shall acquiesce therein with entire 
submission. ^^ And, if we had commanded them, saying, 
Slay yourselves, or. Depart from your houses ; they would 
not have done it, except a few of them. And, if they 
had done what they were admonished, it would certainly 
have been better for them, and more efficacious for con- 
firming their faith ; ^^ and we should then have surely 
given them in our sight an exceeding great reward, ^^ and 
we should have directed them in the right way. ^^ Who- 
ever obeyeth God and the apostle, they shall be with 
those unto whom God hath been gracious, of the pro- 
phets, and the sincere, and the martyrs, and the righ- 
teous ; and these are the most excellent company. ^^ This 
is bounty from God : and God is suflSciently knowing. 
^^ O true believers ! take your necessary precaution against 
your enemies, and either go forth to war in separate 
parties, or go forth all together in a body. ^^ There is of 
you who tarrieth behind ; and, if a misfortune befal you, 
he saith. Verily God hath been gracious unto me, that I 
was not present with them : ^^ but, if success attend you 
from God, he will say, (as if there was no friendship be- 
tween you and him,) Would to God I had been with 
them, for I should have acquired great merit. ^^ Let 
them therefore fight for the religion of God, who part 

64 Slay yourselves, or. Depart from your 71 ^s if there was no friendship be^ 

houses.^ Some understand these words of tween you and him.'] i. e. As one who 

their venturing their lives in a religious attendeth not to the public, but his own 

expedition ; and others, of their under- private interest. Or else these may be 

going the same punishments which the the words of the hypocritical Mohamme- 

Israelites did, for their idolatry in wor- dan himself, insinuating that he stayed 

shipping the golden calf*. not behind the rest of the army by his 

69 Take your precaution.] i. e. Be own fault, but was left by Mohammed, 
vigilant, and provide yourselves with arms who chose to let the others share in his 
and necessaries. good fortune, preferably to him 2. 

70 Who tarrieth behind^ &c.] Mo- 72 Who part with the present life in ex- 
haramed here upbraids the hypocritical change for that which is to come.] By 
Moslems, who, for want of faith and con- venturing their lives and fortunes in de- 
stancy in their religion, were backward fence of the faith. 

in going to war for its defence. 

1 Al Beiddwi. See before, p. 8, note 51. ^ idem. 



IV.] AL KORAN. 91 

with the present life in exchange for that which is to 
come; for whosoever fighteth for the religion of God, 
whether he be slain, or be victorious, we will surely give 
him a great reward. ^^ And what ails you, that you fight 
not for God's true religion, and in defence of the weak 
among men, women, and children ? who say, O Lord ! 
bring us forth from this city, whose inhabitants are 
wicked ; grant us from before thee a protector, and grant 
us from before thee a defender. ^^ Thgj who beliey 
fight for the religion of Godj bu 

figlit for the religion of Taghut. Fight therefore against 
fEe friends of Satan, for the stratagem of Satan is weak. 
^^ Hast thou not observed those unto whom it was said, 
Withhold your hands from war, and be constant at prayers, 
and pay the legal alms ? But, when war is commanded 
them, behold, a part of them fear men as they should fear 
God, or with a greater fear, and say, O Lord ! wherefore 
hast thou commanded us to go to war, and hast not suf- 
fered us to wait our approaching end ? ^^ Say unto 
them, The provision of this life is but small; but the 
future shall be better for him who feareth God ; and ye 
shall not be in the least injured at the day of judgment. 
^^ Wheresoever ye be, death will overtake you, although 
ye be in lofty towers. If^ood^beMlhei^^^^ say. This 

^1«JI^£LJGpQ^ befal thenij they sayr- This i^... 

^mthee^^O Mohammed ! say. All is from God; and 

— Whether he he slain, or be victorious.'] Ebn Osaid, governor of the city : and, 
For no man ought to quit the field, till he under his care and protection, those who 
either fall a martyr, or gain some advan- had suffered for their religion, became the 
tage for the cause *. most considerable men in the place. 

73 In defence of the weak, &c.] Viz. 74 Taghut.~\ See before, p. 41. 
Those believers who staid behind at Mecca, 7«^ Hast thou not observed those unto 
being detained there either forcibly by the whom it was said. Withhold your hands 
idolaters, or for want of means to fly for from war, &c.] These were some of Mo- 
refuge to Medina. Al Beidawi observes, hammed's followers, who readily per- 
that children are mentioned here, to shew formed the duties of their religion, so long 
the inhumanity of the Koreish, who perse- as they were commanded nothing that 
cuted even that tender age. might endanger their lives. 

— Lord ! bring us forth from this — Our approaching end.] That is, a 
city, and grant us from thee a protector, natural death. 

&c.] This petition, the commentators say, 77 If evil befal them, they say. This is 

was heard. For God afforded several of from thee.] As the Jews, in particular, 

them an opportunity and means of es- who pretended that their land was grown 

caping, and delivered the rest at the taking barren, and provisions scarce, since Mo- 

of Mecca by Mohammed, who left Otab hammed came to Medina ^. 

^ Al Beidawi. - Idem. 



92 A L KORAN. [chap. 

what aileth these people, that they are so far from under- 
standing what is said unto them? ^^ Whatever good 
befalleth thee, O jqgian ! it . is from God : and J whatever 
evil befalleth thee, it is from thyself. We have sent thee 
an;; apostle unto men, and„ ^GpD . i^ a sufficient witneSs^ 
thereof. ^^ Whoever obeyeth the apostle, obeyeth God ; 
and whoever turneth back, we have not sent thee to be^ 
keeper over them, ^^ They say, Obedience ; yet, when 
they go forth from thee, part of them meditate by night 
a matter different from what thou speakest ; but God 
shall write down what they meditate by night: therefore 
let them alone, and trust in God, for God is a sufficient 
protector. ^^ Do they ^otattentiyely consider the Koran ? 
iOt had been, f^^ any besides God, they would certainly 
have found therein many contradictions. _ ^^ When any 
news cometh unto them, either of security or fear, they 
immediately divulge it ; but if they told it to the apostle, 
and to those who are in authority among them, such of 
them would understand the truth of the matter, as inform 
themselves thereof from the apostle and his chiefs. And, 
if the favour of God, and his mercy, had not been upon 
you, ye had followed the devil, except a few of you. 
83 Fight therefore for the religion of God, and oblige not 
any to what is difficult except thyself; however, excite 
the faithful to war ; perhaps God will restrain the courage 
of the unbelievers ; for God is stronger than they, and 

78 Whatever evil hefalleth thee, it is for example, as Zeid Ebn Amru Ebn 
from thyself.'] These words are not to be Nofail i, and Warakah Ebn Nawfal 2, 

understood as contradictory to the pre- who left idols, and acknowledged but one 

ceding, That all proceeds from God ; since God, before the mission of Moham- 

the evil which befals mankind, though med ^ 

ordered by God, is yet the consequence of 83 Oblige not any to what is difficult, 

their own wicked actions. except thyself] It is said this passage was 

79 We have not sent thee to he a keeper revealed when the Mohammedans refused 
over them.] Or to take an account of their to follow their prophet to the lesser expe- 
actions ; for this is God's part. dition of Bedr, so that he was obliged to 

^2 If God' s mercy had not been upon you, set out with no more than 70*. Some 

ye had followed the devil, except a few of copies vary in this place, and, instead of 

you.] That is, if God had not sent his La tokallafo, in the second person singular, 

apostle with the Koran to instruct you in read La nokallafo, in the first person plu- 

your duty, ye had continued in idolatry, ral. We do not oblige, &c. The meaning 

and been doomed to destruction ; ex- being, that the prophet only was under an 

cept only those, who, by God's favour, indispensable necessity of obeying God's 

and their superior understanding, should commands, however difficult, but others 

have true notions of the divinity ; such, might choose, though at their peril. 

1 V. Millium, de Mohammedismo ante Moham. p. 31L ^ ggg tj^g Pielim. Disc, 

p. 60. ^ Al Beiddivi, * See before, ch. 3. 



IV.] A L KORAN. 93 

more able to punish. ^^ He who intercedeth between 
men, with a good intercession, shall have a portion 
thereof; and he who intercedeth with an evil intercession, 
shall have a portion thereof ; for* God overlooketh all 
things. ^^ When ye are saluted with a salutation, salute 
the person with a better salutation, or at least, return 
the same ; for God taketh an account of all things. 
*^ God ! there is no God but he : he will surely gather 
you together on the day of resurrection ; there is no doubt 
of it : and who is more true than God in what he saith ? 
^^ Why are ye divided concerning the ungodly into two 
parties ; since God hath overturned them for what they 
have committed ? Will ye direct him whom God hath 
led astray ; since for him whom God shall lead astray 
thou shalt find no true path ? ^^ They desire that ye 
should become infidels, as they are infidels, and that ye 
should be equally wicked with themselves. Therefore 
take not friends from among them, until they fly their 
country for the religion of God ; and if they turn back 
from the faith, take them, and kill them wherever ye find 
them ; ^^ and take no friend from among them, nor any 
helper, except those who go unto a people who are in 
alliance with you, or those who come unto you, their 
hearts forbidding them either to fight against you, or to 
fight against their own people. And, if God pleased, he 
would have permitted them to have prevailed against you, 
and they would have fought against you. But, if they 
depart from you, and fight not against you, and offer you 

84 With a good intercession.^ i. e. To sion of some deserters at the battle of 
maintain the right of a believer, or to pre- Ohod ; concerning whom the Moslems 
vent his being wronged. were divided in opinion, whether they 

85 Salute the person with a better salu- should be slain, as infidels or not. 
tation.'] By adding something farther. As, 89 A people who are in alliance with 
when one salutes another by this form, yow.] The people here meant, say some, 
Peace be upon thee, he ought not only to were the tribe of Khozaah ; or, according 
return the salutation, but to add, A7id the to others, the Aslamians, whose chief, 
mercy of God, and his blessing. named Helal Ebn Owaimar, agreed with 

87 Why are ye divided concerning the Mohammed, when he set out against 

ungodly into two parties ?'\ This passage Mecca, to stand neuter ; or, as others 

was revealed, according to some, when rather think, Banu Beer Ebn Zeid ^. 

certain of Mohammed's followers, pretend- — Whoseheartsforbid them to fight either 

ing not to like Medina, desired leave to against you, or their own people.'] These, 

go elsewhere ; and having obtained it, it is said, were the tribe of Modlaj, who 

went farther and farther, till they joined came in to Mohammed, but would not be 

the idolaters ; or, as others say, on occa- obliged to assist him in war. 



Al Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin. 



\ 



94 AL KORAN. [chap. 

peace, God doth not allow you to take or kill them. 
^^ Ye shall find others who are desirous to enter into a 
confidence with you, and at the same time to preserve a 
confidence with their own people : so often as they re- 
turn to sedition, they shall be subverted therein ; and, if 
they depart not from you, and offer you peace, and restrain 
their hands from warring against you, take them and 
kill them wheresoever ye find them ; over these have we 
granted you a manifest power. ^^ It is not lawful for a 
believer to kill a believer, unless it happen by mistake ; 
and whoso killeth a believer by mistake, the penalty shall 
be the freeing of a believer from slavery, and a fine to be 
paid to the family of the deceased, unless they remit it 
as alms : and, if the slain person be of a people at enmity 
with you, and be a true believer, the penalty shall be the 
freeing of a believer ; but if he be of a people in confe- 
deracy with you, a fine to be paid to his family, and the 
freeing of a believer. And he who findeth not where- 
with to do this, shall fast two months consecutively, as a 
penance enjoined from God ; and God is knowing and 
wise. ^^ But whoso killeth a believer, designedly, his 
reward shall be hell : he shall remain therein for ever; 
and God shall be angry with him, and shall curse him, 
and shall prepare for him a great punishment. ^^ O true 
believers ! when ye are on a march in defence of the true 
religion, justly discern such as ye shall happen to meet, 
and say not unto him who saluteth you. Thou art not a 

90 Who desire to enter into a confidence buted according to the laws of inheritances, 
with you, &c.] The persons hinted at given in the beginning of this chapter -^ 
here, were the tribes of Asad and Ghaftan, — The freeing of a true believer,'] And 
or, as some say, Banu Abdaldar, who came no fine shall be paid, because, in such case, 
to Medina, and pretended to embrace Mo- his relations, being infidels, and at open 
hammedism, that they might be trusted by war with the Moslems, have no right to in- 
the Moslems; but, when they returned, herit what he leaves *. 

fell back to their old idolatry ^ 92 He shall remain therein for everJ] 

91 Unless it be by mistake.] That is. That is, unless he repent. Others, how- 
by accident, and without design. This ever, understand not here an eternity of 
passage was revealed to decide the case of damnation, (for it is the general doctrine 
Ayash Abn Abi Rabia, the brother by the of the Mohammedans, that none who pro- 
mother's side, of Abu Jahl, who meeting fess that faith shall continue in hell for 
Hareth Ebn Zeid on the road, and not ever,) but only a long space of time 5. 
knowing that he had embraced Moham- 93 Say not unto him who saluteth you^ 
medism, slew him 2. Thou art not a true believer,] On pre- 

— And a fine to be paid to the family of tence that he only feigns to be a Moslem, 
the deceased.] Which fine is to be distri- that he might escape from you. The com- 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ l^Qixi, ^ i^em. ^ Idem. Mdem. 



IV.] AL KORAN. 95 

true believer ; seeking the accidental goods of the present 
life ; for with God is much spoil. Such have ye formerly 
been ; but God hath been gracious unto you ; therefore 
make a just discernment, for God is well acquainted with 
that which ye do. ^^ Those believers who sit still at home, 
not having any hurt, and those who employ their fortunes, 
and their persons, for the religion of God, shall not be 
held equal. God hath preferred those who employ their 
fortunes, and their persons, in that cause, to a degree of 
honour above those who sit at home. God hath indeed 
promised every one paradise, but God hath preferred 
those who fight for the faith before those who sit still, 
by adding unto them a great reward, ^^ by degrees of 
honour conferred on them from him, and by granting 
them forgiveness and mercy; for God is indulgent and 
merciful. ^^ Moreover, unto those whom the angels put 
to death, having injured their own souls, the angels said. 
Of what religion were ye ? They answered, We were weak 
in the earth. The angels replied. Was not God's earth 
wide enough, that ye might fly therein to a place of 
refuge ? Therefore their habitation shall be hell ; and an 
evil journey shall it be thither/. ^^ except the weak among 
men, and women, and children, who were not able to find 
means, and were not directed in the way : ^^ these, perad- 
venture, God will pardon, for God is ready to forgive, 

mentators mention more instances than it repeated, to object, And what though I 
one of persons slain and plundered by be blind? Whereupon Mohammed, fall- 
Mohammed's men under this pretext, not- ing into a kind of trance, which was suc- 
withstanding they declared themselves ceeded by strong agitations, pretended he 
Moslems by repeating the usual form of had received the divine direction to add 
words, and saluting them ; for which rea- these words to the text ^. 
son this passage was revealed, to prevent 96 Those whom the angels put to death, 
such rash judgments for the future. &c.] These were certain inhabitants of 

— Seeking the accidental goods of this Mecca, who held with the hare and ran 
life.] That is, being willing to judge him with the hounds; for, though they em- 
an infidel, only that ye may kill and plun- braced Mohammedism, yet they would not 
der him. leave that city to join the prophet, as the 

— Such ivere ye formerly, &c.] Viz. At rest of the Moslems did ; but. on the con- 
your first profession of Islamism, before ye trary, went out with the idolaters, and 
had given any demonstrations of your were therefore slain with them at the bat- 
sincerity and zeal therein. tie of Bedr^. 

^ 94 Not having any hurt.] i. e. Not being — We were weak in the earth."] Being 

disabled from going to war by sickness, or unable to fly, and compelled to follow the 

other just impediment. It is said that, infidels to war. 

when the passage was first revealed, there — Was not God's earth wide enough, that 

was no such exception therein, which occa- ye might fly to a place of refuge ?] As they 

sioned Ebu 0mm Mactum, on his hearing did who fled to Ethiopia, and to Medina. 



Al Beiddwi. 2 ^/ Beiddwi, JaUalo'ddin. 



96 AL KORAN. [chap. 

and gracious. ®^ Whosoever flieth from his country for 
the sake of God's true religion, shall find in the earth 
many forced to do the same, and plenty of provisions. 
And whoever departeth from his house, and flieth unto 
God and his apostle, if death overtake him in the way, 
God will be obliged to reward him ; for God is gracious 
and merciful. ^^^ When ye march to war in the earth, it 
shall be no crime in you if ye shorten your prayers, in 
case ye fear the infidels may attack you ; for the infidels 
are your open enemy. ^^^ But when thou, O prophet ! 
shalt be among them, and slialt pray with them, let a 
party of them arise to prayer with thee, and let them 
take their arms ; and, when they shall have worshipped, 
let them stand behind you ; and let another party come 
that hath not prayed, and let them pray with thee, and 
let them be cautious, and take their arms. The unbe- 
lievers would that ye should neglect your arms, and your 
baggage, while ye pray, that they might turn upon you at 
once. It shall be no crime in you, if ye be incommoded 
by rain, or be sick, that ye lay down your arms ; but 
take your necessary precaution : God hath prepared for 
the unbelievers an ignominious punishment. ^^^ And 
when ye shall have ended your prayer, remember God, 
standing, and sitting, and lying on your sides. But, w^hen 
ye are secure from danger, complete your prayers ; for 
prayer is commanded the faithful, and appointed to be 
said at the stated times. ^^^ Be not negligent in seeking 
out the unbelieving people, though ye suffer some incon- 
venience ; for they also shall suffer, as ye suffer ; and ye 
hope for a reward from God which they cannot hope for ; 
and God is knowing and wise. ^^*We have sent down 

99 If death overtake him in the way,'] — Take your necessary precaution.'] 

This passage was revealed, says al Beid- By keeping strict guard, 

awi, on account of Jondob Ebn Damra. 102 Standing, and sitting, and lying on 

This person being sick, was, in his flight, your sides.] That is, in such posture as 

carried by his sons on a couch, and, be- ye shall be able ^ 

fore he arrived at Medina, perceiving his 103 Be not negligent in seeking out 
end approached, he clapped his right hand the unbelievers, &c.] This verse was 
on his left, and solemnly plighting his revealed on occasion of the unwilling- 
faith to God and his apostle, died, ness of Mohammed's men to accom- 
101 And let them stand behind you.] pany him in the lesser expedition of 
To defend those who are at prayers, and Bedr 2. 
to face the enemy. 



See before, c. 3. ^ Jl Beiddivi. 



IV.] AL KORAN. 97 

unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, that thou 
mayest judge between men through that wisdom which 
God sheweth thee therein ; and be not an advocate for 
the fraudulent ; ^^' but ask pardon of God for thy wrong 
intention, since God is indulgent and merciful. ^^^ Dis- 
pute not for those who deceive one another, for God 
loveth not him who is a deceiver or unjust. ^^^ Such 
conceal themselves from men, but they conceal not them- 
selves from God ; for he is with them when they imagine 
by night a saying which pleaseth him not, and God com- 
prehendeth what they do. ^^^ Behold, ye are they who 
have disputed for them in this present life ; but who shall 
dispute with God for them on the day of resurrection, 
or who will become their patron ? ^^^ yet he who doth evil, 
or injureth his own soul, and afterwards asketh pardon of 
God, shall find God gracious and merciful. "^ Whoso 
committeth wickedness, committeth it against his own 
soul : God is knowing and wise. ^^^ And- whoso com- 
mitteth a sin or iniquity, and afterwards layeth it on the 
innocent, he shall surely bear the guilt of calumny and 
manifest injustice. ^^^ If the indulgence and mercy of 
God had not been upon thee, surely a part of them had 
studied to seduce thee ; but they shall seduce themselves 
only, and shall not hurt thee at all. God hath sent down 

104 And he not an advocate for the intention, and commanding him to judge, 

fraudulent, &c.] Tima Ebn Obeirak, of not according to his own prejudice and 

the sons of Dhafar, one of Mohammed's opinion, but according to the merit of the 

companions, stole a coat of mail from his case ^. 

neighbour Kitada Ebn al Noman, in a bag 106 For God loveth not a deceiver or 

of meal ; and hid it at a Jew's, named unjust person,~\ Al Beidawi,^ as an instance 

Zeid Ebn al Samin. Tima being sus- of the divine justice, adds, that Tima, after 

pected, the coat of mail was demanded of the fact above-mentioned, fled to Mecca, 

him ; but he denying he knew any thing and returned to idolatry ; and there under- 

of it, they followed the track of the meal, mining the wall of a house, in order to 

which had run out through a hole in the commit a robbery, the wall fell in upon 

bag, to the Jew's house, and there seized him, and crushed him to death, 
it, accusing him of the theft; but he pro- 107 When they imagine by night a say- 

ducing witnesses of his own religion, that ing which pleaseth him not.'] That is, 

he had it of Tima, the sons of Dhafar when they secretly contrive means, by 

came to Mohammed, and desired him to false evidence or otherwise, to lay their 

defend his companion's reputation, and crimes on innocent persons, 
condemn the Jew ; which he having some 112 A part of them had studied 

thoughts of doing, this passage was re- to seduce thee."] Meaning the sons of 

vealed, reprehending him for his rash Dhafar. 



' Al Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin, Yahya. 
VOL. I. H 



98 AL KORAN. [chap. 

unto thee the book of the Koran and wisdom, and hath 
taught thee that which thou knewest not ; for the favour 
of God hath been great towards thee. "^ There is no 
good in the multitude of their private discourses, unless 
in the discourse of him who recommendeth alms, or that 
which is right, or agreement amongst men : whoever 
doth this out of a desire to please God, we will surely 
give him a great reward. ^^^ But whoso separateth him- 
self from the apostle, after true direction hath been 
manifested unto him, and followeth any other way than 
that of the true believers, we will cause him to obtain 
that to which he is inclined, and will cast him to be 
burned in hell ; and an unhappy journey shall it be 
thither. "^ Verily God will not pardon the giving him a 
companion, but he will pardon any crime besides that, 
unto whom he pleaseth ; and he who giveth a companion 
unto God, is surely led aside into a wide mistake. ^^^ The 
infidels invoke, beside him, only female deities ; and only 
invoke rebellious Satan. ^^^ God cursed him ; and he 
said. Verily I will take of thy servants a part cut off from 
the rest ; ^^^ and I will seduce them, and will insinuate 
vain desires into them, and I will command them, and 
they shall cut off the ears of cattle ; and I will command 
them, and they shall change God's creature. But who- 
ever taketh Satan for his patron, besides God, shall 
surely perish with a manifest destruction. ^^^ He maketh 

112 And hath taught thee that which thou of this custom in the notes to the 5th 

knewest not.~\ By instructing thee in the chapter. 

knowledge of right and wrong, and the — Jnd they shall change God's crea- 

rules of justice. tureJ] Either by maiming it, or putting 

114 We will cause him to obtain that it to uses not designed by the Creator. 

towards which he is inclined.^ Viz, Error Al Beidawi supposes the text to intend, 

and false notions of religion. not only the superstitious amputations of 

116 The infidels invoke, beside him, only the ears, and other parts of cattle, but the 
female deities.'] Namely, Allat, al Uzza, castration of slaves, the marking their 
and Menat, the idols of the Meccans ; or bodies with figures, by pricking and dye- 
the angels, whom they call the daughters ing them with woad or indigo, (as the 
of God ^ Arabs did and still do,) the sharpening 

117 A part cut off from the rest.] Or, their teeth by filing; also sodomy; and 
as the original may be translated, J part the unnatural amours between those of 
destined or predetermined to be seduced the female sex ; the worship of the sun, 
Ify me. moon, and other parts of nature, and the 

118 And they shall cut off the ears of like. 

cattle.] Which was done out of super- — ^^52*^^5 6ro^.] i.e. By leaving the ser- 
stition by the old Pagan Arabs. See more vice of God, & doing the works of the devil. 



» See the Prelim. Disc. § i. p. 20, &c. 

1 



IV.] A L KORAN. 99 

them promises, and insinuateth into them vain desires ; 
yet Satan maketh them only deceitful promises. ^^^ The 
receptacle of these shall be hell : they shall find no refuge 
from it. ^^^ But they who believe, and do good v^orks, we 
will surely lead them into gardens, through which rivers 
flow ; they shall continue therein for ever, according to 
the true promise of God ; and who is more true than 
God in what he saith ? ^^^ It shall not be according to 
your desires, nor according to the desires of those who 
have received the scriptures. Whoso doth evil, shall be 
rewarded for it ; and shall not find any patron or helper, 
beside God : ^^^ but whoso doth good works, whether he 
be male or female, and is a true believer ; they shall be 
admitted into paradise, and shall not, in the least, be 
unjustly dealt with. ^^^ Who is better in point of 
religion than he who resigneth himself unto God, and 
is a worker of righteousness, and foUoweth the law of 
Abraham the orthodox ? since God took Abraham 
for his friend ; ^^^ and to God belongeth whatsoever is in 
heaven and on earth; God comprehendeth all things. 
^^^ They will consult thee concerning women ; answer, 

122 It shall not he according to your to entertain his guests, and give away to 

desires, nor according to the desires of those the poor, according to his usual hospitality. 

who have received the scriptures.~\ That is, The servants whom Abraham had sent on 

the promises of God are not to be gained this message, being ashamed to return 

by acting after your own fancies, nor yet empty, to conceal the matter from their 

after the fancies of the Jews or Christians, neighbours, filled their sacks with fine 

but by obeying the commands of God. white sand, which, in the east, pretty 

This passage, they say, was revealed on a much resembles meal. Abraham being 

dispute which arose between those of the informed by his servants, on their return, 

three religions, each preferring his own, of their ill success, the concern he was 

and condemning the others. Some, how- under threw him into a sleep ; and in the 

ever, suppose the persons here spoken to mean time, Sarah, knowing nothing of 

in the second person, were not the Mo- what had happened, opening one of the 

hammedans, but the idolaters ^. sacks, found good flour in it, and imme- 

124 Since God took Abraham for his diately set about making of bread. Abra- 

friendJ] Therefore the Mohammedans ham awaking, and smelling the new bread, 

usually call that patriarch, as the scripture asked her whence she had the flour? Why, 

also does, Khalil Allah, i. e. The friend of says she, from your friend in Egypt. Nay, 

God, and simply al Khalil ; and they tell replied thePatriarch,it must have come from 

the following story: That Abraham, in a no other than my friend, God Almighty 2. 
time of dearth, sent to a friend of his in 126 They will consult thee concerning 

Egypt for a supply of corn ; but the friend women.'] i. e. As to the share they are to 

denied him, saying, in his excuse, That, have in the distribution of the inheritances 

though there was a famine in their coun- of their deceased relations ; for it seems 

try also, yet, had it been for Abraham's the Arabs were not satisfied with Moham- 

own family, he would have sent what he med's decision in this point against the 

desired ; but he knew he wanted it only old customs. 

I Al Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin, Yahya. 2 ^i Beiddwi. See D'Herbel. Bibl. 

Orient, p. 14. and Morgans Mahometism explained. V. 1. p. 132. 

H 2 



100 AL KORAN. [chap. 

God instructeth you concerning them ; and that which is 
read unto you in the book of the Koran concerning 
female orphans, to whom ye give not that which is 
ordained them, neither will ye marry them, and con- 
cerning weak infants ; and that ye observe justice towards 
orphans : whatever good ye do, God knoweth it. ^^^ If a 
woman fear ill usage, or aversion from her husband, it 
shall be no crime in them if they agree the matter amica- 
bly between themselves ; for a reconciliation is better 
than a separation. Men's souls are naturally inclined to 
covetousness : but, if ye be kind towards women, and 
fear to wrong them, God is well acquainted with what ye 
do. ^^^ Ye can, by no means, carry yourselves equally 
between women in all respects, although ye study to do 
it : therefore turn not from a wife with all manner of 
aversion, nor leave her like one in suspense : if ye agree, 
and fear to abuse your wives, God is gracious and merci- 
ful ; ^^^ but, if they separate, God will satisfy them both 
of his abundance ; for God is extensive and wise, ^^^ and 
unto God belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on 
earth. We have already commanded those unto whom 
the scriptures were given before you, and we command 
you also, saying. Fear God ; but, if ye disbelieve, unto 
God belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and 

\2Q God instructeth you concerning them^ to covetousness.'] So that the woman, on 
&c.] i. e. He hath already made his will the one side, is unwilling to part with any- 
known unto you, by revealing the passages of her right; and the husband, on the 
concerning inheritances in the beginning other, cares not to retain one he has no 
of this chapter. affection for ; or, if he should retain her, 

— Neither will ye marry with thetn.'] she can scarce expect he will use her in 
Or the words may be rendered in the all respects as he ought ^. 

affirmative, And whom ye desire to marry. 128 Turn not from a wife with all man- 

For the Pagan Arabs used to wrong their ner of aversion.'] i. e. Though you cannot 

female orphans in both instances : obliging use her equally well with a beloved wife, 

them to marry against their inclinations, yet observe some measure of justice to- 

if they were beautiful or rich ; or else not wards her ; for, if a man is not able per- 

suffering them to marry at all, that they fectly to perform his duty, he ought 

might keep what belonged to them K not, for that reason, entirely to neglect 

— And concerning weak infants.] That it*. 

is, male children of tender years, to whom — Nor leave her like one in suspense.] 

the Arabs, in the time of Paganism, used Or, like one that neither has a husband; 

to allow no share in the distribution of nor is divorced, and at liberty to marry 

their parents' estate 2. elsewhere. 

127 Jf they agree the matter between 129 God will satisfy them both, &c.] 
themselves.] Viz. By the wife's remitting That is, either will bless them with a bet- 
part of her dower, or other dues. ter and more advantageous match, or with 

— Men's souls are naturally inclined peace and tranquillity of mind ^. 

^ M Beiddwi. ^ See before, p. 79, note 6. ^ ji Beiddwi. * Idem. ^ mg^^^ 



IV.] AL KORAN. 101 

God is self-sufficient, and to be praised ; ^^^ for unto God 
belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and 
God is a sufficient protector. ^^^ If he pleaseth, he will 
take you away, O men ! and will produce others in your 
stead ; for God is able to do this. ^^^ Whoso desireth 
the reward of this world, verily with God is the reward 
of this world, and also of that which is to come ; God both 
heareth and seeth. ^^^ O true believers ! observe justice 
when ye bear witness before God, although it be against 
yourselves, or your parents, or relations ; whether the 
party be rich, or whether he be poor ; for Gos is more 
worthy than them both ; therefore follow n6t your own 
lust in bearing testimony, so that ye swerve from justice. 
And whether ye wrest your evidence, or decline giving it, 
God is well acquainted with that which ye do. ^^^ O true 
believers ! believe in God and his apostle, and the book 
which he hath caused to descend unto his apostle, and 
the book which he hath formerly sent down. And who- 
soever believeth not in God, and his angels, and his scrip- 
tures, and his apostles, and the last day, he surely erreth 
in a wide mistake. ^^^ Moreover, they who believed, and 
afterwards became infidels, and then believed again, and, 
after that, disbelieved, and increased in infidelity, God 
will by no means forgive them, nor direct them into the 
right way. ^^^ Declare unto the ungodly that they shall 
suffer a painful punishment. ^^^ They who take the unbe- 
lievers for their protectors, besides the faithful, do they 
seek for power with them ? since all power belongeth 
under God. ^^^ And he hath already revealed unto 

130 God is self-sufficient.'] Wanting became infidels; and then believed again, 

the service of no creature. and after that disbelieved, and again in- 

132 And will produce others, &C.1 i. e. creased in infidelity.] These were the 

Either another race of men, or a different Jews, who first believed in Moses, and 

species of creatures. afterwards fell into idolatry by worshipping 

135 Believe in God and his apostle, &c.] the golden calf; and, though they repented 
It is said, that Abdallah Ebn Salam and of that, yet, in after ages, rejected the pro- 
his companions told Mohammed, that they phets who were sent to them, and particu- 
believed in him, and his Koran, and in larly Jesus, the son of Mary, and now 
Moses, and the Pentateuch, and in Ezra, filled up the measure of their unbelief by 
but no farther; whereupon this passage rejecting of Mohammed 2. 

was revealed ; declaring that a partial faith 137 Declare unto the ungodly, &c.] Mo- 
is little better than none at all ; and that a hammed here means those who hypocriti- 
true believer must believe in all God's pro- cally pretended to believe in him, but 
phets and revelations without exception 1. really did not ; and, by their treachery, 

136 They who believed, and afterwards did great mischief to his party ^. 



^ Al Beiddwi. 2 idem. ^ Jdem. 



102 AL KORAN. [chap. 

yoii, in the book of the Koran, the following passage : 
When ye shall hear the signs of God, they shall not be 
believed, but they shall be laughed to scorn. Therefore 
sit not with them who believe not, until they engage in 
different discourse ; for, if ye do, ye will certainly become 
like unto them. God will surely gather the ungodly and 
the unbelievers together in hell. ^^^ They who wait to 
observe what befalleth you, if victory be granted you from 
God, say. Were we not with you ? But, if any advantage 
happen to the infidels, they say unto them. Were we not 
superior to you, and have we not defended you against 
the believers ? God shall judge between you on the day 
of resurrection ; and God will not grant the unbelievers 
means to prevail over the faithful. ^^^ The hypocrites act 
deceitfully with God, but he will deceive them : and, 
when they stand up to pray, they stand carelessly, affect- 
ing to be seen of men, and remember not God, unless a 
little, ^^^ wavering between faith and infidelity, and ad- 
hering neither unto these, nor unto those : and, for him 
whom God shall lead astray, thou shalt find no true path. 
^^^ O true believers ! take not the unbelievers for your 
protectors, besides the faithful. Will ye furnish God 
with an evident argument of impiety against you? 
^^* Moreover the hypocrites shall be in the lowest bottom 
of hell-fire, and thou shalt not find any to help them 
thence. ^^^ But they who repent and amend, and adhere 
firmly unto God, and approve the sincerity of their reli- 
gion to God, they shall be numbered with the faithful ; 
and God will surely give the faithful a great reward. 
'^^ And how should God go about to punish you, if ye 
be thankful and believe ? for God is grateful and wise. 
[*VI.] '^^ God loveth not the speaking ill of any one in 
public, unless he who is injured call for assistance ; and 
God heareth and knoweth : ^^^ whether he publish a good 
action, or conceal it, or forgive evil, verily God is gracious 

139 In the Kordn.'] Chap. 6. 141 Unless a little.] That is, with the 

140 Were we not with you ?] i. e. Did tongue, and not with the heart. 

we not assist you ? Therefore give us of 142 Adhering neither unto these, nor 

a part of the spoil ^. unto those,] Halting between two opinions, 

— Were we not superior to you ?] and being staunch friends neither to the 

Would not our army have cut you off, if it Moslems, nor the infidels, 

had not been for our faint assistance, or 144 I'he hypocrites shall be in the lowest 

rather desertion, of the Moslems, and our bottom of hell-fire.] See the Preliminary 

disheartening them ^ ? Discourse, § iv. p. 109. 

^ Al Beiddwi, ^ Idem. 



IV.] AL KORAN. 103 

and powerful. ^^^ They who believe not in Goo, and his 
apostles, and would make a distinction between God and 
his apostles, and say, We believe in some of the prophets, 
and reject others of them, and seek to take a middle 
way in this matter ; ^^^ these are really unbelievers : and 
we have prepared for the unbelievers an ignominious 
punishment. ^^^ But they who believe in God and his 
apostles, and make no distinction between any of them, 
unto those will we surely give their reward ; and God is 
gracious and merciful. ^^^ They who have received the 
scriptures will demand of thee, that thou cause a book to 
descend unto them from heaven : they formerly asked of 
Moses a greater thing than this ; for they said. Shew us 
God visibly. Wherefore a storm of fire from heaven 
destroyed them, because of their iniquity. They then 
took the calf for their God, after that evident proofs of 
the divine unity had come unto them ; but we forgave 
them that, and gave Moses a manifest power to punish 
them. ^^^ And we lifted the mountain of Sinai over 
them, when we exacted from them their covenant ; and 
said unto them. Enter the gate of the city worshipping. 
^^* We also said unto them, Transgress not on the sabbath- 
day. And we received from them a firm covenant, that 
they would observe these things. Therefore for that they 
have made void their covenant, and have not believed in 
the signs of God, and have slain the prophets unjustly, 
and have said. Our hearts are uncircumcised ; (but God 
hath sealed them up, because of their unbelief; therefore 
they shall not believe, except a few of them :) ^^^ and, for 
that they have not believed on Jesus, and have spoken 

149 Apostle.'] Seech, ii. — Calf.] See chap. ii. 

152 They who have received the sorip- — Punish.] See ibid. note. 
tures, &c.] That is, the Jews ; who de- 153 Mountain of Sinai,] See ibid, 

manded of Mohammed, as a proof of his p. 10. 

mission, that they might see a book of reve- — Gate of the city.] See ibid, 
lations descend to him from heaven ; or, that 154 Therefore for that, &c.] There being 
he would produce one written in a celestial nothing in the following words of this sen- 
character, like the two tables of Moses. tence, to answer to the causal, " for that,'* 

— Shew us God visibly , &c.] See Jallalo'ddin supposes something to be un- 

chap. ii. This story seems to be an ad- derstood to complete the sense, as, There- 

dition to what Moses says of the seventy fore we have cursed them, or the like, 
elders, who w^ent up to the mountain with 155 And have spoken agaiiist Mary a 

him, and with Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, grievous calumny.] By accusing her of 

and saw the God of Israel^. fornication 2. 



^ Exod. xxiv. 9, 10, 11. ^ ggg ^i^g Kor. chap. xix. and that virulent book, 

entitled, Toldoth Jesu, 



104 A L KORAN. [chap. 

against Mary a grievous calumny ; '^^ and have said, 
Verily we have slain Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, the 
apostle of God ; yet they slew him not, neither crucified 
him, but he was represented by one in his likeness ; and 
verily they who disagreed concerning him were in a doubt 
as to this matter, and had no sure knowledge thereof, but 
followed only an uncertain opinion. ^'^^^ They did not 
really kill him ; but God took him up unto himself : and 
God is mighty and wise.^ ^^^ And there shall not be one 
of those who have received the scriptures, who shall not 
believe in him, before his death ; and, on the day of resur- 
rection, he shall be a witness against them. ^^^ Because 
of the iniquity of those who judaize, we have forbidden 
them good things, which had been formerly allowed them ; 
and because they shut out many from the way of God, 
^^^ and have taken usury, which was forbidden them by 
the law, and devoured men's substance vainly ; we have 
prepared for such of them as are unbelievers a painful 
punishment. ^^^ But those among them who are well 
grounded in knowledge, and the faithful, who believe in 

156 Yet they slew him not, &c.] See thou enemy of God! Jesus was sent as a 

chap. iii. and the notes there. prophet unto thee, and thou didst not be- 

— Who disagreed concerning him.'\ For lieve on hinri ; to which he will answer, I 

some maintained that he was justly and now believe him to be the servant of God. 

really crucified. Some insisted that it was And to a dying Christian they will say, 

not Jesus who suffered, but another who Jesus was sent as a prophet unto thee, and 

resembled him in the face, pretending the thou hast imagined him to be God, or the 

other parts of his body, by their unlike- Son of God ; whereupon he will believe 

ness, plainly discovered the imposition, him to be the servant of God only, and 

Some said, he was taken up into heaven ; his apostle. 

and others, that his manhood only suf- Others, taking the above-mentioned 

fered, and that his godhead ascended into relative to refer to Jesus, suppose the in- 

heaveni. tent of the passage to be, that all Jews 

158 There shall not he one of those who and Christians, in general, shall have a 

have received the scriptures, who shall not right faith in that prophet before his 

believe in him before his death.~\ This pas- death; that is, when he descends from 

sage is expounded two ways. heaven, and returns into the world, where 

Some, referring the relative his, to the he is to kill Antichrist, and to establish 

first antecedent, take the meaning to be, the Mohammedan religion, and a most 

that no Jew or Christian shall die before perfect tranquillity and security on earth 2. 

he believes in Jesus: for they say, that — He shall be a witness against them.'] 

when one of either of those religions is i. e. Against the Jews, for rejecting him ; 

ready to breathe his last, and sees the and against the Christians, for calling him 

angel of death before him, he shall then God, and the Son of God ^. 

believe in that prophet as he ought, though 160 Usury.'] See chap. iii. and the 

his faith will not then be of any avail, notes there. 

According to a tradition of Hejaj, when a 161 Those among them who are well 

Jew is expiring, the angels will strike him grounded in knowledge.] As Abdallah Ebn 

on the back and face, and say to him, O Salam, and his companions K 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Jallalo'ddin, Yahija, Al Zamakhshari, and Al Beiddwi. See 

the Prelim. Disc. § iv. ^ Al Beiddtvi. * Idem. 



IV.] AL KORAN. 105 

that which hath been sent down unto thee, and that which 
hath been sent down unto the prophets before thee, and 
who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms, 
and believe in God and the last day ; unto these will 
we give a great reward. ^C^^^ily we have revealed our 
will unto thee, as we have revealed it unto Noah, and 
the prophets who succeeded him ; and as we revealed 
it unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, 
and the tribes, and unto Jesus, and Job, and Jonas, 
and Aaron, and Solomon ; and we have given thee the 
Koran, as we gave the psalms unto David :^^^ some 
apostles have we sent, whom we have formerly mentioned 7 
unto thee, and other apostles have we sent, whom we I 
have not mentioned unto thee ; and God spake unto 
MosES, discoursing with him ; ^^* apostles declaring good 
tidings, and denouncing threats, lest men should have an 
argument of excuse against God, after the apostles had 
been sent unto them : God is mighty and wise. ^^^ God 
is witness of that revelation which he hath sent down 
unto thee ; he sent it down with his special knowledge : 
the angels also are witnesses thereof; bvit God is a suffi- 
cient witness. ^^^ They who believe not, and turn aside 
others from the way of God, have erred in a wide mis- 
take. ^^^ Verily those who believe not, and act unjustly, 
God will by no means forgive, neither will he direct them 
into any other way than the way of hell ; they shall re- 
main therein for ever : and this is easy with God. ^^^ O . 
men ! now is the apostle come unto you, with truth from 
your Lord ; believe therefore, it will be better for you. 
But, if ye disbelieve, verily unto God belongeth what- 
soever is in heaven and on earth ; and God is knowing 
and wise, ^fo ye, who have received the scriptures ! 
exceed not tne just bounds in your religion, neither say 
of God any other than the truth. Verily, Christ Jesus, 
the son of Mary, is the apostle of God, and his word 
which he conveyed into Mary, and a spirit proceeding 
from him. Believe, therefore, in God and his apostles, 
and say not. There are three Gods : forbear this ; it Avill 

169 Eaceed not the just boimds in your raising him to an equality with God, as 
religion.'] Either by rejecting and con- do the Christians ^ 
temning of Jesus, as the Jews do ; or — Say not, There are three Gods.] 

^ Al Beiddwi. 



106 AL KORAN. [chap. 

be better for you. God is but one God. Far be it from 
him that he should have a son ; unto him belongeth what- 
soever is in heaven and on earth ; and God is a sufficient 
protecto^ ^^^ Christ doth not proudly disdain to be a 
servant unto God ; neither the angels who approach near 
to his presence : and whoso disdaineth his service, and is 
puffed up with pride, God will gather them all to himself 
on the last day. ^^^ Unto those who believe, and do that 
which is right, he shall give their rewards, and shall 
superabundantly add unto them of his liberality : but 
those who are disdainful and proud, he will punish with a 
grievous punishment ; ^^^ and they shall not find any to 
protect or to help them, besides God. ^^^O men ! now is 
an evident proof come unto you from your Lord, and we 
have sent down unto you manifest light. ^^^ They who 
believe in God, and firmly adhere to him, he will lead 
them into mercy from him, and abundance ; and he will 
direct them in the right way to himself. ^^^ They will 
consult thee for thy decision in certain cases : say unto 
them, God giveth you these determinations, concerning 
the more remote degrees of kindred. If a man die with- 
out issue, and have a sister, she shall have the half of 
what he shall leave : and he shall be heir to her, in case 
she have no issue. But, if there be two sisters, they shall 
have, between them, two third parts of what he shall 
leave ; and, if there be several, both brothers and sisters, 
a male shall have as much as the portion of two females. 
God declareth unto you these precepts, lest ye err : and 
God knoweth all things. 

Namely, God, Jesus, and Mary ^. For 1 73 An evident proof y and manifest 

the eastern writers mention a sect of light.'] That is, Mohammed, and his 

Christians, which held the Trinity to be Koran. 

composed of those three 2; but it is al- 174 J71 the right way to him."] Viz. 

lowed that this heresy has been long since Into the religion of Islam, in this world, 

extinct^. The passage, however, is equally and the way to paradise in the next*. 

levelled against the Holy Trinity, accord- 175 Kindred.] See the beginning of 

ing to the doctrine of the orthodox Chris- this chapter, p. 79, 80. 

tians, who, as Al Beidawi acknowledges, — She shall have the half of what he 

believe the divine nature to consist of shall leave.] And the other half will go 

three persons, the Father, the Son, and to the public treasury. 

the Holy Ghost: by the Father understand- — And he shall be heir to her,] That 

ing God's essence ; by the Son, his know- is, he shall inherit her whole substance. 

ledge ; and, by the Holy Ghost, his life. 

1 Al Beiddwiy JallaWddin^ Yahya. ^ Elmacin^ p. 227- Eutych, p. 120. See 

the Prelim. Disc. § ii. p. 41. ' Ahmed Ebn Abd'al Halim. * Al Beidawi. 



v.] AL KORAN. 107 

CHAPTER V. 

INTITLED, THE TABLE; REVEALED AT MEDINA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

' O TRUE believers ! perform your contracts. ^ Ye are 
allowed to eat the brute cattle, other than what ye are 
commanded to abstain from ; except the game which ye 
are allowed at other times, but not while ye are on pil- 
grimage to Mecca ; God ordaineth that which he pleas- 
eth. ^ O true believers ! violate not the holy rites of 
God, nor the sacred month; nor the offering, nor the 
ornaments hung thereon, nor those who are travelling to 
the holy house, seeking favour from their Lord, and to 
please him. But when ye shall have finished your pil- 
grimage then hant. And let not the malice of some, in 
that they hindered you from entering the sacred temple, 
provoke you to transgress, by taking revenge on them in 
the sacred months. Assist one another, according to 
justice and piety, but assist not one another in injustice 
and malice : therefore fear God ; for God is severe in 
punishing. ^ Ye are forbidden to eat that which dieth of 
itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that on which the 
name of any besides God hath been invocated ; and that 
which hath been strangled, or killed by a blow, or by a 

Title — Table.~\ This title is taken — Nor the offering, nor the ornaments 

from the Table, which, towards the end hung thereon.^ The offering here nneant, 

of the chapter, is fabled to have been let is the sheep led to Mecca, to be there 

down from heaven to Jesus. It is some- sacrificed ; about the neck of which they 

times also called the chapter of Con- used to hang garlands, green boughs, or 

tracts, which word occurs in the first some other ornament, that it may be dis- 

verse. tinguished as a thing sacred ^. 

2 The brute cattle, &c.] As camels, — In that they hindered you from en- 
oxen, and sheep ; and also wild cows, teritig the sacred temple.'] In the expe- 
antelopes, &c. ^; but not swine, nor^what dition of Al Hodeibiya^. 

is taken in hunting during the pilgrimage. 4 On which the name of any besides 

3 The holy rites of God.~\ i. e. The God hath been invocated.'] For the ido- 
ceremonies used in the pilgrimage of latrous Arabs used, in killing any animal 
Mecca. for food, to consecrate it, as it v^ere, to 

— Sacred month.] See the Prelim, their idols, by saying, in the name of 
Disc. § vii. AUat, or al Uzza *. 

* Jallalo'ddin, al Beiddtvi. - See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. 3 Idem, § ii. 

* See ch. ii. 



108 AL KORAN. [chap. 

fall, or by the horns of another beast ; and that which 
hath been eaten by a wild beast ; except what ye shall 
kill yourselves ; and that which hath been sacrificed unto 
idols. It is likewise unlawful for you to make division 
by casting lots with arrows. This is an impiety. On this 
day, woe be unto those who have apostatized from their 
religion ; therefore fear not them, but fear me. This day 
have I perfected your religion for you, and have com- 
pleted my mercy upon you, and I have chosen for you 
Islam, to be your religion. But whosoever shall be driven 
by necessity, through hunger, to eat of what we have 
forbidden, not designing to sin, surely God will be in- 
dulgent and merciful unto him. ^ They will ask thee 
what is allowed them as lawful to eat ? Answer, such 
things as are good are allowed you ; and what ye shall 
teach animals of prey to catch, training them up for 
hunting, after the manner of dogs, and teaching them 
according to the skill which God hath taught you. Eat 
therefore of that which they shall catch for you ; and 
commemorate the name of God thereon ; and fear God, 
for God is swift in taking an account. ^ This day are ye 
allowed to eat such things as are good, and the food of 
those to whom the scriptures were given is also allowed 
as lawful unto you ; and your food is allowed as lawful 
unto them. And ye are also allowed to marry free women 
that are believers, and also free women of those who have 

4 Which hath been eaten by a wild — This day have I perfected your 

beast.^ Or by a creature trained up to religion for you,~\ And therefore the 

hunting 1. commentators say, that, after this time, 

— Except what ye shall kill your selves. '] no positive or negative precept was 
That is, unless ye come up time enough given *. 

to find life in the animal, and to cut its — And have completed my mercy upon 

throat. you.'] By having given you a true and 

— Idols.] The word also signifies cer- perfect religion ; or, by the taking of 
tain stones, which the Pagan Arabs used Mecca, and the destruction of idolatry. 

to set up near their houses, and on which 5 Such things as are good.] Not such 

they superstitiously slew animals, in ho- as are filthy or unwholesome. 

nour of their gods 2. — Animals of prey.] Whether beasts 

— Arrows.] See Prelim. Disc. § v. or birds. 

— On this day, &c.] This passage, it — And commemorate the name of God 
is said, was revealed on Friday evening, thereon,] Either when ye let go the 
being the day of the pilgrim's visiting hound, hawk, or other animal, after the 
Mount Arafat, the last time Mohammed game ; or when ye kill it. 

visited the temple of Mecca, therefore 6 Scriptures were give?i.] Viz. Slain 
called the Pilgrimage of valediction 3. or dressed by Jews or Christians. 

1 Al Beiddwi. ^ jdem. « Idem. See Prid. Life of Moham. p. 99. 

* V. Abulfed. vit. Moham. p. 131. 



v.] AL KORAN. 109 

received the scriptures before you, when ye shall have 
assigned them their dower; living chastely with them, 
neither committing fornication, nor taking them for con- 
cubines. Whoever shall renounce the faith, his work 
shall be vain, and in the next life he shall be of those 
who perish. ^ O true believers ! when ye prepare your- 
selves to pray, wash your faces, and your hands unto the 
elbows ; and rub your heads, and your feet unto the 
ancles ; and if ye be polluted by having lain with a wo- 
man, wash yourselves all over. But if ye be sick, or on 
a journey, or any of you cometh from the privy, or if ye 
have touched women, and ye find no water, take fine 
clean sand, and rub your faces and your hands therewith : 
God would not put a difficulty upon you ; but he desireth 
to purify you, and to complete his favour upon you, that 
ye may give thanks. ^Remember the favour of God 
towards you, and his covenant which he hath made with 
you, when ye said. We have heard and will obey. There- 
fore fear God, for God knoweth the innermost parts of 
the breasts of men. ^ O true believers ! observe justice 
when ye appear as witnesses before God, and let not 
hatred towards any induce you to do wrong: but act 
justly ; this will approach nearer unto piety ; and fear 
God, for God is fully acquainted with what ye do. ^^ God 
hath promised unto those who believe, and do that which 
is right, that they shall receive pardon and a great re- 
ward. ^^ But they who believe not, and accuse our signs 
of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell. ^^ O 
true believers ! remember God's favour towards you, w^hen 
certain men designed to stretch forth their hands against 
you, but he restrained their hands from hurting you ; 

8 We have heard, and will ooey.'\ These tions, a company of idolaters, who were in 
words are the form used at the inaugura- view, repented they had not taken that 
tion of a prince; and Mohammed here opportunity of attacking them ; and there- 
intends the oath of fidelity which his fol- fore waited till the hour of evening prayer, 
lowers had taken to him at al Akaba ^ intending to fall upon them then : but 

12 When ce7'tain men designed to stretch God defeated their design, by revealing 

forth their hands against you, but he re- the verse of fear. Another relates, that 

strained them.'] The commentators tell the prophet going to the tribe of Koreidha, 

several stories as the occasion of this pas- (who were Jews,) to levy a fine for the 

sage. One says, that Mohammed, and blood of two Moslems, who had been 

some of his followers, being at Osfan, (a killed by mistake, by Amru Ebn Ommeya 

place not far from Mecca, in the way to al Dimri, they desired him to sit down 

Medina,) and performing their noon devo- and eat with them, and they would pay 

^ V. Ahulfed vit. Moham. p. 43. and the Prelim. Disc. § ii.p. 56, 57. 



no AL KORAN. ' [chap. 

therefore fear God, and in God let the faithful trust. ^^God 
formerly accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, 
and we appointed out of them twelve leaders : and God 
said, Verily I am with you: if ye observe prayer, and give 
alms, and believe in my apostles, and assist them, and lend 
unto God on good usury, I will surely expiate your evil 
deeds from you, and I will lead you into gardens wherein 
rivers flow : but he among you who disbelieveth after this, 
erreth from the straight path. ^* Wherefore because they 
have broken their covenant, we have cursed them, and 
hardened their hearts : they dislocate the words of the 
pentateuch from their places, and have forgotten part of 
what they were admonished ; and thou wilt not cease to 
discover deceitful practices among them, except a few of 
them. But forgive them, and pardon them, for God 
loveth the beneficent. ^^ And from those who say. We 
are Christians, we have received their covenant ; but they 
have forgotten part of what they were admonished; 
wherefore we have raised up enmity and hatred among 
them, till the day of resurrection ; and God will then 
surely declare unto them what they have been doing. 
^^O ye who have received the scriptures! now is our 

the fine. Mohammed complying with After the Israelites had escaped from 
their request, while he was sitting, they Pharaoh, God ordered them to go against 
laid a design against his life, one Amru Jericho, which was then inhabited by 
Ebn Jahash undertaking to throw a mill- giants, of the race of the Canaanites, pro- 
stone upon him; but God withheld his mising to give it into their hands; and 
hand ; and Gabriel immediately descended Moses, by the divine direction, appointed 
to acquaint the prophet with their treach- a prince or captain over each tribe, to 
ery, upon which he rose up, and went his lead them in that expedition 3, and, when 
way. A third story is, thit Mohammed, they came to the borders of the land of 
having hung up his arms on a tree, under Canaan, sent the captives as spies to get 
which he was resting himself, and his information of the state of the country, 
companions being dispersed some distance enjoining them secrecy ; but they being 
from him, an Arab of the desert came up terrified at the prodigious size and strength 
to him, and drew his sword, saying. Who of the inhabitants, disheartened the people, 
hindereth me from killing thee ? To which by publicly telling what they had seen, 
Mohammed answered, God : and Gabriel except only Caleb, the son of Yufanna, 
beating the sword out of the Arab's hand, ( Jephunneh,) and Joshua, the son of 
Mohammed took it up, and asked him Nun \ 

the same question. Who hinders me from — And lend unto God on good usury.l 

killing thee ? The Arab replied, Nobody ; By contributing towards this holy war. 

and immediately professed Mohamme- 14 Forgive them, and pardon them.^ 

dism^. Abulfeda 2 tells the same story. That is, if they repent and believe, or 

with some variation of circumstances. submit to pay tribute. Some, however, 

13 God appointed them twelve leaders , think these words are abrogated by the 

and said, Verily I am with you, &c.] verse of the sword ^. 

> Al Beiddivi. ^ vit. Moham. p. 73. ^ See Numb. i. 4, 5. 

* Al Beiddwi, See Numb. xiii. and xiv. ^ Al Beiddwi. 



v.] AL KORAN. Ill 

apostle come unto you, to make manifest unto you many 
things which ye concealed in the scriptures ; and to pass 
over many things. ^^ Now is light and a perspicuous 
book of revelations come unto you from God. ^^ Thereby 
will God direct him who shall follow his good pleasure, 
into the paths of peace ; and shall lead them out of dark- 
ness into light, by his will, and shall direct them in the 
right way. ^^ They are infidels, who say, Verily God is 
Christ, the son of Mary. ^^ Say unto them, And who 
could obtain any thing from God to the contrary, if he 
pleased to destroy Christ, the son of Mary, and his 
mother, and all those who are on the earth? For unto 
God belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth, and 
whatsoever is contained between them ; he createth what 
he pleaseth, and God is almighty. ^^ The Jews and the 
Christians say. We are the children of God, and his be- 
loved. Answer, Why therefore doth he punish you for your 
sins ? Nay, but ye are men, of those whom he hath created. 
He forgiveth whom he pleaseth, and punisheth whom he 
pleaseth ; and unto God belongeth the kingdom of heaven 
and earth, and of what is contained between them both ; 
and unto him shall all things return. ^^ O ye w^ho have 
received the scriptures ! now is our apostle come unto 
you, declaring unto you the true religion, during the 
cessation of apostles, lest ye should say. There came unto 
us no bearer of good tidings, nor any warner : ^^ but now 
is a bearer of good tidings, and a warner, come unto you ; 
and God is almighty. ^^ Call to mind when Moses said 
unto his people, O my people ! remember the favour of 
God towards you, since he hath appointed prophets 

16 To make manifest unto you many phets, during which no new revelation, or 

things which ye concealed^ in the scrip- dispensation, was given ; as the interval 

tares.'] Such as the verse of stoning between Moses and Jesus, and between 

adulterers i, the description of Moham- Jesus and Mohammed ; at the expiration 

med, and Christ's prophecy of him by the of which last, Mohammed pretended to 

name of Ahmed 2. be sent. 

— Jnd to pass over many things.] 24 And constituted you kings.] This 

i. e. Those which it was not necessary was fulfilled, either by God's giving them 

to restore. a kingdom, and a long series of princes ; 

22 During the cessation of apostles. "i or, by his having made them kings or 

The Arabic word al Fatra signifies the masters of themselves, by delivering them 

intermediate space of time between two pro- from the Egyptian bondage. 

* See chap. 3. p. 49, note 23. 2 ^/ Beiddwi. 



112 AL KORAN. [chap. 

among you, and constituted you kings, and bestowed on 
you wliat he hath given to no other nation in the world. 
^^ O my people ! enter the holy land, which God hath 
decreed you, and turn not your backs, lest ye be subverted 
and perish. ^^ They answered, O Moses ! verily there 
are a gigantic people in the land ; '^^ and we will by no 
means enter it, until they depart thence ; but if they 
depart thence, then will we enter therein. ^^ And two 
men of those who feared God, unto whom God had been 
gracious, said. Enter ye upon them suddenly by the gate 
of the city ; and when ye shall have entered the same, ye 
shall surely be victorious : ^^ therefore trust in God, if ye 
are true believers. ^^ They replied, O Moses ! we will 
never enter the land, while they remain therein : go 
therefore thou, and thy Lord, and fight ; for we will sit 
here. ^^ Moses said, O Lord ! surely I am not master of 
any except myself, and my brother; therefore make a 
distinction between us and the ungodly people. ^^ God 
answered. Verily the land shall be forbidden them forty 
years : during which time they shall wander like men 
astonished in the earth : therefore be not thou solicitous 
for the ungodly people. ^^ Relate also unto them the 
history of the two sons of Adam, with truth. When they 

24 And bestowed on you what he hath from morning to night, yet they constantly 

given to no other nation.^ Having divided found themselves, the next day, at the 

the Red Sea for you, and guided you by place from whence they set out ^. 

a cloud, and fed you with quails and 33 The two sons of Adam.'] Viz. Cain 

manna, &c. ^ and Abel, whom the Mohammedans call 

26 A gigantic people.'] The largest of Kdhil and HdbiL 

these giants, the commentators say, was — When they offered their offering.] 

Og, the son of Anak ; concerning whose The occasion of their making this offering 

enormous stature, his escaping the flood, is thus rel ited, according to the common 

and the manner of his being slain by tradition in the east *. Each of them 

Moses, the Mohammedans relate several being born with a twin- sister, when they 

absurd fables 2. were grown up, Adam, by God's direction, 

28 Two men.] Namely, Caleb and ordered Cain to marry Abel's twin- sister; 

Joshua. and that Abel should marry Cain's ; (for 

32 The land shall he forbidden them it being the common opinion that mar- 

forty years, during which they shall wander riages ought not to be had in tihe nearest 

in the earth like men astonished.] The degrees of consanguinity, since they must 

commentators pretend that the Israelites, necessarily marry their sisters, it seemed 

while they thus wandered in the desert, reasonable to suppose they ought to take 

were kept within the compass of about those of the remoter degree;) but this 

eighteen (or, as some say, twenty-seven) Cain refusing to agree to, because his own 

miles : and that, though they travelled sister was the handsomest, Adam ordered 

1 Al Beiddwi. ^ V. Marracc. in Alcor. p. 231 , &c. D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient. 

p. 336. 3 Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin. * V. Ahu'lfarag. p. 6, 7. Eutych, 

annal. p. 15, 16, and D'Herhelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Cabil, 



v.] AL KORAN. 113 

offered their offering, and it was accepted from one of 
them, and was not accepted from the other, Cain said to 
his brother, I will certainl)^ kill thee. Abel answered, 
God only accepteth the offering of the pious : ^^ if thou 
stretchest forth thy hand against me, to slay me, I will 
not stretch forth my hand against thee, to slay thee ; for 
I fear God, the Lord of all creatures. ^^ I choose that 
thou shouldest bear my iniquity, and thine own iniquity ; 
and that thou become a companion of hell-fire ; for that 
is the reward of the unjust. ^^ But his soul suffered him 
to slay his brother, and he slew him ; wherefore he 
became of the number of those who perish. ^^ And God 
sent a raven, which scratched the earth, to shew him how 
he should hide the shame of his brother ; and he said, 
Woe is me ! am I unable to be like this raven, that I 
may hide my brother's shame ? and he became one of 
those who repent. ^^ Wherefore we commanded the 
children of Israel, that he who slayeth a soul, without 
having slain a soul, or committed wickedness in the earth, 
shall be as if he had slain all mankind: but he who 
saveth a soul alive, shall be as if he had saved the lives 

them to make their offerings to God, shape, and shewed him how to do it, by 

thereby referring the dispute to his deter- crushing the head of a bird between two 

mination ^. The commentators say, Cain's stones *. 

offering was a sheaf of the very worst of 37 God sent a raven which scratched the 

his corn ; but Abel's a fat lamb, of the earth, and shewed him how to hide his hro- 

best of his flock. ther's shame.^ i. e. His dead corpse. For 

— ^nd it was accepted from one of Cain, having committed this fratricide, be- 

them.'] Namely, from Abel ; whose sacri- came exceedingly troubled in his mind, and 

fice God declared his acceptance of in a carried the dead body about on his shoul- 

visible manner, by causing fire to descend ders for a considerable time, not knowing 

from heaven, and consume it, without where to conceal it, till it stank horridly ; 

touching that of Cain 2. and then God taught him to bury it by the 

34 / will not stretch forth my hand example of a raven, who, having killed ano- 
against thee.^ To enhance Abel's pa- ther raven in his presence, dug a pit with 
tience, al Beidawi tells us, that he was the his claws and beak, and buried him there- 
stronger of the two, and could easily have in 5. For this circumstance of the raven, 
prevailed against his brother. Mohammed was beholden to the Jews, who 

35 The conversation between the two tell the same story ; except only that they 
brothers is related somewhat to the same make the raven to appear to Adam, and 
purpose in the Jerusalem Targum, and that he thereupon buried his son ^. 

that of Jonathan ben Uzziel. 38 Without committing wickedness on 

36 Jnd he slew him,'\ Some say he the earth.~\ Such as idolatry, or robbing 
knocked out his brains with a stone ^ ; on the highway ^. 

and pretend, that as Cain was considering — Shall he as if he had slain all man- 

which way he should effect the murder, kindJ] Having broken the commandment 
the devil appeared to him in a human which forbids the shedding of blood. 



^ Al Beiddwi. 2 Idem, Jallalo' ddin, 3 y^ Eutych. ubi supra. 

* V. D'Herhel. ubi supra. ^ Jallalo'ddin, Al Beiddwi, ^ V. R. Eliezer. 

Pirke. c. 20. ? Al Beiddwi, 



VOL. I, 



114 AL KORAN. [chap. 

of all mankindc Our apostles formerly came unto them, 
with evident miracles ; then were many of them, after 
this, transgressors on the earth. ^^ But the recompence 
of those who fight against God and his apostle, and study 
to act corruptly in the earth, shall be, that they shall be 
slain or crucified, or have their hands and their feet cut 
off on the opposite sides, or be banished the land. This 
shall be their disgrace in this world ; and in the next 
world they shall suffer a grievous punishment ; ^^ except 
those who shall repent, before ye prevail against them ; 
for know that God is inclined to forgive, and merciful. 
^^ O true believers ! fear God, and earnestly desire a near 
conjunction with him, and fight for his religion, that ye 
may be happy. ^^ Moreover, they who believe not, al- 
though they had whatever is in the earth, and as much 
more withal, that they might therewith redeem them- 
selves from punishment on the day of resurrection; it 
shall not be accepted from them, but they shall suffer a 
painful punishment. ^^ They shall desire to go forth 
from the fire, but they shall not go forth from it, and 
their punishment shall be permanent. ^^ If a man or a 
woman steal, cut off their hands, in retribution for that 
which they have committed : this is an exemplary punish- 
ment appointed by God ; and God is mighty and wise. 
^^ But whoever shall repent after his iniquity, and amend, 
verily God will be turned unto him, for God is inclined 
to forgive, and merciful. ^^ Dost thou not know that the 

39 Banished.'} The lawyers are not about forty shillings. For the first offence, 
agreed as to the applying of these punish- the criminal is to lose his right hand, 
ments. But the commentators suppose, which is to be cut off at the wrist ; for the 
that they who commit murder only, are second offence, his left foot, at the ancle ; 
to be put to death in the ordinary way ; for the third, his left hand ; for the fourth, 
those who murder and rob too, to be cruci- his right foot; and, if he continue to 
fied ; those who rob, without committing offend, he shall be scourged at the dis- 
murder, to have their right hand, and their cretion of the judge ^. 
left foot, cut off ; and they who assault 45 But whoever shall repent and ame7id, 
persons, and put them in fear, to be ba- God will he turned unto him^ &c.] That 
nished ^ It is also a doubt whether they is, God will not punish him for it here- 
who are to be crucified shall be crucified after ; but his repentance does not super- 
alive, or be first put to death ; or whether sede the execution of the law here, nor 
they shall hang on the cross till they die 2. excuse him from making restitution. Yet, 

44 Cut off their hands.} But this according to al Shafei, he shall not be 

punishment, according to the Sonna, is not punished, if the party wronged forgive 

to be inflicted, unless the value of the him before he be carried before a magis- 

thing stolen amount to four dinars, or trate*. 

^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin, ^ Al Beiddwi, ^ Jallalo* ddin, Al Beiddwi, * lidem. 



v.] 



AL KORAN, 



115 



kingdom of heaven and earth is God's ? He punisheth 
whom he pleaseth ; and he pardoneth whom he pleaseth ; 
for God is almighty. ^^ O apostle ! let not them grieve 
thee, who hasten to infidelity ; either of those who say. We 
believe, with their mouths, but whose hearts believe not ; 
or of the Jews, who hearken to a lie, and hearken to 
other people ; ^^ who come not unto thee : they pervert 
the words of the law from their true places, and say. If 
this be brought unto you, receive it; but if it be not 
brought unto you, beware of receiving aught else ; and, 
in behalf of him whom God shall resolve to seduce, thou 
slialt not prevail with God at all. They whose hearts 
God shall not please to cleanse, shall suffer shame in this 
world, and a grievous punishment in the next : ^^ who 
hearken to a lie, and eat that which is forbidden. But 
if they come unto thee for judgment, either judge between 
them, or leave them ; and if thou leave them, they shall 
not hurt thee at all. But if thou undertake to judge, 
judge between them with equity ; for God loveth those 



47 Who hasten to infidelity.^ i. e. Who 
take the first opportunity to throw off the 
mask, and to join the unbehevers. 

— Who say. We believe, with their 
mouths, &c.] viz. The hypocritical Mo- 
hammedans. 

— Who hearken to a lie, and hearken to 
other people.'] These words are capable 
of two senses ; and may either mean that 
they attended to the lies and forgeries of 
their Rabbins, neglecting the remonstrances 
of Mohammed ; or else, that they came to 
hear Mohammed as spies only, that they 
might report what he said to their compa- 
nions, and represent him as a liar 1. 

48 Pervert. '\ See chap. iv. note. 

— If this he brought unto you, receive 
it ; but if it be not brought unto you, be- 
ware of receiving aught else.'] That is, if 
what Mohammed tells you, agrees with 
scripture, as corrupted and dislocated by 
us, then you may accept it as the word of 
God ; but if not, reject it. These words, it 
is said, relate to the sentence pronounced 
by that prophet on an adulterer and an 
adulteress ^, both persons of some figure 
among the Jews. For they, it seems, 
though they referred the matter to Mo- 
hammed, yet directed the persons who 



carried the criminals before him, that, if 
he ordered them to be scourged, and to 
have their faces blackened (by way of 
ignominy), they should acquiesce in his 
determination ; but, in case he condemned 
them to be stoned, they should not. And 
Mohammed pronouncing the latter sen- 
tence against them, they refused to exe- 
cute it, till Ebn Suriya (a Jew), who was 
called upon to decide the matter, acknow- 
ledged the law to be so. Whereupon 
they were stoned at the door of the 
mosque ^. 

49 And eat that which is forbidden,] 
Some understand this of unlawful meats ; 
but others, of taking^ or devouring, as it is 
expressed, of usury and bribes *. 

— Either judge between them, or leave 
them.] i. e. Take thy choice, whether thou 
wilt determine their differences or not. 
Hence al Shafei was of opinion that a 
judge was not obliged to decide causes be- 
tween Jews or Christians ; though, if one 
or both of them be tributaries, or under 
the protection of the Mohammedans, they 
are obliged : this verse not regarding them. 
Abu Hanifa, however, thought that the 
magistrates were obliged to judge all cases 
which were submitted to them ^. 



^ Al Beiddwi. 



* Idem. 



2 See chap. 3. note 

i2 



^ Al Beiddwi, 



^ Idem. 



116 AL KORAN. [chap. 

who observe justice. ^^ And how will they submit to thy 
decision, since they have the law, containing the judgment 
of God ? Then will they turn their backs, after this ; but 
those are not true believers. ^^ We have surely sent 
down the law, containing direction, and light; thereby 
did the prophets, who professed the true religion, judge 
those who judaized; and the doctors and priests also 
judged by the book of God, which had been committed 
to their custody ; and they were witnesses thereof. 
Therefore fear not men, but fear me; neither sell my 
signs for a small price. ^^ And whoso judgeth not accord- 
ing to what God hath revealed, they are infidels. ^^ We 
have therein commanded them, that they should give 
life for life, and eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear 
for ear, and tooth for tooth ; and that wounds should also 
be punished by retaliation : but whoever should remit it 
as alms, it should be accepted as an atonement for him. 
And whoso judgeth not according to what God hath 
revealed, they are unjust. ^^ We also caused Jesus, the 
son of Mary, to follow the footsteps of the prophets, 
confirming the law which was sent down before him ; and 
we gave him the gospel, containing direction and light ; 
confirming also the law which was given before it, and a 
direction and admonition unto those who fear God : 
^^ that they who have received the gospel, might judge 
according to what God hath revealed therein : And 
whoso judgeth not according to what God hath revealed, 
they are transgressors. ^^ We have also sent down unto 
thee the book of the Koran with truth, confirming that 

50 And how will they submit to thy de- both, which had been too remissly ob- 
cision, since they have the law, &c.] In served, or rather neglected, by the latter 
the following passage Mohammed endea- professors of those religions, 
voiirs to answer the objections of the Jews — Then will they turn their hacks after 
and Christians, who insisted that they this.'] That is, notwithstanding their out- 
ought to be judged, the former by the law ward submission, they will not abide by 
of Moses, and the latter by the gospel, the sentence, though conformable to the 
He allows that the law was the proper rule law, if it contradict their own false and 
of judging till the coming of Jesus Christ; loose decisions. 

after which the gospel was the rule; but — Those are not true believers.'] As 

pretends, that both are set aside by the gainsaying the doctrine of the books which 

revelation of the Koran, which is so far they acknowledge for scripture, 
from being contradictory to either of the 51 And they were witnesses thereof.] 

former, that it is more full and explicit ; That is, vigilant to prevent any corrup- 

declaring several points which had been tions therein. 

stifled, or corrupted herein, and requiring 53 Life.] The original word is soul. 
a rigorous execution of the precepts in — Retaliation.] See Exod. xxi. 24, &c. 



v.] AL KORAN. 117 

scripture which was revealed before it; and preserving 
the same safe from corruption. ^^ Judge, therefore, between 
them according to that which God hath revealed; and 
follow not their desires, by swerving from the truth, which 
hath come unto thee. Unto every of you have we given 
a law, and an open path ; and, if God had pleased, 
he had surely made you one people ; but he hath thought 
fit to give you different laws, that he might try you in that 
which he hath given you respectively. Therefore, strive 
to excel each other in good works : unto God shall ye all 
return, and then will he declare unto you that concerning 
which ye have disagreed. Wherefore, do thou, O pro- 
phet ! judge between them according to that which God 
hath revealed, and follow not their desires ; but, beware of 
them, lest they cause thee to err from part of those 
precepts which God hath sent down unto thee ; and, if 
they turn back, know that God is pleased to punish them 
for some of their crimes ; for a great number of men are 
transgressors. ^^ Do they, therefore, desire the judgment 
of the time of ignorance ? but, who is better than God, 
to judge between people who reason aright ? ^^ O true 
believers ! take not the Jews, or Christians, for your 
friends ; they are friends the one to the other ; but 
whoso among you taketh them for his friends, he is surely 
one of them : verily, God directeth not unjust people. 
^^ Thou shalt see those in whose hearts there is an infir- 
mity, to hasten unto them, saying, We fear lest some 
adversity befal us ; but it is easy for God to give victory, 

57 He had made you one people,'] i. e. moment, which they pretended to have 
He liad given you the same laws, which with their own people, and which was 
should have continued in force through agreed to be referred to his decision, they 
all ages, without being abolished or changed would believe on him: but this Mo- 
by new dispensations : or, he could have hammed absolutely refused to comply 
forced you all to embrace the Mohamme- with 2. 
dan religion 1. — If they turn haclc.'] Or refuse to be 

— And follow not their desires; hut judged by the Koran. 
beware of them, lest they cause thee to err, 58 The judgment of the time of igno- 
re.'] It is related, that certain of the ranee.] That is, to be judged according 
Jewish priests came to Mohammed with a to the customs of Paganism, which indulge 
design to entrap him; and, having first the passions and vicious appetites of man- 
represented to him, that, if they acknow- kind : for this, it seems, was demanded by 
ledged him for a prophet, the rest of the the Jewish tribes of Koreidha and al 
Jews would certainly follow their example, Nadir ^. 

made this proposal, that, if he would give 60 We fear lest some adversity befal us.] 

judgment for them in a controversy of These were the words of Ebn Obba, who, 

* Al Dciddwi. '^ Idem. ^ Idem. 



118 



AL KORAN, 



[chap. 



or a command from him, that they may repent of that 
which they concealed in their minds. ^^ And they who 
believe, will say, Are these the men who have sworn by 
God, with a most - firm oath, that they surely held with 
you ? their works are become vain, and they are of those 
who perish. ^^ O true believers ! whoever of you aposta- 
tizeth from his religion, God will certainly bring other 
people to supply his place, whom he will love, and who 
will love him; who shall be humble towards the be- 
lievers, but severe to the unbelievers : ^^ they shall fight 
for the religion of God, and shall not fear the obloquy of 
the detractor. This is the bounty of God, he bestoweth 
it on whom he pleaseth : God is extensive and wise. 
^^ Verily, your protector is God, and his apostle, and those 
who believe, who observe the stated times of prayer, and 



when Obadah Ebn al Samat publicly re- 
nounced the friendship of the infidels, and 
professed, that he took God and his apostle 
for his patrons, said, that he was a man ap- 
prehensive of the fickleness of fortune, 
and, therefore, would not throw off his 
old friends, who might be of service to him 
hereafter ^ 

60 A command from MmJ\ To extir- 
pate and banish the Jews ; or, to detect 
and punish the hypocrites. 

61 Are these the men who have sworn, 
&c.] These words may be spoken by the 
Mohammedans, either to one another, or 
to the Jews, since these hypocrites had 
given their oaths to both ^. 

62 Whoever of you apostatizeth from his 
religion, God will certainly bring others to 
supply his place, &c.] This is one of those 
accidents, which, it is pretended, were 
foretold by the Koran long before they 
came to pass. For, in the latter days of 
Mohammed, and after his death, consider- 
able numbers of the Arabs quitted his 
religion, and returned to Paganism, Ju- 
daism, or Christianity. Al Beidawi reckons 
them up in the following order. 1. Three 
companies of Banu Modlaj, seduced by 
Dhu'lhamar al Aswad al Ansi, who set up 
for a prophet in Yaman, and grew very 
powerful there ^. 2. Banu Honeifa, who 
followed the famous false prophet Mosei- 
lama *. 3. Banu Asad, who acknowledged 
Toleiha Ebn Khowailed, another pretender 
to divine revelation ^, for their prophet. 



All these fell off in Mohammed's lifetime. 
The following, except only the last, apos- 
tatized in the reign of Abu Beer. 4. Cer- 
tain of the tribe of Fezarah, headed by 
Oyeyma Ebn Hosein. 5. Some of the 
tribe of Ghatfan, whose leader was Kor- 
rah Ebn Salma. 6. Banu Soleim, who 
followed al Fajaah Ebn Abd Yalil. 7- Ba- 
nu Yarbu, whose captain was Malec Ebn 
Noweirah Ebn Kais. 8. Part of the tribe 
of Tamim, the proselytes of Sajaj, the 
daughter of al Mondhar, who gave herself 
out for a prophetess^. 9. The tribe of 
Kendah, led by al Ashath Ebn Kais. IQ. 
Banu Beer Ebn al Wayel, in the province 
of Bahrein, headed by al Horam Ebn Zeid. 
And 11. Some of the tribe of Ghassan, 
who, with their prince, Jabalah Ebn al 
Ayham, renounced Mohammedism in the 
time of Omar, and returned to their former 
profession of Christianity ^. 

But, as to the persons who fulfilled the 
other part of this prophecy, by supplying 
the loss of so many renegades, the com^ 
mentators are not agreed. Some will have 
them to be the inhabitants of Yaman, and 
others, the Persians ; the authority of Mo- 
hammed himself being vouched for both 
opinions. Others, however, suppose them 
to be 2000 of the tribe of Al Nakha (who 
dwelt in Yaman), 5000 of those of Kendah 
and Bajilah, and 3000 of unknown descent, 
who were present at the famous battle of Ka- 
desia *, fought in the Khalifat of Omar, and 
which put an end to the Persian empire^. 



^ Al Beiddwi. 
5 See ib. ^ See ib. 

^ Al Beiddwi. 



2 Idem. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. § viii. ^ See ib. 

7 See ib. § i. p. 13. ^ D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient, p. 226. 



v.] AL KORAN. 119 

give alms, and who bow down to worship. ^^ And whoso 
taketh God, and his apostle, and the believers, for his 
friends, they are the party of God, and they shall be 
victorious. ^^ O true believers ! take not such of those to 
whom the scriptures were delivered before you, or of the 
infidels, for your friends, who make a laughing-stock and 
a jest of your religion ; but fear God, if ye be true 
believers ; ^^ nor those who, when ye call to prayer, make 
a laughing-stock and a jest of it : this they do, because 
they are people who do not understand. ^^ Say, O ye who 
have received the scriptures ! do ye reject us for any 
other reason than because we believe in God, and that 
revelation which hath been sent down unto us, and that 
which was formerly sent down, and for that the greater 
part of you are transgressors? ^^ Say, Shall I denounce 
unto you a worse thing than this, as to the reward 
which ye are to expect with God? He whom God 
hath cursed, and with whom he hath been angry, hav- 
ing changed some of them into apes and swine, and 
who worship Taghut, they are in the worse condi- 
tion, and err more widely from the straitness of the 
path. ^^ When they came unto you, they said. We 
believe : yet they entered into your company with infi- 
delity, and went forth from you with the same ; but 
God well knew what they concealed. ^^Thou shalt see 
many of them hastening unto iniquity and malice, and 
to eat things forbidden ; and woe unto them for what 

66 Take not those for your friends, who burn the liar: but, a few nights after, his 

make a laughing-stock of your religion.~\ own house was accidentally set on fire by 

This passage was primarily intended to a servant, and himself and his family pe- 

forbid the Moslems entering into a friend- rished in the flames ^ 

ship with two hypocrites, named Rafaa, 69 Havi^ig changed some of them into 

Ebn Zeid, and Soweid Ebn al Hareth, apes and swine.^ The former were the 

who, though they had embraced Mo- Jews of Ailah, who broke the sabbath 2; 

hammedism, yet ridiculed it on all occa- and the latter, those who believed not in 

sions, and were, notwithstanding, greatly the miracle of the Table, which was let 

beloved among the prophet's followers. down from heaven to Jesus ^. Some, 

6^ Nor those who, when ye call to prayer, however, imagine that the Jews of Ailah 

make a jest of it.'] These words were only are meant in this place, pretending, 

added on occasion of a certain Christian, that the young men among them were 

who hearing the Muadhdhin, or crier, in metamorphosed into apes, and the old men 

calling to prayers, repeat this part of the into swine*, 

usual form, I profess that Mohammed is — Taghut.] See chap. ii. 

the apostle of God, said aloud. May God 71 Forbidden.] See before, p. 107. 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ See chap. ii. ^ See towards the end of this chapter 

* Al Beiddwi, 



120 AL KORAN. [chap, 

they have done. ^^ Unless their doctors and priests for- 
bid them uttering wickedness, and eating things for- 
bidden ; woe unto them for what they shall have com- 
mitted. ^^ The Jews say, The hand of God is tied up. 
Their hands shall be tied up, and they shall be cursed 
for that which they have said. Nay, his hands are both 
stretched forth : he bestoweth as he pleaseth : that which 
hath been sent down unto thee from thy Lord shall in- 
crease the transgression and infidelity of many of them ; 
and we have put enmity and hatred between them, until 
the day of resurrection. So often as they shall kindle a 
fire for war, God shall extinguish it ; and they shall set 
their minds to act corruptly in the earth, but God loveth 
not the corrupt doers. ^^ Moreover, if they, who have 
received the scriptures, believe, and fear God, we will 
surely expiate their sins from them, and we will lead 
them into gardens of pleasure ; ^^ and if they observe the 
law, and the gospel, and the other scriptures, which have 
been sent down unto them from their Lord, they shall 
surely eat of good things both from above them, and from 
under their feet. Among them there are people who 
act uprightly ; but how evil is that which many of them 
do work ! ^^ O apostle ! publish the whole of that which 
hath been sent down unto thee from thy Lord : for if 
thou do not, thou dost not, in effect, publish any part 

73 God's hand is tied up. ~\ That is, he is feuds and quarrels among themselves, or 

become niggardly and close-fisted. These by granting the victory to the Moslems, 

were the words of Phineas Ebn Azura ; Al Beidawi adds, that, on the Jews neg- 

another indecent expression of whom, al- lecting the true observance of their law, 

most to the same purpose, is mentioned and corrupting their religion, God has 

elsewhere ^, when the Jews were much successively delivered them into the hands, 

impoverished by a dearth, which the com- first, of Bakht Nasr, or Nebuchadnezzar ; 

mentators will have to be a judgment on then of Titus the Roman ; and afterwards 

them for their rejecting of Mohammed ; of the Persians ; and has now, at last, 

and the other Jews, who heard him, in- subjected them to the Mohammedans, 

stead of reproving him, expressed their 7^ They shall eat 0/ the good things both 

approbation of what he had said 2. from above them and from under their 

— Their hands shall be tied up.~\ i.e. feet.'\ That is, they shall enjoy the bless- 
They shall be punished with want and ings both of heaven and earth. 

avarice. The words may also allude to ^6 If thou publish not the whole, thou 
the manner wherein the reprobates shall dost not, in effect, publish any part thereof^ 
appear at the last day, having their right That is, if thou do not complete the pub- 
hands tied up to their necks ^ ; which is lication of all thy revelations, without ex- 
the proper signification of the Arabic word, ception, thou dost not answer the end for 

— Sent down.~\ Viz. The Koran. which they were revealed ; because, the 

— So often as they kindle fire for war, concealing of any part renders the system 
God shall extinguish i/.] Either by raising of religion, which God has thought fit to 

1 Chap. iii. 2 ji Beidawi, ^ See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 105. 



v.] AL KORAN. 121 

thereof; and God will defend thee against wicked men; 
for God directeth not the unbelieving people. ^^ Say, O 
ye who have received the scriptures, ye are not grounded 
on any thing, until ye observe the law and the gospel, 
and that which hath been sent down unto you from your 
Lord. That which hath been sent down unto thee from 
thy Lord, shall surely increase the transgression and in- 
fidelity of many of them : but be not thou solicitous for 
the unbelieving people. ^^ Verily, they who believe, and 
those who judaize, and the Sabians, and the Christians, 
whoever of them believeth in God and the last day, and 
doth that which is right, there shall come no fear on 
them, neither shall they be grieved. ^^ We formerly ac- 
cepted the covenant of the children of Israel, and sent 
apostles unto them. So often as an apostle came unto 
them with that which their souls desired not, they accused 
some of them of imposture, and some of them they killed : 
^^ and they imagined that there should be no punishment 
for those crimes, and they became blind, and deaf Then 
was God turned unto them : afterwards many of them 
again became blind and deaf; but God saw what they 
did. ^^ They are surely infidels, who say. Verily, God is 
Christ, the son of Mary ; since Christ said, O children 
of Israel ! serve God, my Lord and your Lord : who- 
ever shall give a companion unto God, God shall exclude 
him from paradise, and his habitation shall be hell-fire ; 
and the ungodly shall have none to help them. ^^ They 
are certainly infidels, who say, God is the third of three : 
for there is no God, besides one God : and if they refrain 
not from what they say, a painful torment shall surely be 
inflicted on such of them as are unbelievers. ^^Will 
they not, therefore, be turned unto God, and ask pardon 
of him ? since God is gracious and merciful. ^^ Christ, 
the son of Mary, is no more than an apostle; other 

publish to mankind by thy ministry, lame 78 Grieved.'] See chap. ii. 

and imperfect ^ 80 Jnd they became Wind and deafJ] 

— God will defend thee^ &c.] Until Shutting their eyes and ears against con- 

this verse was revealed, Mohammed en- viction, and the remonstrances of the law; 

tertained a guard of armed men for his as when they worshipped the calf, 

security ; but, on his receiving this as- — Then was God turned unto them.'] 

surance of God's protection, he imme- i. e. Upon their repentance, 

diately dismissed them 2. 82 Three.] See chap. iv. 

* Al Beiddwi, Jallalo^ddin. 2 [i(Jem. 



122 A L KORAN. [chap. 

apostles have preceded him ; and his mother was a woman 
of veracity ; they both ate food. Behold, how we declare 
unto them the signs of God's unity ; and then behold how 
they turn aside from the truth. ^^ Say unto them, - Will 
ye worship, besides God, that which can cause you nei- 
ther harm nor profit ? God is he who heareth and seeth. 
^^ Say, O ye who have received the scriptures ! exceed 
not the just bounds in your religion, by speaking beside 
the truth ; neither follow the desires of people who have 
heretofore erred, and who have seduced many, and have 
gone astray from the strait path. ^^ Those among the 
children of Israel who believed not, were cursed by the 
tongue of David, and of Jesus the son of Mary. This 
befel them because they were rebellious and transgressed : 
^^ they forbade not one another the wickedness which 
they committed ; and woe unto them for what they com- 
mitted. ^^ Thou shalt see many of them take for their 
friends, those who believe not. Woe imto them for what 
their souls have sent before them, for that God is in- 
censed against them, and they shall remain in torment 
for ever. ^^ But, if they had believed in God, and the 
prophet, and that which hath been revealed unto him, 
they had not taken them for their friends ; but many of 
them are evil-doers. ^^ Thou shalt surely find the most 
violent of all men in enmity against the true believers, 
to be the Jews, and the idolaters ; and thou shalt surely 
find those among them to be the most inclinable to 
entertain friendship for the true believers, who say, We 
are Christians. This cometh to pass, because there are 
priests and monks among them ; and because they are 
not elated with pride: [*VII.] ^^And when they hear 

^4. His mother was a woman of veracity. ~\ of their prelates and predecessors, who 

Never pretending to partake of the divine erred in ascribing divinity to Christ, be- 

nature, or to be the mother of God ^. fore the mission of Mohammed ^. 

— They both ate food.'] Being obliged 87 Mary.] See before, p. 119, note 69. 
to support their lives by the same means, 89 Before them.] See chap. ii. note, 
and being subject to the same necessities 91 And are not elated with pride.] 
and infirmities as the rest of mankind, and Having not that high conceit of them- 
therefore no Gods ^. selves as the Jews have ; but being hum- 

86 Just hounds.] See chap. iv. ble, and well disposed to receive the truth; 

But here the words are principally di- qualities, says al Beidawi, which are to 

rected to the Christians. be commended even in infidels. 

— Neither follow the desires of people 92 And when they hear that which hath 
who have heretofore erred^ &c.] That is, been sent down to the apostle read unto 

* Jallalo'ddin. ^ Idem, al Beidawi. ^ lidem. 



v.] AL KORAN. 123 

that which hath been sent down to the apostle read unto 
them, thou shalt see their eyes overflow with tears, be- 
cause of the truth which they perceive therein ; saying, 
O Lord ! we believe ; write us down, therefore, with 
those who bear witness to the truth : ^^ and what should 
hinder us from believing in God, and the truth which 
hath come unto us, and from earnestly desiring that our 
Lord would introduce us into paradise with the righteous 
people ? ^^ Therefore hath God rewarded them, for what 
they have said, with gardens through which rivers flow ; 
they shall continue therein for ever ; and this is the re- 
ward of the righteous. ^^ But, they who believe not, and 
accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the com- 
panions of hell. ^^ O true believers ! forbid not the good 
fhings w^hich God hath allowed you ; but transgress not, 
for God loveth not the transgressors. ^^ And eat of what 
God hath given you for food, that which is lawful and 
good : and fear God, in whom ye believe. ^^ God will 
not punish you for an inconsiderate word in your oaths ; 
but he will punish you for what ye solemnly swear with 
deliberation. And the expiation of such an oath shall 
be the feeding of ten poor men with such moderate food 
as ye feed your own families withal ; or to clothe them ; 
or to free the neck of a true believer from captivity : but 
he who shall not find wherewith to perform one of these 

therriy their eyes overflow with tears, &c.] like is this to that which was revealed unto 

The persons directly intended in this pas- Jesus ! and immediately professed them- 

sage were, either Ashama, king of Ethio- selves Moslems ^, 

pia, and several bishops and priests, who, 96 Forbid not the good things which 

being assembled for that purpose, heard God hath allowed you.'] These words were 

Jaafar Ebn Abi Taleb, who fled to that revealed, when certain of Mohammed's 

country in the first flight^, read the 29th companions agreed to oblige themselves 

and 30th, and afterwards the 18th and to continual fasting and watching, and to 

19th chapters of the Koran ; on hearing abstain from women, eating flesh, sleeping 

of which the king, and the rest of the on beds, and other lawful enjoyments of 

company, burst into tears, and confessed life, in imitation of some self-denying 

what was delivered therein to be conform- Christians ; but this the prophet disap- 

able to truth ; that prince, himself, in par- proved, declaring, that he would have no 

ticular, becoming a proselyte to Moham- monks in his religion *. 

medism ^ ; or else, thirty, or, as others 98 Oaths.] See cliap. ii. 

say, seventy persons, sent ambassadors to — Clothe.] The commentators give us 

Mohammed, by the same king of Ethiopia, the different opinions of the doctors, as 

to whom the prophet himself read the to the quantity of food and clothes to be 

thirty-sixth chapter, entitled Y. S. where- given in this case, which J think scarce 

upon they began to weep ; saying. How worth transcribing. 

1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 52, 53. ^ ji Beiddwi. Jl Thalabi. V. Jbulfed. vit. 

Moh. p. 25, &c. Marracc. Prodr. ad refut. Alcor. part 1. p. 45. 3 ji Beiddwiy 

Jallalo'ddin. V. Marracc. ubi sup. * Jallalo' ddin, al Beiddwi. 



124 AL KORAN^ [chap. 

three things, shall fast three days. This is the expiation 
of your oaths, when ye swear inadvertently. Therefore, 
keep your oaths. Thus God declareth unto you his signs, 
that ye may give thanks. ^^ O true believers ! surely 
wine and lots, and images, and divining arrows, are an 
abomination of the work of Satan ; therefore avoid 
them, that ye may prosper. ^^^ Satan seeketh to sow 
dissension and hatred among you, by means of wine 
and lots, and to divert you from remembering God, 
and from prayer : will ye not, therefore, abstain from 
them ? ^^^ Obey God, and obey the apostle, and take 
heed to yourselves; but, if ye turn back, know, that 
the duty of our apostle is only to preach publicly. 
^^^ In those who believe and do good works, it is no sin 
that they have tasted wine or gaming before they were 
forbidden ; if they fear God and believe, and do good 
works, and shall, for the future, fear God, and believe, 
and shall persevere to fear him, and to do good ; for God 
loveth those who do good. ^^^ O true believers ! God 
will surely prove you, in offering you plenty of game, 
which ye may take with your hands or your lances, that 
God may know who feareth him in secret ; but, whoever 
transgresseth after this, shall suifer a grievous punishment. 
^^^ O true believers ! kill no game while ye are on pilgri- 

98 Shall fast three days.'} That is, 102 To do good.} The commentators 
three days together, says Abu Hanifa. endeavour to excuse the tautology of this 
But this is not observed in practice, being passage, by supposing the threefold repe- 
neither explicitly commanded in the Ko- tition of fearing and believing, refers 
ran, nor ordered in the Sonna '. either to the three parts of time, past, 

99 Wine and lots.} This is, all inebri- present, and future, or to the threefold 
ating liquors, and games of chance. See duty of man, towards God, himself, and 
the Prelim. Disc. § v. and chap. ii. his neighbour, &c. ^. 

— Images.} Al Beidawi, and some 103 God will prove you, in offering you 
other commentators, expound this of idols ; plenty of game, &c.] This temptation, or 
but others, with more probability, of the trial, was at al Hodeibiya, where Moham- 
carved pieces, or men, with which the med's men, who had attended him thither, 
Pagan Arabs played at chess, being little with an intent to perform a pilgrimage to 
figures of men, elephants, horses, and the Caaba, and had initiated themselves 
dromedaries ; and this is supposed to be with the usual rites, were surrounded by 
the only thing which Mohammed disliked so great a number of birds and beasts, 
in that game : for which reason, the Son- that they impeded their march; from 
nites play with plain pieces of wood or which unusual accident, some of them 
ivory ; but the Persians and Indians, who concluded, that God had allowed them to 
are not so scrupulous, still make use of be taken, but this passage was to con- 
the carved ones ^. vince them of the contrary *. 

— Arrows.} Seethe Prelim. Disc. § v. 104 While ye are 07i pilgrimage.} Li- 
101 Topreach.} See ibid. § ii. p. 57, &c. teially, while ye are Mohrims, or have 

* Al Beidawi, ^ V. Prelim. Disc. § v. ^ ji Beidawi. ^ Idem? 

Jallalo' ddin. 



v.] AL KORAN. 125 

mage; whosoever among you shall kill any designedly, 
shall restore the like of what he shall have killed in 
domestic animals, according to the determination of two 
just persons among you, to be brought as an offering to 
the Caaba ; or, in atonement thereof, shall feed the poor ; 
or, instead thereof, shall fast, that he may taste the hein- 
ousness of his deed. God hath forgiven what is past ; 
but, whoever returneth to transgress, God will take ven- 
geance on him ; for God is mighty, and able to avenge. 
^^^ It is lawful for you to fish in the sea, and to eat what 
ye shall catch, as a provision for you, and for those who 
travel ; but it is unlawful for you to hunt by land, while 
ye are performing the rites of pilgrimage ; therefore fear 
God, before whom ye shall be assembled at the last day. 
^^^ God hath appointed the Caaba, the holy house, an 
establishment for mankind ; and hath ordained the sacred 
month, and the offering, and the ornaments hung thereon. 
This hath he done, that ye might know that God 
knoweth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and that 
God is omniscient. ^^^ Know that God is severe in 
punishing, and that God is also ready to forgive, and 
merciful. ^^^ The duty of our apostle is to preach only ; 
and God know^eth that which ye discover, and that which 
ye conceal. ^^^ Say, Evil and good shall not be equally 
esteemed of, though the abundance of evil pleaseth thee ; 

actually initiated yourselves as pilgrims, live in the sea, and on land both, as 

by putting on the garment worn at that crabs, &c. The Turks who are Hanifites 

solemnity. Hunting and fowling are never eat this sort of fish ; but the sect of 

hereby absolutely forbidden to persons in Malec Ebn Ans, and perhaps some others, 

this state ; though they are allowed to kill make no scruple of it. 

certain kinds of noxious animals ^. — Pilgrimage.^ See above, note on v. J 04. 

— Shall restore the like in domestic 106 An establishment.'] That is, the 

animals^ &c.] That is, he shall bring an place where the practice of their religious 

offering to the temple of Mecca, to be ceremonies is chiefly established ; where 

slain there, and distributed among the those who are under any apprehension of 

poor, of some domestic or tame animal, danger may find a sure asylum, and the 

equal in value to what he shall have merchant certain gain, &c. ^ 

killed : as a sheep, for example, in lieu of — The sacred month.] Al Beidawi 

an antelope, a pigeon for a partridge, &c. understands this of the month of DhuH- 

And of this value two prudent persons hajja, wherein the ceremonies of the pil- 

were to be judges. If the offender was grimage are performed; but Jallalo'ddin 

not able to do this, he was to give a supposes all the four sacred months are 

certain quantity of food to one or more here intended *. 

poor men ; or, if he could not afford that, — Ornaments.] See before, p. 107. 

to fast a proportionable number of days 2. 108 To preach.] See the Prelim. 

105 To fish.] This, says Jallalo'ddin, Disc. § ii. p. 57. 

is to be understood of fish that live altoge- 109 Evil and good shall not he equally 

ther in the sea, and not of those that esteemed^ though the abundance of evil 

^ See the Prelim. Disc. § v. 2 Jallalo'ddin, Al Beiddwi, ^ lidem. 

* See the Prelim. Disc, § vii. 



V26 A L KORAN. [chap. 

therefore, fear God, O ye of understanding ! that ye may 
be happy. "^ O true believers ! inquire not concerning 
things, which, if they be declared unto you, may give you 
pain ; but, if ye ask concerning them, when the Koran 
is sent down, they will be declared unto you : God par- 
doneth you as to these matters ; for God is ready to 
forgive, and gracious. ^^^ People, who have been before 
you, formerly inquired concerning them ; and afterwards 
disbelieved therein. ^^^ God hath not ordained any thing 
concerning Bahira, nor Saiba, nor Wasila, nor Hami ; 
but the unbelievers have invented a lie against God : and 
the greater part of them do not understand. ^^^ And 
when it was said unto them. Come unto that which God 
hath revealed, and to the apostle ; they answered. That 
religion which we found our fathers to follow is sufficient 
for us. What though their fathers knew nothing, and 
were not rightly directed? ^^^ O true believers ! take care 
of your souls. He who erreth shall not hurt you, while 
ye are rightly directed : unto God shall ye all return, 
and he will tell you that which ye have done. ^^^ O true 
believers ! let witnesses be taken between you, when 
death approaches any of you, at the time of making the 
testament ; let there be two witnesses, just men, from 
among you, or two others, of a different tribe or faith 

pleaseth thee.'] For judgment is to be wherein I give you none : whereupon this 

made of things, not from their plenty or passage was revealed, 
scarcity, but from their intrinsic good or 112 God hath not ordained any thing 

bad qualities ^. concerning Bahira, nor Sdiba, nor Wasila, 

\\{} Inquire not concerning things which, nor Hdmi, &c.] These were the names 

if they he declared unto you, may give you given by the Pagan Arabs to certain 

pain, &c.] The Arabs continually teaz- camels or sheep, which were turned loose 

ing their prophet with questions, which to feed, and exempted from common ser- 

probably he was not always prepared to vices, in some particular eases ; having 

answer, they are here ordered to wait till their ears slit, or some other mark, that 

God should think fit to declare his plea- they might be known ; and this they did in 

sure by some farther revelation: and, to honour of their gods 2. Which superstitions 

abate their curiosity, they are told, at the are here declared to be no ordinances of 

same time, that, very likely, the answers God, but the inventions of foolish men. 
would not be agreeable to their inclina- 114 He who erreth shall not hurt you, 

lions. Al Beidawi says, that, when the &c.] This was revealed when the infidels 

pilgrimage was first commanded, Soraka reproached those who embraced Moham- 

Ebn Malec asked Mohammed, Whether medism, and renounced their old idolatry, 

they were obliged to perform it every that, by so doing, they arraigned the wis- 

year ? To this question, the prophet at dom of their forefathers ^. 
first turned a deaf ear ; but, being ask ed 115 Two just men from among you.'] 

it a second, and a third time, he, at iast That is, of your kindred, or religion, 
said. No : but, if I had said yes, it would — Or two others of a different tribe 

have become a duty, and, if it were a or faith.] They who interpret these words 

duty, ye would not be able to perform it; of persons of another religion, say, they 

therefore, give me no trouble as to things are abrogated, and that the testimony of 

^ Al Beiddivi. ^ See the Prelim. Disc. § v. ^ Al Beidawi, 



v.] 



AL KORAN. 



127 



from yourselves, if ye be journeying in the earth, and the 
accident of death befal you. Ye shall shut them both up, 
after the afternoon prayer ; and they shall swear by God, 
if ye doubt them, and they shall say. We will not sell our 
evidence for a bribe, although the person concerned be 
one who is related to us, neither will we conceal the 
testimony of God, for then should we certainly be of the 
number of the wicked. ^^^ But if it appear that both 
have been guilty of iniquity, two others shall stand up in 
their place, of those who have convicted them of false- 
hood, the two nearest in blood, and they shall swear by 
God, saying. Verily our testimony is more true than the 
testimony of these two, neither have we prevaricated ; 
for then should we become of the number of the unjust. 
^^^ This will be easier, that men may give testimony 
according to the plain intention thereof, or fear lest a 
different oath be given after their oath. Therefore fear 
God, and hearken ; for God directeth not the unjust 
people. ^^^ On a certain day shall God assemble the 



such ought not to be received against a 
Moslem ^ 

— Ye shall shut them both up after the 
afternoon prayer, &c.] In case there was 
any doubt, the witnesses were to be kept 
apart from company, lest they should be 
corrupted, till they gave their evidence, 
which they generally did when the after- 
noon prayer was over ; because that was 
the time of people's assembling in public ; 
or, say some, because the guardian angels 
then relieve each other ; so that there 
would be four angels to witness against 
them, if they gave false evidence. But 
others suppose they might be examined 
after the hour of any other prayer, when 
there was a sufficient assembly 2. 

117 Unjust people.'] The occasion of 
the preceding passage is said to have been 
this ; Tamim al Dari and Addi Ebn 
Yazid, both Christians, took a journey 
into Syria to trade, in company with 
Bodeil, the freedman of Amru Ebn al 
As, who was a Moslem. When they came 
10 Damascus, Bodeil fell sick, and died ; 
having first wrote down a list of his effects 
on a piece of paper, which he hid in his 
baggage, without acquainting his compa- 
nions with it, and desired them only to 
dehver what he had to his friends of the 
tribe of Sahm. The survivors, however. 



searching among his goods, found a vessel 
of silver of considerable weight, and inlaid 
with gold, which they concealed ; and, on 
their return, delivered the rest to the de- 
ceased's relations ; who, finding the list 
of Bodeil's writing, demanded the vessel 
of silver of them, but they denied it; and 
the affair being brought before Moham- 
med, these words, viz. O true believers ! 
take witnesses, &c. were revealed ; and 
he ordered them to be sworn at the pulpit 
in the mosque, just as afternoon prayer 
was over ; and on their making oath, that 
they knew nothing of the plate demanded, 
dismissed them. But, afterwards, the 
vessel being found in their hands, the 
Sahmites, suspecting it was Bodeil's, 
charged them with it ; and they confessed 
it was his, but insisted that they had 
bought it of him ; and that they had not 
produced it, because they had no proof of 
the bargain. Upon this they went again 
before Mohammed, to whom these words, 
And if it appear, &c. were revealed ; and 
thereupon Amru Ebn al As, and al Mo- 
talleb Ebn Abi Refaa, both of the tribe 
of Sahm, stood up, and were sworn against 
them ; and judgment was given accord- 
ingly ^. 

118 On a certain day.] That is, on 
the day of judgment. 



1 Al Beiddwu 



2 Idem. 



3 Id 



em. 



128 AL KORAN. [chap. 

apostles, and shall say unto them, What answer was 
returned you, when ye preached unto the people to whom 
ye were sent ? They shall answer, We have no knowledge, 
but thou art the knower of secrets. ^^^ When God shall 
say, O Jesus, son of Mary ! remember my favour towards 
thee, and towards thy mother ; when I strengthened thee 
with the Holy Spirit, that thou shouldest speak unto men 
in the cradle, and when thou wast grown up ; and when 
I taught thee the scripture, and wisdom, and the law, and 
the gospel; and when thou didst create of clay, as it were, 
the figure of a bird, by my permission, and didst breathe 
thereon, and it became a bird by my permission ; and 
thou didst heal one blind from his birth, and the leper, 
by my permission ; and when thou didst bring forth the 
dead from their graves, by my permission ; and when I 
withheld the children of Israel from killing thee, when 
thou hadst come unto them with evident miracles ; and 
such of them as believed not, said. This is nothing but 
manifest sorcery. ^^^ And when I commanded the apos- 
tles of Jesus, saying. Believe in me, and in my messenger ; 
they answered. We do believe ; and do thou bear witness 
that we are resigned unto thee. ^^^ Remember, when the 
apostles said, O Jesus, son of Mary ! is thy Lord able to 
cause a table to descend unto us from heaven ? He 

118 We have no knowledge, &c.] That wherein the expositors are not agreed, 
is, We are ignorant whether our proselytes One will have them to be nine cakes of 
were sincere, or whether they apostatized bread, and nine fishes ; another, bread, 
after our deaths ; but thou well knowest, and flesh ; another, all sorts of food, 
not only what answer they gave us, but except flesh ; another, all sorts of food, 
the secrets of their hearts ; and whether except bread and flesh; another, all, ex- 
they have since continued firm in their cept bread and fish ; another, one fish, 
religion, or not. which had the taste of all manner of food ; 

119 Holy Spirit.'] See chap. ii. and another, fruits of paradise : but the 

— Grown up.] See chap. iii. most received tradition is, that, when the 

— Permission.] See p. 54. table was uncovered, there appeared a fish 

— Killing thee.] See p. 55. ready dressed, without scales or prickly 
121 Is thy Lord able to cause a table fins, dropping with fat, having salt placed 

to descend unto us from heaven, &c.] This at its head, and vinegar at its tail, and 

miracle is thus related by the commenta- round it all sorts of herbs, except leeks ; 

tors : Jesus having, at the request of his and five loaves of bread, on one of which 

followers, asked it of God, a red table there were olives ; on the second, honey ; 

immediately descended, in their sight, on the third, butter ; on the fourth, cheese ; 

between two clouds, and was set before and on the fifth, dried flesh. They add, 

them ; whereupon he rose up, and having that Jesus, at the request of the apostles, 

made the ablution, prayed, and then took shewed them another miracle, by restoring 

off the cloth which covered the table, say- the fish to life, and causing its scales and 

ing, In the name of God, the best provider fins to return to it; at which the standers- 

of food. What the provisions were, with by being affrighted, he caused it to be- 

which this table was furnished, is a matter come as it was before : that one thousand 



v.] AL KORAN. 129 

answered, Fear God, if ye be true believers. ^^^ They 
said, We desire to eat thereof, and that our hearts 
may rest at ease; and that we may know that thou 
hast told us the truth ; and that we may be witnesses 
thereof. ^^^ Jesus, the son of Mary, said, O God, our 
Lord ! cause a table to descend unto us from heaven, 
that the day of its descent may become a festival-day 
unto us, unto the first of us, and unto the last of 
us; and a sign from thee; and do thou provide food 
for us, for thou art the best provider. ^^^ God said, 
Verily I will cause it to descend unto you ; but, whoever 
among you shall disbelieve hereafter, ^^^I will surely 
punish him with a punishment wherewith I will not 
punish any other creature. And when God shall say 
unto Jesus, at the last day, O Jesus, son of Mary ! hast 
thou said unto men. Take me, and my mother, for two 
gods, beside God ? He shall answer, Praise be unto 
thee ! it is not for me to say that which I ought not ; if 
1 had said so, thou wouldest surely have known it : thou 
knowest what is in me, but I know not what is in thee ; 
for thou art the knower of secrets. ^^^ I have not spoken 
to them any other than what thou didst command me ; 
namely. Worship God, my Lord and your Lord : and I 
was a witness of their actions while 1 stayed among them ; 
but since thou hast taken me to thyself, thou hast been 

three hundred men and women, all afflicted Several other fabulous circumstances are 

with bodily infirmities, or poverty, ate of also told, which are scarce worth tran- 

these provisions, and were satisfied; the scribing 2; 

fish remaining whole as it was at first: 123 A festival- day. ^ Some say, the 

that then the table flew up to heaven in table descended on a Sunday, which was 

the sight of all ; and every one who had the reason of the Christians observing that 

partaken of this food, were delivered from day as sacred. Others pretend, this day 

their infirmities and misfortunes : and that is still kept among them as a very great 

it continued to descend for forty days festival ; and it seems as if the story had 

together, at dinner-time, and stood on the its rise from an imperfect notion of Christ's 

ground till the sun declined, and was then last supper, and the institution of the 

taken up into the clouds. Some of the Eucharist. 

Mohammedan writers are of opinion that 126 Since thou hast taken me to thy- 

this table did not really descend, but that self.'] Or, since thou hast caused me to 

it was only a parable ; but most think the die : but, as it is a disputed point, among 

words of the Koran are plain to the con- the Mohammedans, whether Christ ac- 

trary. A further tradition is, that several tually died, or not, before his assumption ^^ 

men were changed into swine, for disbe- and the original is susceptible of transla- 

lieving this miracle, and attributing it to tion either way, I have chosen the former 

magic art : or, as others pretend, for steal- expression, which leaves the matter unde- 

ihg some of the victuals from off it i. cided. 

^ Jl Beiddwiy al Thalahi. ^ V. Marracc. in Ale. p. 238, &c. 

^ See chap. iii. 

VOL. I. K 



130 AL KORAN. [chap. 

the watcher over them ; for thou art witness of all things. 
^^^ If thou punish them, they are surely thy servants ; and, 
if thou forgive them, thou art mighty and wise. ^^^ God 
will say, This day shall their veracity be of advantage 
unto those who speak truth ; they shall have gardens 
wherein rivers flow ; they shall remain therein for ever : 
God hath been well pleased in them, and they have been 
well pleased in him. This shall be great felicity. ^^^ Unto 
God belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth, and 
of whatever therein is ; and he is almighty. V 



CHAPTER VI. 

intitled, cattle; revealed at mecca. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ Praise be unto God, who hath created the heavens and 
the earth, and hath ordained the darkness and the light ; 
nevertheless, they who believe not in the Lord, equalize 
other gods with him. ^ It is he who hath created you of 
clay ; and then decreed the term of your lives ; and the 
prefixed term is with him: yet do ye doubt thereof. 
^ He is God in heaven and in earth ; he knoweth what 
ye keep secret, and what ye publish ; and knoweth what 
ye deserve. * There came not unto them any sign, of the 
signs of their Lord, but they retired from the same ; 
^ and they have gainsayed the truth, after that it hath 
come unto them : but a message shall come unto them, 

Title — Cattle,'] This chapter is so in- that by the first term is intended, the 

titled, because some superstitious customs space between creation and death ; and, 

of the Meccans, as to certain cattle, are by the latter, that between death and the 

therein incidentally mentioned. resurrection. 

Title — Mecca.'] Except only six verses; 5 A message shall come unto themi &c.] 

or, say others, three verses, which are That is, they shall be convinced of the 

taken notice of in the notes. truth which they have made a jest of, 

2. And then decreed the term of your when they see the punishment which* 

lives ; and the prefixed term is with him] they shall suffer for so doing, both in this 

By the last term, some understand the world, and the next ; or, when they shall 

time of the resurrection. Others think, see the glorious success of Mohammedism. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 131 

concerning that which they have mocked at. ^ Do they 
not consider how many generations we have destroyed 
before them ? We had established them in the earth in 
a manner wherein we have not established you ; we sent 
the heaven to rain abundantly upon them, and we gave 
them rivers which flowed under their feet : yet we de- 
stroyed them in their sins, and raised up other generations 
after them. ^ Although we had caused to descend unto 
thee a book written on paper, and they had handled it 
with their hands, the unbelievers had surely said, This is 
no other than manifest sorcery. ^They said, unless an 
angel be sent down unto him, we will not believe. But 
if he had sent down an angel, verily the matter had been 
decreed, and they should not have been borne with, by 
having time granted them to repent. ^ And if we had 
appointed an angel for our messenger, w^e should have 
sent him in the form of a man, and have clothed him 
before them, as they are clothed. ^^ Other apostles have 
been laughed to scorn, before thee; but the judgment 
which they made a jest of, encompassed those who laughed 
them to scorn. ^^ Say, go through the earth, and behold 
what hath been the end of those who accused our pro- 
phets of imposture. ^^ Say, Unto whom belongeth what- 
soever is in heaven and earth ? Say unto God, He hath 
prescribed unto himself mercy. He will surely gather 
you together on the day of resurrection ; there is no doubt 
of it. They who destroy their own souls hre those who 
will not believe. ^^ Unto him is owing whatsoever hap- 
peneth by night, or by day ; it is he who heareth and 
knoweth. ^^ Say, Shall I take any other protector than 
God, the creator of heaven and earth, who feedeth all, 
and is not fed by any? Say, verily I am commanded to 

6 We had established them in the earthf shewn his mercy in not complying with 

as we have not established you, &c.] i. e. their demands ; for if he had, they would 

We had blessed them with greater power, have suffered immediate condemnation, 

and length of prosperity, than we have and would have been allowed no time for 

granted you, O men of Mecca ^ Mo- repentance. 

hammed seems here to mean the ancient 9 We should have sent him in the form 

and potent tribes of Ad, and Thamud, of a man.'] As Gabriel generally ap- 

&c. 2 peared to Mohammed, who, though a pro- 

8 Verily the matter had been decreed, phet, was not able to bear the sight of 

&c.] That is to say, as they would not him, when he appeared in his proper 

have believed, even if an angel had de- form, much less would others be able to 

scended to them from heaven, God has support it. 

^ AlBeiddwi. 2 ggg the Prelim. Disc. § i. p. 6, &c. 

K 2 



132 A L KORAN. [chap. 

be the first who professeth Islam ; and it was said unto 
me. Thou shalt by no means be one of the idolaters. 
^^ Say, Verily I fear, if I should rebel against my Lord, 
the punishment of the great day : ^^ from whomsoever it 
shall be averted on that day, God will have been merciful 
unto him ; this will be manifest salvation. ^^ If God afflict 
thee with any hurt, there is none who can take it off from 
thee, except himself; but, if he cause good to befal thee, 
he is almighty; ^^he is the supreme Lord over his ser- 
vants ; and he is wise and knowing. ^^ Say, What thing 
is the strongest in bearing testimony? Say, God! he is 
witness between me and you. And this Koran was 
revealed unto me, that I should admonish you thereby, 
and also those unto whom it shall reach. Do ye really 
profess that there are other gods together with God ? 
Say, I do not profess this. Say, Verily he is one God ; 
and I am guiltless of what ye associate with him. ^^ They 
unto whom we have given the scripture, know our apos- 
tle, even as they know their own children ; but they who 
destroy their own souls, will not believe. ^^ Who is more 
unjust than he who inventeth a lie against God, or 
chargeth his signs with imposture? Surely the unjust 
shall not prosper. ^^ And, on the day of resurrection, we 
will assemble them all : then will we say unto those who 
associated others with God, Where are your companions, 
whom ye imagined to be those of God ? But they shall 
have no other excuse than that they shall say. By God 
our Lord, we have not been idolaters. ^^ Behold, how 
they lie against themselves ; and what they have blas- 
phemously imagined to be the companion of God, flieth 
from them. ^^ There is of them who hearkeneth unto 
thee when thou readest the Koran ; but we have cast 

14 The first who professeth Islam.'] 21 Who inventeth a lie against God,"] 

That is, the first of my nation ^. Saying the angels are the daughters of 

19 What thing is the strongest in hear- God, and intercessors for us with him, 
ing testimony, he.'] This passage was re- &c.3 

vealed when the Koreish told Mohammed, 22 Your companions.'] i. e. Your idols 

that they had asked the Jews and Chris- and' false gods. 

tians concerning him, who assured them, 23 And what they have blasphemously 

they found no mention or description of imagined, flieth from them.] That is, their 

him in their books of scripture. There- imaginary deities prove to be nothing, 

fore, said they, who bears witness to thee, and disappear like vain phantoms and 

that thou art the apostle of God ^ ? chimeras. 

20 Know our apostle.] See chap. ii. 24 Who hearkeneth unto thee.] The 

* Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem, Jallalo' ddin, ^ At Beiddwi. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 133 

veils over their hearts, that they should not understand 
it, and a deafness in their ears : and though they should 
see all kinds of signs, they will not believe therein ; and 
their infidelity will arrive to that height, that they will 
even come unto thee, to dispute with thee. The unbe- 
lievers will say, This is nothing but silly fables of ancient 
times. ^^And they will forbid others from believing 
therein, and will retire afar off from it ; but they will 
destroy their own souls only ; and they are not sensible 
thereof. ^^ If thou didst see, when they shall be set over 
the fire of hell ! and they shall say. Would to God we 
might be sent back into the world ; we would not charge 
the signs of our Lord with imposture, and we would 
become true believers : ^^ nay, but that is become mani- 
fest unto them which they formerly concealed ; and, 
though they should be sent back into the world, they 
would surely return to that which was forbidden them ; 
and they are surely liars. ^^ And they said, There is no 
other life than our present life ; neither shall we be raised 
again. ^^ But, if thou couldest see when they shall be 
set before their Lord. He shall say unto them, Is not 
this in truth come to pass ? They shall answer, Yea, by 
our Lord. God shall say, Taste therefore the punish- 
ment due unto you, for that ye have disbelieved. ^^ They 
are lost who reject as a falsehood the meeting of God in 
the next life, until the hour cometh suddenly upon them. 
Then will they say, Ala^s ! for that we have behaved our- 
selves negligently in our life-time : and they shall carry 
their burdens on their backs ; will it not be evil which 

persons here meant were Abu Sofian, al 29 When they shall he set before their 

Walid, al Nodar, Otha, Abu Jahl, and Zorrf, &c.] Viz. in order for judgment, 
their comrades, who went to hear Mo- 30 The hour,^ The last day is here 

hammed repeat some of the Koran ; and called the Hour, as it is in scripture ^ ; and 

Nodar, being asked what he said, an- the preceding expression of meeting God 

swered, with an oath, that he knew not, on that day is also agreeable to the same *. 
only that he moved his tongue, and told — They shall carry their burdens on 

a parcel of foolish stories, as he had done their backs, &c.] When an infidel comes 

to them ^. forth from his grave, says Jallalo'ddin, his 

27 That is become manifest unto them works shall be represented to him under 

which they formerly concealed,'] Viz. Their the ugliest form that ever he beheld, hav- 

hypocrisy and vile actions : nor does their ing a most deformed countenance, a filthy 

promise proceed from any sincere inten- smell, and a disagreeable voice ; so that 

tion of amendment, but from the anguish he shall cry out, God defend me from 

and misery of their condition 2. thee! what art thou? I never saw any 



Al Beiddwi, 2 idem. ^ 1 John v. 25, &c. * 1 Thess. iv. I7. 



134 A L KORAN. [chap. 

they shall be loaden with ? ^^ This present life is no 
other than a play, and a vain amusement; but surely the 
future mansion shall be better for those who fear God: 
will they not therefore understand ? ^^ Now we know, 
that what they speak grieveth thee: yet they do not 
accuse thee of falsehood ; but the ungodly contradict the 
signs of God. ^^And apostles before thee have been 
accounted liars : but they patiently bore their being ac- 
counted liars, and their being vexed, until our help came 
unto them ; for there is none who can change the words 
of God : and thou hast received some information con- 
cerning those who have been formerly sent from him. 
^* If their aversion to thy admonitions be grievous unto 
thee, if thou canst seek out a den whereby thou mayest 
penetrate into the inward parts of the earth, or a ladder by 
which thou mayest ascend into heaven, that thou mayest 
shew them a sign, do so, but thy search will be fruitless ; 
for if God pleased, he would bring them all to the true 
direction : be not therefore one of the ignorant. ^^ He 
will give a favourable answer unto those only who shall 
hearken with attention : and God will raise the dead ; 
then unto him shall they return. ^^The infidels say, 
Unless some sign be sent down unto him from his Lord, 
we will not believe : answer. Verily God is able to send 
down a sign : but the greater part of them know it not. 

thing more detestable. To which the believe the revelations which he brought 
figure will answer, Why dost thou wonder them ; which occasioned this passage *. 
at my ugliness? I am thy evil works ^ ; 33 And thou hast received some infor^ 
thou didst ride upon me while thou wast mation concerning those who have been 
in the world, but now will I ride upon formerly sent from him.'] i.e. Thou hast 
thee, and thou shalt carry me. And im- been acquainted with the stories of several 
mediately it shall get upon him ; and of the preceding prophets ; what persecu- 
whatever he shall meet shall terrify him, tions they suffered from those to whom 
and say, Hail, thou enemy of God, thou they were sent, and in what manner God 
art he who was meant by (these words of supported them, and punished their ene- 
the Koran) And they shall carry their mies, according to his unalterable pro- 
burdens, &c. ^ mise^. 

32 They do not accuse thee of falsehood, 34 Ignorant.'] In this passage Mo- 

hut the ungodly contradict the signs of hammed is reproved for his impatience, 

God.] That is, It is not thou, but God, in not bearing with the obstinacy of his 

whom they injure by their impious gain- countrymen, and for his indiscreet desire 

saying of what has been revealed to thee, of effecting what God hath not decreed, 

It is said, that Abu Jahl once told Mo- namely, the conversion and salvation of 

hammed, that they did not accuse him of all men ^ 

falsehood, because he was known to be a 36 The greater part of them know it 

man of veracity, but only they did not not.] Being both ignorant of God's aU 

1 See Milton's Paradise Lost, book ii. v. 737, &c. ^ ^ee also oh. ill. 

3 At BeiddwL * Idem. ^ Idem. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 135 

^^ There is no kind of beast on earth, nor fowl which 
flieth with its wings, but the same is a people like unto 
you ; we have not omitted any thing in the book of our 
decrees ; then unto their Lord shall they return. ^^ They 
who accuse our signs of falsehood, are deaf and dumb, 
walking in darkness : God will lead into error whom ha. 
pleaseth, and whom he pleaseth he will put in the right 
way. ^^ Say, What think ye ? if the punishment of God 
come upon you, or the hour of the resurrection come 
upon you, will ye call upon any other than God, if ye 
speak truth ? ^^ yea, him shall ye call upon, and he shall 
free you from that which ye shall ask him to deliver you 
from, if he pleaseth ; and ye shall forget that which ye 
associated with him. ^^ We have already sent messen- 
gers unto sundry nations before thee, and we afflicted 
them with trouble and adversity, that they might humble 
themselves : ^^ yet, when the affliction which we sent came 
upon them, they did not humble themselves ; but their 
hearts became hardened, and Satan prepared for them 
that which they committed. ^^ And when they had for- 
gotten that concerning which they had been admonished, 
we opened unto them the gates of all things ; until, while 
they were rejoicing for that which had been given them, 
we suddenly laid hold on them ; and, behold, they were 
seized with despair ; ^ and the utmost part of the people 
which had acted wickedly, was cut off: praise be unto 
God, the Lord of all creatures ! ^^ Say, What think ye ? 
if God should take away your hearing, and your sight, 

mighty power, and of the consequence of injuries they did one another while in 

what they ask, which might prove their this world 2, 

utter destruction. 40 Ye shall forget that which ye asso- 

37 A people like unto you.'\ Being dated with him,^ That is, Ye shall then 

created and preserved by the same omni- forsake your false gods, when ye shall be 

potence and providence as ye are. effectually convinced that God alone is 

— fVe have not omitted any thing in the able to deliver you from eternal punish - 
hook^ &c.] That is, in the preserved table ; ment. But others rather think, that this 
wherein God's decrees are written, and forgetting will be the effect of the dis- 
all things which come to pass in the world, tress and terror which they will then be 
as well the most minute as the more mo- in 3. 

mentous, are exactly registered ^. 43 We opened unto them the gates of 

— Then unto their Lord shall they re- all things.'] That is, we gave them all 
turn.'] For, according to the Mohamme- manner of plenty ; that since they took 
dan belief, the irrational animals will also no warning by their aflBictions, their pros- 
be restored to life at the resurrection, that perity might become a snare to them, and 
they may be brought to judgment, and they might bring down upon themselves 
have vengeance taken on them for the swifter destruction. 

* See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 122. 2 i^\q^^^^ p. iqI, 102. ^ ji Beiddwi, 

1 



136 AL KORAN. [chap. 

and should seal up your hearts ; What god, besides God, 
will restore them unto you ? See how variously we shew 
forth the signs of God's unity ; yet do they turn aside 
from them. ^^ Say unto them, What think ye ? if the 
punishment of God come upon you suddenly, or in open 
view, will any perish, except the ungodly people ? ^^ We 
send not our messengers otherwise than bearing good 
tidings, and denouncing threats. Whoso, therefore, shall 
believe, and amend, on them shall no fear come, neither 
shall they be grieved : ^^ but whoso shall accuse our signs 
of falsehood, a punishment shall fall on them, because 
they have done wickedly. ^^ Say, I say not unto you, 
The treasures of God are in my power : neither do I say, 
I know the secrets of God : neither do I say unto you, 
Verily, I am an angel : I follow only that which is re- 
vealed unto me. Say, Shall the blind, and the seeing, be 
held equal ? do ye not therefore consider ? ^^ Preach it 
unto those who fear, that they shall be assembled before 
their Lord : they shall have no patron nor intercessor, 
except him ; that, peradventure, they may take heed to 
themselves. ^^ Drive not away those who call upon their 
Lord, morning and evening, desiring to see his face ; it 
belongeth not unto thee to pass any judgment on them, 
nor doth it belong unto them to pass any judgment on 
thee : therefore, if thou drive them away, thou wilt be- 
come one of the unjust. ^^ Thus have we proved some 
part of them by other part, that they may say. Are these 

45 How variously we shew forth the he agreed to do. Others say, that the 
signs, &c.] Laying them before you in chief men of Mecca expelled all the poor 
different views, and making use of argu- out of their city, bidding them go to Mo- 
ments and motives drawn from various hammed ; which they did, and offered to 
considerations. embrace his religion ; but he made some 

46 Suddenly, or in open view,"] That is, difficulty to receive them, suspecting their 
says al Beidawi, either without any pre- motive to be necessity, and not real con- 
vious notice, or after some warning given, viction ' ; whereupon this passage was re- 

51 Drive not away those who call upon vealed. 
their Lord, &c.] These words were oc- — It belongeth not unto thee to pass 
casioned when the Koreish desired Mo- any judgment on them, &c.] i. e. Rashly 
hammed not to admit the poor, or more to decide whether their intentions be sin- 
inferior people, such as Ammar, Soheib, cere or not; since thou canst not know 
Khobbab, and Salman, into his company, their heart, and their faith may possibly 
pretending that then they would come be more firm than that of those who would 
and discourse with him ; but he refusing persuade thee to discard them. 
to turn away any believers, they insisted, 52 Thus have we proved some part of 
at least, that he should order them to rise them by other part, &c.] That is to say, 
up, and withdraw," when they came, which the noble by those of mean extraction, and 

^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 137 

the people among us unto whom God hath been gra- 
cious ? Doth not God most truly know those who are 
thankful ? ^^ And when they who believe in our signs 
shall come unto thee, say, Peace be upon you. Your 
Lord hath prescribed unto himself mercy ; so that who- 
ever among you w^orketh evil through ignorance, and 
afterwards repenteth, and amendeth ; unto him will he 
surely be gracious and merciful. ^^ Thus have we dis- 
tinctly propounded our signs, that the path of the wicked 
might be made known. ^^ Say, Verily I am forbidden to 
worship the false deities which ye invoke, besides God. 
Say, I will not follow your desires ; for then should I err ; 
neither should I be one of those who are rightly directed. 
^^ Say, I behave according to the plain declaration which 
I have received from my Lord ; but ye have forged lies 
concerning him. That which ye desire should be hastened, 
is not in my power : judgment belongeth only unto God ; 
he will determine the truth ; and he is the best discerner. 
^^ Say, If what ye desire should be hastened were in my 
power, the matter had been determined between me and 
you : but God well knoweth the unjust. ^^ With him are 
the keys of the secret things ; none knoweth them besides 
himself: he knoweth that which is on the dry land, and 
in the sea ; there falleth no leaf, but he knoweth it ; 
neither is there a single grain in the dark parts of the 
earth, neither a green thing, nor a dry thing, but it is 
written in the perspicuous book. ^^ It is he who causeth 
you to sleep by night, and knoweth what ye merit by day; 
he also awaketh you therein, that the prefixed term of 
your lives may be fulfilled ; then unto him shall ye return, 
and he shall declare unto you that which ye have wrought. 
^^ He is supreme over his servants, and sendeth the 

the rich by the poor ; in that God chose or some other sudden and miraculous 

to call the latter to the faith before the punishment, to destroy them ^. 

former ^ 57 The ivatter had been determined.'] 

56 That which ye desire should he For I should ere now have destroyed you, 

hastened^ is not in my power, &c.J This out of zeal for God's honour, had it been 

passage is an answer to the audacious in my power ^. 

defiances of the infidels, who bade Mo- 58 In the perspicuous book ] i. e. The 

hammed, if he were a true prophet, to preserved table, or registrar of God's 

call for a shower of stones from heaven, decrees. 

^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo^ ddin. ^ Al Beiddwi* ^ Idem. 



138 AL KORAN. [chap. 

guardian angels to watch over you, until, when death over- 
taketh one of you, our messengers cause him to die ; and 
they will not neglect our commands. ^^ Afterwards shall 
they return unto God, their true Lord : doth not judg- 
ment belong unto him ? he is the most quick in taking 
an account. ^^ Say, Who delivereth you from the dark- 
ness of the land, and of the sea, when ye call upon him 
humbly, and in private, saying. Verily if thou deliver us 
from these dangers, we will surely be thankful ? ^^ Say, 
God delivereth you from them, and from every grief of 
mind ; yet afterwards ye give him companions. ^^ Say, 
He is able to send on you a punishment from above you, 
or from under your feet, or to engage you in dissension, 
and to make some of you taste the violence of others. 
Observe how variously we shew forth our signs, that, per- 
adventure, they may understand. ^^ This people hath 
accused the revelation which thou hast brought of false- 
hood, although it be the truth. Say, I am not a guardian 
over you : ^^ every prophecy hath its fixed time of accom- 
plishment ; and ye will hereafter know it. ^^ When thou 
seest those who are engaged in cavilling at, or ridiculing 
our signs, depart from them, until they be engaged in 
some other discourse : and if Satan cause thee to forget 
this precept, do not sit with the ungodly people, after 
recollection. ^^ They who fear God are not at all account- 
able for them ; but their duty is to remember, that they 

6*0 Guardian angels.'] See the Prelim. — Or from under your feet.] Either 

Disc. § iv. p. 84. by drowning you, as he did Pharaoh and 

— Our messengers.] That is, the angel his host; or causing the earth to open, 
of death, and his assistants ^. and swallow you up, as happened to 

61 An account.] See ihe Prelim. Disc. Korah, or (as the Mohammedans name 
§ iv. p. 105. him) Karun^. 

62 The darkness.] That is, the dangers 68 Those who fear God are not account- 
and distresses. able for them^ &c.] And therefore need 

— If thou deliver us.] The Cufic not be troubled at the indecent and im- 
copies read it in the third person, if he pious talk of the infidels ; provided they 
deliver us, &c. take care not to be infected by them. 

63 Yet afterwards ye give him com- When the preceding passage was re- 
panions.] Returning to your old idolatry. vealed, the Moslems told their prophet, 

64 A punishment from above you.] That that if they were obliged to rise up when- 
is, by storms from heaven, as he destroyed ever the idolaters spoke irreverently of 
the unbelieving people of Noah, and of the Koran, they could never sit quietly in 
Lot, and the army of Abraha, the lord of the temple, nor perform their devotions 
the elephant ^. there ; whereupon these words are added *. 

^ See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 85. ^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. 

^ Al Beiddwi, JallaW ddin. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 139 

may take heed to themselves. ^^ Abandon those who 
make their religion a sport and a jest ; and whom the 
present life hath deceived : and admonish them by the 
Koran, that a soul becometh liable to destruction for that 
which it committeth : it shall have no patron nor inter- 
cessor besides God ; ^^ and if it could pay the utmost 
price of redemption, it would not be accepted for it. 
They who are delivered over to perdition for that which 
they have committed, shall have boiling water to drink, 
and shall suffer a grievous punishment, because they have 
disbelieved. ^^ Say, Shall we call upon that, besides God, 
which can neither profit us, nor hurt us? and shall we 
turn back on our heels, after that God hath directed us ; 
like him whom the devils have infatuated, wandering 
amazedly in the earth, and yet having companions who 
call him to the true direction, saying. Come unto us? 
Say, The direction of God is the true direction : we are 
commanded to resign ourselves unto the Lord of all 
creatures ; ^^ and it is also commanded us, saying. Observe 
the stated times of prayer, and fear him ; for it is he 
before whom ye shall be assembled. '^^ It is he who hath 
created the heavens, and the earth, in truth ; and when- 
ever he saith unto a thing. Be, it is. ^^ His word is the 
truth ; and his will be the kingdom on the day whereon 
the trumpet shall be sounded : he knoweth whatever is 
secret, and whatever is public: he is the wise, the knowing. 
^^Call to mind when Abraham said unto his father Azer, 

74 The trumpet.'] See the Prelim, true of all ; for several Arab and Turkish 
Disc. § iv. p. 85 and 97) &c. writers expressly make Azer and Terah 

75 Jzer.~\ This is the name which the the same person ^, Azer in ancient times 
Mohammedans give to Abraham's father, was the name of the planet Mars ; and 
named in scripture Terah. However, the month of March was so called by the 
some of their writers pretend, that Azer most ancient Persians ; for the word ori- 
was the son of Terah i; and D'Herbelot ginally signifying fire (as it still does), it 
says, that the Arabs always distinguish was therefore given by them and the 
them in their genealogies as different per- Chaldeans to that planet *, which partak- 
sons ; but that, because Abraham was the ing, as was supposed, of a fiery nature, was 
son of Terah, according to Moses, it is acknowledged by the Chaldeans and As- 
therefore supposed [by European writers] Syrians as a god, or planetary deity, whom, 
that Terah is the same with the Azer of in old times, they worshipped under the 
the Arabs 2. How true this observation form of a pillar ; whence Azer became a 
may be in relation to some authors, I name among the nobility, who esteemed 
cannot say, but I am sure it cannot be it honourable to be denominated from 

» Tarikh Montakhab, apud D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient, p. 12. 2 D'HerbeL ibid. 

^ Al Beiddiviy Jallalo'ddin., Yayhay Ebn Shohnah, Mirat Kaivat, &c. V. etiam Pharhang 
Jehanghiri, apud Hyde de rel, vet. Persar. p. 68. * Hydcy ibid. p. 63. 



140 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



Dost thou take images for gods ? Verily I perceive 
that thou and thy people are in a manifest error. 
^^ And thus did we shew unto Abraham the kingdom of 
heaven and earthy that he might become one of those who 
firmly believe. ^^ And when the night overshadowed 
him, he saw a star, and he said. This is my Lord ; but 



their gods \ and is found in the composi- 
tion of several Babylonish names. For 
these reasons, a learned author supposes 
Azer to have been the heathen name of 
Terah ; and that the other was given him 
on his conversion 2. Al Beidawi confirms 
this conjecture, saying, that Azer was the 
name of the idol which he worshipped. It 
may be observed, that Abraham's father 
is also called Zarah in the Talmud, and 
Athar by Eusebius. 

75 Dost thou take images for gods .^] 
That Azer, or Terah, was an idolater, is 
allowed on all hands ; nor can it be denied, 
since he is expressly said in scripture to 
have served strange gods ^. The eastern 
authors unanimously agree, that he v^^as a 
statuary, or carver of idols ; and he is 
represented as the first who made images 
of clay, pictures only having been in use 
before *, and taught that they were to be 
adored as gods ^. However, v^^e are told 
his employment was a very honourable 
one ^ and that he was a great lord, and in 
high favour with Nimrod, whose son-in- 
law he was 7, because he made his idols for 
him, and was excellent in his art. Some 
of the Rabbins say, Terah was a priest, 
and chief of the order ^. 

76 Jnd thus we shewed Abraham the 
kingdom of heaven and earth, &c.] That 
is, we gave him a right apprehension of 
the government of the world, and of the 
heavenly bodies, that he might know them 
all to be ruled by God, by putting him on 
making the following reflection. 

77 He saw a star, and he said, This is 
my Lord, &c.] Since Abraham's parents 
were idolaters, it seems to be a necessary 
consequence that himself was one also in 
his younger years ; the scripture, not ob- 
scurely, intimates as much ^ ; and the Jews 



themselves acknowledge it ^^, At what age 
he came to the knowledge of the true 
God, and left idolatry, opinions are va- 
rious. Some Jewish writers tell us he 
was then but three years old ^^ ; and the 
Mohammedans likewise suppose him very 
young, and that he asked his father and 
mother several shrewd questions when a 
child '2. Others, however, allow him to 
have been a middle-aged man at that 
time ^^. Maimonidcs, in particular, and R, 
Abraham Zacuth, think him to have been 
forty years old ; which age is also men- 
tioned in the Koran. But the general 
opinion of the Mohammedans is, that he 
was about fifteen or sixteen ^'K As the 
religion wherein Abraham was educated 
was the Sabian, which consisted chiefly 
in the worship of the heavenly bodies ^^, 
he is introduced examining their nature 
and properties, to see whether they had a 
right to the worship which was paid them, 
or not; and the first which he observed 
was the planet Venus, or, as others will 
have it, Jupiter ^^. This method of Abra- 
ham's attaining to the knowledge of the 
Supreme Creator of all things, is conform- 
able to what Josephus writes, viz. That he 
drew his notions from the changes which 
he had observed in the earth and the sea, 
and in the sun and the moon, and the rest 
of the celestial bodies; concluding that 
they were subject to the command of a 
superior power, to whom alone all honour 
and thanks are due ^^ The story itself 
is certainly taken from the Talmud '^. 
Some of the commentators, however, sup- 
pose this reasoning of Abraham with him- 
self was not the first means of his conver- 
sion ; but that he used it only by way of 
argument, to convince the idolaters among 
whom he then lived. 



1 Hyde, ibid. p. 64. - Idem, ibid. p. 62. ^ Josh. xxiv. 2. 14* 

* Epiphan. adv. Hesr. 1. 1. p. 7, 8. ^ Suidasin Lexico, voce Slfipovx- ^ V. 

Hyde, ubi supra, p. 63. ^ D'JIerhel. ubi sup. * Shalshel. hakkab. p. 94. 

9 V. Josh. xxiv. 2. 14, and Hyde, ubi sup. p. 59. ^^ Joseph. Ant. 1. 1. c. 7. 

Maimon. More Nev. part 3. c. 29. & Yad Hazzak. de Id. c. 1. &c. ^^ Tanchuma, 

Talmud. Nedarim, 32, 1. & apud Maimon. Yad Hazz. ubi sup. ^^ y^ D' Herbel, 

Bibl. Orient. Art. Abraham. ^^ Maimon. ubi sup. R. Ahr, Zacuth in Sefer 

Juchasin, Shalshel. hakkab, &c. 1* V. Hyde, ubi sup. p. 60, 61, & Hotting, 

Smegma Orient, p. 290, &c. Genebr. in Chron. ^^ See the Prelim. Disc. § i. p. I7. 

16 Al Beiddwi. ^^ Joseph. Ant. 1. 1. c. 7« ^^ R- Bechai, in Midrash, 

V. Bartolocc. Bibl. Rabb. part I. p. 640. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 141 

when it set, he said, I like not gods which set. ^^ And 
when he saw the moon rising, he said, This is my Lord ; 
but when he saw it set, he said. Verily if my Lord direct 
me not, I shall become one of the people who go astray. 
^^ And when he saw the sun rising, he said. This is my 
Lord, this is the greatest ; but when it set, he said, O my 
people ! verily I am clear of that which ye associate with 
God. ^^ I direct my face unto him who hath created the 
heavens and the earth ; I am orthodox, and am not one 
of the idolaters. ^^ And his people disputed with him : 
and he said. Will ye dispute with me concerning God ? 
since he hath now directed me ; and I fear not that 
which ye associate with him, unless that my Lord willeth 
a thing ; for my Lord comprehendeth all things by his 
knowledge: will ye not therefore consider? ^^ And how 
should I fear that which ye associate with God, since ye 
fear not to have associated with God that concerning 
which he hath sent down unto you no authority ? which, 
therefore, of the two parties is the more safe, if ye under- 
stand aright ? ^^ They who believe, and clothe not their 
faith with injustice, they shall enjoy security, and they 
are rightly directed. ^^ And this is our argument (to 
prove the divine unity) wherewith we furnished Abra- 
ham, that he might make use of it against his people : 
we exalt unto degrees of wisdom and knowledge whom 
we please ; for thy Lord is wise and knowing. ^^ And 
we gave unto him Isaac and Jacob ; we directed them 
both : and Noah had we before directed, and of his pos- 
terity David and Solomon ; and Job, and Joseph, and 
Moses, and Aaron : thus do we reward tlie righteous : 

81 I fear not what ye associate with spoken of in this passage ; some to Noah, 

him ; unless that my Lord willeth a thing, the next antecedent, because Jonas and 

&c.] That is, I am not afraid of your Lot were not (say they) of Abraham's 

false gods, which cannot hurt me, except seed : and others suppose the persons 

God permitteth it, or is pleased to afflict named in this and the next verse are to 

me himself. be understood as the descendants of Abra- 

83 Injustice.'] By injustice, in this ham, and those in the following verse, as 

place, the commentators understand idol- those of Noah ^. 

atry, or open rebellion against God. — Joh.'] The Mohammedans say he 

85 Of his posterity,] Some refer the was of the race of Esau. See chap. xxi. 

relative his, to Abraham, the person chiefly and xxxviii. 



At Beiddwi. 



142 AL KORAN. [chap, 

^^ and Zacharias, and John, and Jesus, and Elias ; all 
of them were upright men : ^ and Ismael, and Elisha, 
and Jonas, and Lot ; all these have we favoured above 
the rest of the world ; ^^ and also divers of their fathers, 
and their issue, and their brethren ; and we chose them, 
and directed them into the right way. ^^ This is the 
direction of God ; he directeth thereby such of his ser- 
vants as he pleaseth ; but, if they had been guilty of 
idolatry, that which they wrought would have become 
utterly fruitless unto them. ^^ Those were the persons 
unto whom we gave the scripture, and wisdom, and pro- 
phecy ; but if these believe not therein, we will commit 
the care of them to a people who shall not disbelieve the 
same. ^^ Those were the persons whom God hath di- 
rected, therefore follow their direction. Say unto the 
inhabitants of Mecca, I ask of you no recompense for 
preaching the Koran ; it is no other than an admonition 
unto all creatures. ^^ They make not a due estimation of 
God, when they say, God hath not sent down unto man 
any thing at all : Say, Who sent down the book which 
Moses brought, a light and a direction unto men ; which 
ye transcribe on papers, whereof ye publish some part, 
and great part whereof ye conceal? and ye have been 
taught by Mohammed what ye knew not, neither your 
fathers. Say, God sent it down : then leave them to 
amuse themselves with their vain discourse. ^^ This book, 
which we have sent down, is blessed; confirming that 

86 Elias.l See chap, xxxvii. — God hath not sent down unto man 

87 Elisha.'] This prophet was the sue- any thing, &c.] By these words, the Jews 
cessor of Elias, and, as the commentators (if they were the persons meant) chiefly 
will have it, the son of Okhtub ; though the intended to deny the Koran to be of 
scripture makes him the son of Shaphat. divine revelation ; though they might, in 

— Jonas.] See chap. x. xxi. and xxxvii. strictness, insist that God never revealed, 

— Lot.] See chap. vii. &c. or sent down, as the Koran expresses it, 
90 These.] That is, the Koreish ^. any real composition, or material writing, 
92 They make not a due estimation of from heaven, in the manner that Moham- 

Godf &c.] That is, they know him not med pretended his revelations were deli- 

truly, nor have just notions of his good- vered 3, if we except only the deca- 

ness and mercy towards man. The per- logue ; God having left to the inspired 

sons here meant, according to some com- penmen, not only the labour of writ- 

mentators, are the Jews ; and, according ing, but the liberty, in a great mea- 

to others, the idolaters 2. This verse and sure at least, of putting the truths into 

the two next, as Jallalo'ddin thinks, were their own words, and manner of expres- 

revealed at Medina. sion. 

1 AlBeiddwi, ^ Idem. ^ gee the Prelim. Disc. § iii. p. 75, &c. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 143 

• 

which was revealed before it; and is delivered unto thee, 
that thou mayest preach it unto the metropolis of Mecca, 
and to those who are round about it. And they who 
believe in the next life, will believe therein, and they will 
diligently observe their times of prayer. ^^ Who is more 
wicked than he who forgeth a lie concerning God; or 
saith, This was revealed unto me ; when nothing hath 
been revealed unto him ? and who saith, I will produce a 
revelation like unto that which God hath sent down ? If 
thou didst see when the ungodly are in the pangs of 
death, and the angels reach out their hands, saying, Cast 
forth your souls ; this day shall ye receive an ignominious 
punishment for that which ye have falsely spoken con- 
cerning God ; and because ye have proudly rejected his 
signs. ^^ And now are ye come unto us alone, as we 
created you at first, and ye have left that which we had 
bestowed on you behind your backs ; neither do we see 
with you your intercessors, whom ye thought to have been 
partners with God among you : now is the relation be- 
tween you cut off; and what ye imagined hath deceived 
you. ^^ God causeth the grain, and the date-stone, to 
put forth : he bringeth forth the living from the dead, 
and he bringeth forth the dead from the living. This is 
God. Why, therefore, are ye turned away from him? 
^^ He causeth the morning to appear ; and hath ordained 

94 Who is more wicked than he who proscribed at the taking of Mecca ^, and 

forgeth a lie concerning God, &c. ?] Falsely narrowly escaped with life on his recan- 

pretending to have received revelations tation, by the interposition of Othman 

from him ; as did Moseilama, al Aswad, Ebn Affan, whose foster-brother he was*, 

al Ansi, and others. — And who saith, I will produce a reve- 

— Or saithy This was revealed unto me, lation, &c.] For some Arabs, it seems, 

when nothing hath been revealed unto him.'] had the vanity to imagine, and gave out, 

As did Abda'llah Ebn Saad Ebn Abi that, if they pleased, they could write a 

Sarah, who for some time was the pro- book nothing inferior to the Koran, 

phet's amanuensis ; and when these words — Angels.'] See before, p. 138, note 60, 

were dictated to him as revealed, viz. We db Alone.] That is, without your wealth, 

created man of a purer kind of clay, &c. ^ your children, or your friencls, which ye 

cried out, by way of admiration, Blessed so much depended on in your life-time, 

be God, the best Creator! and being or- — As we created you at first.] i.e. 

dered by Mohammed to write these words Naked and helpless, 

down also, as part of the inspired passage, — Your intercessors.] Or false gods, 

began to think himself as great a prophet — What ye imagined, 8zc.] Concerning 

as his master 2. Whereupon he took upon the intercession of your idols, or the dis- 

himself to corrupt and alter the Koran belief of future rewards and punishments, 

according to his own fancy, and, at length, 96 The living from the dead.] See 

apostatizing, was one of the ten who were chap. iii. 



1 Koran, chap, xxiii. 2 ^i Beiddwi. ^ See the Prelim. Disc. p. 65. 

* V. Ahulfed. vit. Moham. p. 109. 



144 AL KORAN. [chap. 

the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for the com- 
puting of time. This is the disposition of the mighty, 
the wise God. ^^ It is he who hath ordained the stars 
for you, that ye may be directed thereby in the darkness 
of the land, and of the sea. We have clearly shewn 
forth pur signs unto people who understand. ^^ It is he 
who hath produced you from one soul ; and hath provided 
for you a sure receptacle, and a repository. We have 
clearly shewn forth our signs unto people who are wise. 
^^^ It is he who sendeth down water from heaven; and 
we have thereby produced the springing buds of all things, 
and have thereout produced the green thing, from which 
we produce the grain growing in rows, and palm-trees, 
from whose branches proceed clusters of dates hanging 
close together ; and gardens of grapes, and olives, and 
pomegranates, both like and unlike to one another. 
Look on their fruits, when they bear fruit, and their 
growing to maturity. Verily herein are signs unto 
people who believe. ^^^ Yet they have set up the genii 
as partners with God, although he created them : and 
they have falsely attributed unto him sons and daughters, 
without knowledge. Praise be unto him ; and far be 
that from him which they attribute unto him ! He is the 
maker of heaven and earth : how should he have issue, 
since he hath no consort ? he hath created all things, and 
he is omniscient. ^^^ This is God your Lord ; there is no 
God but he, the creator of all things : therefore serve 
him ; for he taketh care of all things. ^^^ The sight com- 
prehendeth him not, but he comprehendeth the sight ; he 
is the gracious, the wise. ^^^ Now have evident demon- 
strations come unto you from your Lord ; whoso seeth 
them, the advantage thereof will redound to his own 

99 A sure receptacle, and a repository ."] their servants, by adoring idols at their 

Namely, in the loins of your fathers, and instigation, or else because, according to 

the wombs of your mothers ^ the Magian system, they looked on the 

101 Genii.~\ This word signifies pro- devil as a sort of creator, making him the 

perly the genus of rational, invisible author and principle of all evil, and God 

beings, whether angels, devils, or that the author of good only 2. 

intermediate species usually called genii. — Sons and daughters.^ See the Prelim. 

Some of the commentators, therefore, in Disc. p. 20. and 46. 

this place, understand the angels whom 103 The gracious.^ Or, as the word 

the Pagan Arabs worshipped ; and others may be translated, the incomprehensi- 

the devils, either because they became ble ^ 

1 Jl Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 145 

soul : and whoso is wilfully blind, the consequence will 
be to himself. I am not a keeper over you. ^^^ Thus do 
we variously explain our signs : that they may say, Thou 
hast studied diligently ; and that we may declare them 
unto people of understanding. ^^^ Follow that which hath 
been revealed unto thee from thy Lord ; there is no 
God but he : retire, therefore, from the idolaters. ^^^ If 
God had so pleased, they had not been guilty of idolatry. 
We have not appointed thee a keeper over them ; neither 
art thou a guardian over them. ^^^ Revile not the idols 
which they invoke besides God, lest they maliciously 
revile God, without knowledge. Thus have we prepared 
for every nation their works : hereafter unto God shall 
they return, and he shall declare unto them that which 
they have done. ^^^ They have sworn by God, by the 
most solemn oath, that if a sign came unto them, they 
would certainly believe therein : Say, Verily signs are in 
the power of God alone ; and he permitteth you not to 
understand that when they come they will not believe. 
^^^ And we will turn aside their hearts, and their sight, 
from the truth, as they believed not therein the first 
time ; and we will leave them to wander in their error. 
[*VIII.] ^^^ And though we had sent down angels unto 
them, and the dead had spoken unto them, and w^e had 
gathered together before them all things in one view; 
they would not have believed, unless God had so pleased : 
^^^ but the greater part of them know it not. ^^^ Thus have 
we appointed unto every prophet an enemy ; the devils 
of men, and of genii ; who privately suggest the one to 

105 That they may say, Thou hast that God did not think fit to comply with 

studied diligently.'] That is, Thou hast their desires ; and that, if he had so 

been instructed by the Jews and Christ- thought fit, yet it had been in vain, be- 

ians in these matters, and only retailest cause, if they were not convinced by the 

to us what thou hast learned of them. Koran, they would not be convinced by 

For this the infidels objected to Moham- the greatest miracle ^ 
med, thinking it impossible for him to 110 Therein.'] i. e. In the Koran, 

discourse on subjects of so high a nature, 111 And though we had sent down 

and in so clear and pertinent a manner, angels unto them, &c.] For the Meccans 

without being well versed in the doctrines required that Mohammed should either 

and sacred writings of those people. shew them an angel descending from 

109 Signs are in the power of God.] heaven in their sight ; or raise their dead 

In this passage Mohammed endeavours to fathers, that they might discourse with 

excuse his inability of working a miracle, them ; or prevail on God, and his angels, 

as had been demanded of him ; declaring to appear to them in a body. 

^ Confer Luke xvi. 31. 
VOL. I. L ^ 



146 AL KORAN. [chap. 

the other specious discourses to deceive ; but if thy Lord 
pleased, they would not have done it. Therefore leave 
them, and that which they have falsely imagined ; and 
let the hearts of those be inclined thereto, who believe 
not in the life to come ; and let them please themselves 
therein, and let them gain that which they are gaining. 
^^* Shall I seek after any other judge besides God to 
judge between us ? It is he who hath sent down unto you 
the book of the Koran, distinguishing between good and 
evil ; and they to whom we gave the scripture, know that 
it is sent down from thy Lord, with truth. Be not 
therefore one of those who doubt thereof. ^^^ The words 
of thy Lord are perfect, in truth and justice ; there is 
none who can change his words: he both heareth and 
knoweth. ^^^ But if thou obey the greater part of them 
who are in the earth, they will lead thee aside from the 
path of God : they follow an uncertain opinion only, and 
speak nothing but lies : ^^^ verily thy Lord well knoweth 
those who go astray from his path, and well knoweth 
those who are rightly directed. ^^^ Eat of that whereon 
the name of God hath been commemorated, if ye believe 
in his signs : ^^^ and why do ye not eat of that whereon 
the name of God hath been commemorated ? since he 
hath plainly declared unto you what he hath forbidden 
you ; except that which ye be compelled to eat of by 
necessity. Many lead others into error, because of their 
appetites, being void of knowledge ; but thy Lord well 
knoweth who are the transgressors. ^^^ Leave both the 
outside of iniquity, and the inside thereof: for they who 
commit iniquity shall receive the reward of that which 
they shall have gained. ^^^ Eat not, therefore, of that 
whereon the name of God hath not been commemorated ; 

115 There is none who can change his no other prophet, law, or dispensation, to 

words.^ Some interpret this of the im- be expected after it. 

mutability of God's decree, and the cer- 116 They follow an uncertain opinion 

tainty of his threats and promises ; others, ow/z/.] Imagining that the true religion 

of his particular promise to preserve the was that which their idolatrous ancestors 

Koran from any such alterations, or cor- professed. 

ruptions, as they imagine to have happened 118 The name of God.'} See chap. ii. 

to the Pentateuch and the Gospel * ; and and chap. v. 

others of the unalterable duration of the 120 Leave the outside of iniquity , and 

Mohammedan law, which they hold is to the inside thereof} That is, both open 

last till the end of the world, there being and secret sins. 

1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 88. and Kor. c. xv. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 147 

for this is certainly wickedness : but the devils will 
suggest unto their friends, that they dispute with you 
concerning this precept ; but if ye obey them, ye are 
surely idolaters. ^^^ Shall he who hath been dead, and 
whom we have restored unto life, and unto whom we 
have ordained a light, whereby he may walk among men, 
be as he whose similitude is in darkness, from whence he 
shall not come forth. Thus was that which the infidels 
are doing prepared for them. ^^^ And thus have we 
placed in every city chief leaders of the wicked men 
thereof, that they may act deceitfully therein ; but they 
shall act deceitfully against their own souls only; and 
they know it not. ^^^ And when a sign cometli unto 
them, they say. We will, by no means, believe, until a 
revelation be brought unto us, like unto that which hath 
been delivered unto the messengers of God. God best 
knoweth whom he will appoint for his messenger. Vile- 
ness, in the sight of God, shall fall upon those who deal 
wickedly, and a grievous punishment, for that they have 
dealt deceitfully. ^^^And whomsoever God shall please 
to direct, he will open his breast to receive the faith of 
Islam : but, whomsoever he shall please to lead into 
error, he will render his breast strait and narrow, as 
though he were climbing up to heaven. Thus doth God 
inflict a terrible punishment on those who believe not. 
^^^ This is the right way of thy Lord. Now have we 
plainly declared our signs unto those people who will 
consider. ^^^ They shall have a dwelling of peace with 
their Lord, and he shall be their patron, because of that 
which they have wrought. ^^^ Think on the day whereon 

122 Not come forth.'] The persons being God's messenger than Moham- 

primarily intended in this passage, were med. 

Hamza, Mohammed's uncle, and Abu — God best knoweth whom he will ap- 

Jahl ; others, instead of Hamza, name point for his messenger.] Literally, Where 

Omar, or Ammar. he will place his commission. God, says 

323 And thus have we placed in every al Beidawi, bestows not the gift of pro- 

city^ chief leaders of the wicked men thereof] phecy on any one on account of his nobi- 

In the same manner as we have done in lity or riches, but for their spiritual quali- 

Mecca. fications ; making choice of such of his 

124 A sign.] i. e. Any verse or passage servants as he pleases, and who he knows 

of the Koran. will execute their commissions faithfully. 

■ — We will not believe until a reve- 125 As though he were climbing up to 

lation be brought unto us, &c.] These heaven.] Or had undertaken the most 

were the words of the Koreish, who impossible thing in the world. In like 

thought there were persons among them- manner shall the heart of such a man be 

selves more worthy of the honour of incapable of receiving the truth. 

l2 



148 AL KORAN. [chap. 

God shall gather them all together, and shall say, O com- 
pany of genii ! ye have been much concerned with 
mankind ; and their friends from among mankind shall 
say, O Lord ! the one of us hath received advantage 
from the other, and we are arrived at our limited term 
which thou hast appointed us. God will say, Hell-fire 
shall be your habitation, therein shall ye remain for ever ; 
unless as God shall please to mitigate your pains, for thy 
Lord is wise and knowing. ^^^ Thus do we set some of 
the unjust over others of them, because of that which 
they have deserved. ^^^ O company of genii and men ! 
did not messengers from among yourselves come unto 
you, rehearsing my signs unto you, and forewarning you 
of the meeting of this your day? They shall answer, 
We bear witness against ourselves : the present life 
deceived them : and they shall bear witness against 
themselves, that they were unbelievers. ^^^ This hath 
been the method of God's dealing with his creatures, 
because thy Lord would not destroy the cities in 
their iniquity, while their inhabitants were careless. 
^^^ Every one shall have degrees of recompense of that 
which they shall do ; for thy Lord is not regardless of 
that which they do : ^^^ and thy Lord is self-sufficient, 
and endued with mercy. If he pleaseth, he can de- 

128 company ofgenii!^ i. e. Of devils ^ respite which God will grant to spme be- 

— Ye have been much concerned with fore they are thrown into hell is here in- 
manMnd.l In tempting and seducing them tended *. According to the exposition of 
to sin. Ebn Abbas, these words may be rendered, 

— The one of us hath received advantage Unless him whom God shall please to de- 
from the other.'] The advantage which men liver thence^. 

received from the evil spirits, was, their 130 Did not messengers from among 

raising and satisfying their lusts and appe- yourselves come unto you, &c.] It is the 

tites ; and that which the latter received Mohammedan belief, that apostles were 

in return, was the obedience paid them by sent by God for the conversion both of 

the former, &c. ^ genii and of men, being generally of hu- 

— Our limited term, &c.] Viz. The man race, (as Mohammed in particular, 
day of resurrection, which we believed not who pretended to have a commission to 
in the other world. preach to both kinds) ; according to this 

— Unless as God shall please to miti- passage, it seems, there must have been 
gate your pains.] The commentators tell prophets of the race of genii also, though 
us, that this alleviajtion of the pains of their mission be a secret to us. 

the damned will be when they shall be 131 While their inhabitants were care- 
token out of the fire to drink the boiling less.] Or considered not their danger ; 
water ^, or to suffer the extreme cold, but God first sent some prophet to them, 
called Zamharir, which is to be one part to warn them of it, and to invite them to 
of their punishment ; but others think, the repentance. 

1 Al Beiddwi, ^ Idem, Jallalo'ddin. ^ Jallald' ddin. ^ Al Beiddwi. 

5 See the Prelim, Disc. § iv. p. 108, 109. 



VI.] AL KORAN. 149 

stroy you, and cause such as he pleaseth to succeed 
you, in like manner as he produced you from the 
posterity of other people. ^^* Verily that which is threat- 
ened you, shall surely come to pass ; neither shall ye 
cause it to fail. ^^^ Say unto those of Mecca, O my 
people ! act according to your power : verily I will act 
according to my duty : and hereafter shall ye know whose 
will be the reward of paradise. The ungodly shall not 
prosper. ^^^ Those of Mecca set apart unto God a por- 
tion of that which he hath produced of the fruits of the 
earth, and of cattle ; and say. This belongeth unto God, 
(according to their imagination,) and this unto our com- 
panions. And that which is destined for their companions 
Cometh not unto God ; yet that which is set apart unto 
God cometh unto their companions. How ill do they 
judge ! ^^^ In like manner have their companions induced 
many of the idolaters to slay their children, that they 
might bring them to perdition, and that they might ren- 
der their religion obscure and confused unto them. But 
if God had pleased, they had not done this ; therefore 
leave them, and that which they falsely imagine. ^^^ They 
also say. These cattle and fruits of the earth are sacred ; 
none shall eat thereof but who we please, (according to 
their imagination ;) and there are cattle whose backs are 
forbidden to be rode on, or loaden with burdens; and 

135 Jet according to your power ; and among those of Kendah, and some other 
/ will act according to my duty.~\ That tribes, of burying their daughters alive, as 
is, ye may proceed in your rebellion against soon as they were born, if they appre- 
GoD, and your malice towards me, and bended they could not maintain them ^ ; 
be confirmed in your infidelity ; but I or else by offering them to their idols, at 
will persevere to bear your insults with the instigation of those who had the cus- 
patience, and to publish those revelations tody of their temples *. 

which God has commanded me ^, — And render their religion obscure and 

136 Our companions,'] i. e. Our idols, confused^ &c.] By corrupting, with horrid 
In which sense this word is to be taken superstitions, that religion which Ismael 
through the whole passage. had left to his posterity ^ 

— Set apart unto God.] As to this 138 But who we please,] That is, 

custom of the Pagan Arabs, see the Pre- Those who serve our idols, and are of the 

lim. Disc. § i. p. 19. To what is there male sex ; for the women were not al- 

said we may add, that the share set apart lowed to eat of them ^. 

for God was employed chiefly in relieving — And there are cattle whose hacks are 

the poor, and strangers ; and the share of forbidden to he rode on, &c.] Which they 

the idols, for paying their priests, and superstitiously exempted from such ser- 

providing sacrifices for them 2. vices, in some particular cases ; as they 

137 To slay their children.] Either by did the Bahira, the Sai'ba, and the Ha- 
that inhuman custom, which prevailed mi ^. 

^ Al Beiddwi. 2 idem, Jallalo' ddin. ^ See chap. Ixxxi. * dl Beiddwi, 

5 Idem. 6 Idem. ^ See chap. v. and Prelim. Disc. § v. 



150 AL KORAN. [chap. 

there are cattle on which they commemorate not the 
name of God when they slay them, devising a lie against 
him ; God shall reward them for that which they falsely 
devise. ^^^ And they say, That which is in the bellies of 
these cattle is allowed our males to eat, and is forbidden 
to our wives : but if it prove abortive, then they are both 
partakers thereof. God shall give them the reward of 
their attributing these things to him : he is knowing and 
wise. ^^^ They are utterly lost who have slain their chil- 
dren foolishly, without knowledge; and have forbidden 
that which God hath given them for food, devising a lie 
against God. They have erred, and were not rightly 
directed. ^^^ He it is who produceth gardens of vines, 
both those which are supported on trails of w^ood, and 
those which are not supported, and palm-trees, and the 
corn affording various food, and olives, and pomegranates, 
alike and unlike unto one another. Eat of their fruit, 
when they bear fruit, and pay the due thereof on the day 
whereon ye shall gather it ; but be not profuse, for God 
loveth not those who are too profuse. ^^^ And God hath 
given you some cattle fit for bearing of burdens, and some 
fit for slaughter only. Eat of what God hath given you 
for food ; and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is 
your declared enemy. ^^^ Four pair of cattle hath God 
given you ; of sheep one pair, and of goats one pair. Say 
unto them. Hath God forbidden the two males, of sheep 
and of goats, or the two females; or that which the 
wombs of the two females contain ? Tell me with cer- 
tainty, if ye speak truth. ^^^And of camels hath God 

138 The name of God.'] See chap. v. — And pay the due thereof &c.] That 

139 That which is in the bellies of these is, give alms thereof to the poor. And 
cattle.~\ That is, the foetus, or embryos these alms, as al Beidawi observes, were 
of the Bahira and the Saiba, which shall what they used to give before the Zacat, 
be brought forth alive. or legal alms, was instituted ; which was 

— But if it prove abortive, they both done after Mohammed had retired from 
partake thereof] For if those cattle cast Mecca, where this verse was revealed, 
their young, the women might eat thereof Yet some are of another opinion, and, for 
as well as the men. this very reason, will have the verse to 

140 Slain their children.] See note 137. have been revealed at Medina. 

— Without knowledge.] Not having a — Be not profuse.] i. e. Give not so 
due sense of God's providence. much thereof in alms, as to leave your 

141 Supported on trails of wood, and own families in want ; for charity begins 
not supported.] Or, as some choose to in- at home. 

terpret the words, trees or plants which 143 Four pair.] Or, literally, eight 

are planted by the labour of man, and males and females paired together ; that 

those which grow naturally in the deserts is, four of each sex, and two of every dis- 

and on mountains. tinct kind. 

1 



VI.] AL KORAN. 151 

given you one pair, and of oxen one pair ? Say, hath he 
forbidden the two males of these, or the two females ; or 
that which the wombs of the two females contain ? Were 
ye present when God commanded you this ? And who 
is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against God, 
that he may seduce men without understanding ? Verily 
God directeth not unjust people. ^^^ Say, I find not in 
that which hath been revealed unto me, any thing for- 
bidden unto the eater, that he eat it not, except it be 
that which dieth of itself, or blood poured forth, or swine's 
flesh ; for this is an abomination : or that which is pro- 
fane, having been slain in the name of some other than 
God. But whoso shall be compelled by necessity to eat 
of these things, not lusting, nor wilfully transgressing, 
verily thy Lord will be gracious unto him and merciful. 
^^^ Unto the Jews did we forbid every beast having an 
undivided hoof; and of bullocks and sheep, we forbade 
them the fat of both ; except that which should be on 
their backs, or their inwards, or which should be inter- 
mixed with the bone. This have we rewarded them with, 
because of their iniquity ; and we are surely speakers of 
truth. ^^^ If they accuse thee of imposture, say. Your 
Lord is endued with extensive mercy ; but his severity 
shall not be averted from wicked people. ^^^ The idola- 
ters will say, If God had pleased, we had not been guilty 
of idolatry, neither our fathers ; and pretend that we have 
not forbidden them any thing. Thus did they who were 
before them accuse the prophets of imposture, until they 
tasted our severe punishment. ^^^ Say, Is there with you 
any certain knowledge of what ye allege, that ye may 

144 Females.'] In this passage Mo- 145 Blood poured forth.'] That is, fluid 

hammed endeavours to convince the Arabs blood : in opposition to what the Arabs 

of their superstitious folly, in making it un- suppose to be also blood, but not fluid ; as 

lawful, one while, to eat the males of these the liver and the spleen 3. 

four kinds of cattle; another while, the fe- 146 We forbade them the fat, &c.] See 

males ; and at another time, their young *. Levit. vii. 23, and iii. 16. 

— Who is more unjust than he who de- — Or that which is intermixed with the 

viseth a lie against God, &c.] The per- bone.~] Viz. the fat of the rumps or tails 

son particularly intended here, some say, of sheep, which are very large in the 

was Amru Ebn Lohai, king of Hajaz, a east; a small one weighing ten or twelve 

great introducer of idolatry and supersti- pounds, and some no less than three- 

tion among the Arabs 2. score. 

^ At Beiddwi. ^ idem. See Prelim. Disc. p. 23. and Pocock, Spec. p. 80. 

'^ Al Beiddwi, JallaWddin. 



152 AL KORAN. [chap. 

produce it unto us? Ye follow only a false imagination; 
and ye only utter lies. Say, Therefore unto God be- 
longeth the most evident demonstration ; for if he had 
pleased, he had directed you all. ^^^ Say, Produce your 
witnesses, who can bear testimony that God hath for- 
bidden this. But if they bear testimony of this, do not 
thou bear testimony with them, nor do thou follow the 
desires of those who accuse our signs of falsehood, and 
who believe not in the life to come, and equalize idols 
with their Lord. ^^^Say, Come; I will rehearse that 
which your Lord hath forbidden you ; that is to say, that 
ye be not guilty of idolatry, and that ye shew kindness to 
your parents, and that ye murder not your children, for 
fear lest ye be reduced to poverty : we will provide for 
you and them ; and draw not near unto heinous crimes, 
neither openly, nor in secret ; and slay not the soul which, 
God hath forbidden you to slay, unless for a just cause. 
This hath he enjoined you that ye may understand. 
^^^And meddle not with the substance of the orphan, 
otherwise than for the improving thereof, until he attain 
his age of strength ; and use a full measure, and a just 
balance. We will not impose a task on any soul beyond 
its ability. And when ye pronounce judgment observe 
justice, although it be for or against one who is near of 
kin ; and fulfil the covenant of God. ^^^ This hath God 
commanded you, that ye may be admonished ; and that 
ye may know that this is my right way : therefore follow 
it, and follow not the paths of others, lest ye be scattered 
from the path of God. This hath he commanded you 
that ye may take heed. ^^^ We gave also unto Moses 
the book of the Law ; a perfect rule unto him who should 
do right, and a determination concerning all things need- 
ful, and a direction, and mercy ; that the children of 
Israel might believe the meeting of their Lord. ^^^ And 
this book which we have now sent down is blessed ; there- 
fore follow it, and fear God, that ye may obtain mercy. 

151 A^az/, &c.] This and the two follow- signifies peculiarly fornication and ava- 

ing verses Jallalo'ddin supposes to have rice, 

been revealed at Medina. — Unless for a just cause.^ As for 

— Heinous crimes,'} The original word murder, apostacy, or adultery *. 

* Jl Beiddwi, 



VI.] AL KORAN. 153 

^^^ Lest je should say. The scriptures were only sent clown 
unto two people before us ; and we neglected to peruse 
them with attention. ^^^ Or lest ye should say. If a book 
of divine revelations had been sent down unto us, we 
would surely have been better directed than they. And 
now hath a manifest declaration come unto you from your 
Lord, and a direction and mercy : and who is more un- 
just than he who deviseth lies against the signs of God, 
and turneth aside from them? We will reward those 
who turn aside from our signs with a grievous punish- 
ment, because they have turned aside. ^^^ Do they wait 
for any other than that the angels should come unto 
them, to part their souls from their bodies ; or that thy 
Lord should come to punish them ; or that some of the 
signs of thy Lord should come to pass, shewing the 
day of judgment to be at hand ? On the day whereon 
some of thy Lord's signs shall come to pass, its faith 
shall not profit a soul which believed not before, or 
wrought not good in its faith. Say, Wait ye for this 
day ; we surely do wait for it. ^^^ They who make a divi- 
sion in their religion, and become sectaries, have thou 
nothing to do with them ; their affair belongeth only unto 
God. Hereafter shall he declare unto them that which 
they have done. ^^^ He who shall appear with good 
works, shall receive a ten-fold recompense for the same ; 
but he who shall appear with evil works, shall receive 
only an equal punishment for the same ; and they shall 

156 Unto two people.'} That is, the pearance of Antichrist, the sun's rising in 
Jews and the Christians. the west, the eruption of Gog and Magog, 

— And we neglected to peruse them, 8zc.~\ the descent of Jesus on earth, and fire 

Either because we knew nothing of them, which shall break forth from Aden 2. 
or did not understand the language where- — Its faith shall not profit a soul which 

in they were written. believed not, &c.] For faith in the next 

157 We would surely have been better life will be of no advantage to those who 
directed than they.} Because of the acute- have not believed in this ; nor yet faith in 
ness of our wit, the clearness of our un- this life, without good works, 
derstanding, and our facility of learning 159 They who make a division in their 
sciences ; as appears from our excelling in religioii.'] That is, who believe in part of 
history, poetry, and oratory, notwithstand- it, and disbelieve other part of it; or who 
ing we are an illiterate people 1. form schisms therein. Mohammed is re- 

158 At hand.'} Al Beidawi, from a ported to have declared, that the Jews 
tradition of Mohammed, says, that ten were divided into seventy-one sects, and 
signs will precede the last day ; viz. the the Christians into seventy- two; and that 
smoke, the beast of the earth, an eclipse his own follov/ers would be split into 
in the east, another in the west, and a seventy-three sects ; and that all of them 
third in the peninsula of Arabia, the ap- would be damned, except only one of each s. 

1 Jl Bciddwi. 2 ^qq ^he Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 94, 95, 9G, &c. 3 ji Beidawi. 



154 A L KORAN. [chap. 

not be treated unjustly. ^^^ Say, Verily my Lord hath 
directed me into a right way ; — ^^^ a true religion, the 
sect of Abraham the orthodox ; and he was no idolater. 
^^^ Say, Verily, my prayers, and my worship, and my life, 
and my death, are dedicated unto God, the Lord of all 
creatures. — ^^^ He hath no companion. This have I been 
commanded : I am the first Moslem. ^^^ Say, shall 1 
desire any other Lord besides God ? since he is the Lord 
of all things ; and no soul shall acquire any merits or 
demerits but for itself: and no burdened soul shall bear 
the burden of another. Moreover unto your Lord shall 
ye return ; and he shall declare unto you that concerning 
which ye now dispute. ^^^ It is he who hath appointed 
you to succeed your predecessors in the earth, and hath 
raised some of you above others, by various degrees of 
worldly advantages, that he might prove you by that 
which he hath bestowed on you. Thy Lord is swift in 
punishing : and he is also gracious and merciful. 

164 Moslem.'] See before, page 132, answer to the pressing instances of the 
133. idolaters, who offered to take the crime 

165 No burdened soul shall bear the upon themselves, if Mohammed would 
burden of another.] This was revealed in conform to their worship '. 

^ Jl Beiddwi. 



CHAPTER VII. 

INTITLED, AL ARAF ; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ A. L. M. S. ^ A book hath been sent down unto thee ; 
and therefore let there be no doubt in thy breast concern- 
ing it : that thou mayest preach the same, and that it 
may be an admonition unto the faithful. ^ Follow that 

Title.] — ^/ /^ra/ signifies the partition 1 A. L. M. S.] The signification of 

between paradise and hell, which is men- these letters, the more sober Mohamme- 

tioned in this chapter ^. dans confess, God alone knows. Some, 

Title — At Mecca.] Some, however, ex- however, imagine they stand for, Al- 

cept five or eight verses, and begin at these lah, Gabriel, Mohammed, on whom be 

words,And ask them concerning the city,&c. peace. 

1 Seethe Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 1J2. 



VII.] AL KORAN. 155 

which hath been sent down unto you from your Lord ; 
and follow no guides beside him : how little will ye be 
warned ! ^ How many cities have we destroyed, which 
our vengeance overtook by night, or while they were 
reposing themselves at noon-day ! ^ And their supplica- 
tion, when our punishment came upon them, was no other 
than that they said. Verily we have been unjust. ^ We 
will surely call those to an account, unto whom a prophet 
hath been sent ; and we will also call those to account 
who have been sent unto them. ^ And we will declare 
their actions unto them with knowledge ; for we are not 
absent from them. ^ The weighing of men's actions on 
that day shall be just; and they whose balances, laden 
with their good works, shall be heavy, are those who shall 
be happy ; ^ but they whose balances shall be light, are 
those who have lost their souls, because they injured our 
signs. ^^ And now have we placed you on the earth, and 
have provided you food therein : but how little are ye 
thankful ! ^^ We created you, and afterwards formed you; 
and then said unto the angels. Worship Adam ; and they 
all worshipped him, except Eblis, who was not one of 
those who worshipped. ^^ God said unto him, What 
hindered thee from worshipping Adam, since I had com- 
manded thee ? He answered, I am more excellent than 
he : thou hast created me of fire, and hast created him of 
clay. ^^ God said. Get thee down therefore from para- 
dise ; for it is not fit that thou behave thyself proudly 
therein ; get thee hence ; thou shalt be one of the con- 
temptible. ^^ He answered. Give me respite until the 
day of resurrection. ^^ God said, Verily thou shalt be 
one of those who are respited. ^^ The devil said. Because 
thou hast depraved me, I will lay wait for men in thy 

4 Which our vengeance overtook by 11 Eblis.^ See chap. ii. 
night.^ As it did the inhabitants of Sodom 15 Verily thou shalt be one of those who 

and Gomorrah, to whom Lot was sent. are respited.] As the time till which the 

— Or while they were reposing them- devil is reprieved is not particularly ex- 

selves at noon.'] As happened to the Mi- pressed, the commentators suppose his re- 

dianites to whom Shoaib preached. quest was not wholly granted ; but agree 

8 The weighing.] See the Prelim. Disc, that he shall die, as well as other creatures, 

§ iv. p. 105, 106. at the second sound of the trumpet *. 

^ Al Beiddwi. See the Prelim. Disc. sect. iv. p. 08, and D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. 
Art. Eblis. 



156 AL KORAN. [chap. 

strait way ; ^^ then will I come upon them from before, 
and from behind, and from their right hands, and from 
their left : and thou shalt not find the greater part of 
them thankful. ^^ God said unto him, Get thee hence, 
despised, and driven far away : — ^^ verily whoever of them 
shall follow thee, I will surely fill hell with you all : — 
^^ but as for thee, O Adam ! dwell thou and thy wife in 
paradise ; and eat of the fruit thereof wherever ye will ; 
but approach not this tree, lest ye become of the number 
of the unjust. ^^ And Satan suggested unto them both, 
that he would discover unto them their nakedness, which 
was hidden from them ; and he said. Your Lord hath not 
forbidden you this tree, for any other reason but lest ye 
should become angels, or lest ye become immortaL ^^ And 
he sware unto them saying, Verily I am one of those who 
counsel you aright. ^^ And he caused them to fall through 
deceit. And when they had tasted of the tree, their 
nakedness appeared unto them ; and they began to join 
together the leaves of paradise, to cover themselves. 
And their Lord called to them, saying. Did I not forbid 
you this tree, and did I not say unto you. Verily Satan 
is your declared enemy ? ^^ They answered, O Lord ! 
we have dealt unjustly with our own souls ; and if thou 
forgive us not, and be not merciful unto us, we shall 

17 I will come upon them from before f llamo \_Dios'\ a la serpientet y a Michael, 

and from behind, and from their right aquel que tiene la espada de Dios, y le dixo; 

hands, and from their left, &c.] i. e. I will Aquesta sierpe es acelerada, echala la pri- 

attack them on every side that I shall be mera del parayso, y cortale las piernas, y 

able. The other two ways, viz. from above si quisiere caminar, arrastrara la vida por 

and from under their feet, are omitted, tierra. Y llamo a Satanas, el qual vino 

say the commentators, to shew that the riendo, y dixole ; Porque tu reprobo has 

devil's power is limited ^. eganado a aquestos, y los has hecho im^ 

23 Deceit.^ The Mohammedan gospel mundos ? Yo quiero que ioda Immun- 
ol Barnabas tells us, that the sentence dicia suya, y de todos sus hijos, en saliendo 
which God pronounced on the serpent for de sus cuerpos entre por tu boca, porque en 
introducing the devil into paradise ^, was, verdad ellos haran penitencia, y tu quedaras 
that he should not only be turned out of harto de immundicia. 

paradise, but that he should have his legs — Their nakedness appeared unto themJ] 

cut off by the angel Michael, with the Which they had not perceived before ; 

sword of God ; and that the devil himself, being clothed, as some say, with light, or 

since he had rendered our first parents garmentsof paradise, which fell from them 

unclean, was condemned to eat the excre- on their disobedience. Yahya imagines 

ments of them and all their posterity ; their nakedness was hidden by their 

which two last circumstances I do not re- hair. 

member to have read elsewhere. The — The leaves of paradise J] Which it 

words of the manuscript are these: Y is said were fig-leaves 3. 

^ Al Beiddivi. ^ See the notes to chap. ii. ^ See the notes to chap. ii. 



VII.] A L KORAN. 157 

surely be of those who perish. ^^ God said, Get ye down, 
the one of you an enemy unto the other ; and ye shall 
have a dwelling-place upon earth, and a provision for a 
season. ^^ He said. Therein shall ye live, and therein 
shall ye die, and from thence shall ye be taken forth at 
the resurrection. ^^ O children of Adam, we have sent 
down unto you apparel, to conceal your nakedness, and 
fair garments ; but the clothing of piety is better. This 
is one of the signs of God ; that, peradventure, ye may 
consider. ^^ O children of Adam ! let not Satan seduce 
you, as he expelled your parents out of paradise, by strip- 
ping them of their clothing, that he might shew them 
their nakedness : verily he seeth you, both he and his 
companions, whereas ye see not them. We have ap- 
pointed the devils to be the patrons of those who believe 
not : ^^ and when they commit a filthy action they say, 
We found our fathers practising the same ; and God hath 
commanded us to do it. ^^ Say, Verily God commandeth 
not filthy actions. Do ye speak concerning God that 
which ye know not ? Say, my Lord hath commanded 
me to observe justice ; therefore set your faces to pray 
at every place of worship, and call upon him, approving 
unto him the sincerity of your religion. As he produced 
you at first, so unto him shall ye return. ^^ A part of 
mankind hath he directed ; and a part hath been justly 
led into error, because they have taken the devils for 
their patrons besides God, and imagine that they are 
rightly directed. ^^ O children of Adam ! take your de- 
cent apparel at every place of worship, and eat and drink, 

27 We have sent down unto you apparel.^ put on his better apparel, out of respect to 
Not only proper materials, but also inge- the divine niajesty before whom he is to 
nuity of mind, and dexterity of hand, to appear. But as the Mohammedans think 
make use of them ^ it indecent, on the one hand, to come into 

28 Whereas ye see not them.'] Because God's presence in a slovenly manner, so 
of the subtilty of their bodies, and their they imagine, on the other, that they ought 
being void of all colour 2. not to appear before him in habits too rich 

32 Take your decent apparel at every or sumptuous, and particularly in clothes 

place of worship^ &c.] This passage v^as adorned with gold or silver, lest they 

revealed to reprove the immodest custom should seem proud. 

of the Pagan Arabs, who used to encom- — And eat and drink.'] The sons of 

pass the Caaba naked, because clothes, Amer, it is said, when they performed the 

they said, were the signs of their disobe- pilgrimage to Mecca, used to eat no more 

dience to God ^. The Sonna orders that than was absolutely necessary, and that 

when a man goes to prayers, he should not of the more delicious sort of food 

1 3ee the notes to chap. ii. 2 Jallalo'ddin. ^ JaUaWddin, ul BeiddwL 



158 AL KORAN. [chap. 

but be not guilty of excess ; for he loveth not those who 
are guilty of excess. ^^ Say, Who hath forbidden the 
decent apparel of God, which he hath produced for his 
servants, and the good things w^hich he hath provided for 
food ? Say, These things are for those who believe in this 
present life, but peculiarly on the day of resurrection. 
Thus do we distinctly explain our signs unto people who 
understand. ^^ Say, Verily my Lord hath forbidden filthy 
actions, both that which is discovered thereof, and that 
which is concealed, and also iniquity, and unjust violence; 
and hath forbidden you to associate with God that con- 
cerning which he hath sent you down no authority, or to 
speak of God that which ye know not. ^^ Unto every 
nation there is a prefixed term; therefore when their 
term is expired, they shall not have respite for an hour, 
neither shall they be anticipated. ^^ O children of Adam ! 
verily apostles from among you shall come unto you, who 
shall expound my signs unto you : whosoever, therefore, 
shall fear God, and amend, there shall come no fear on 
them, neither shall they be grieved. ^^ But they who 
shall accuse our signs of falsehood, and shall proudly 
reject them, they shall be the companions of hell-fire ; 
they shall remain therein for ever. ^^ And who is more 
unjust than he who deviseth a lie concerning God, or 
accuseth his signs of imposture? Unto these shall be 
given their portion of worldly happiness, according to 
what is written in the book of God's decrees, until our 
messengers come unto them, and shall cause them to die ; 
saying. Where are the idols which ye called upon, besides 
God ? They shall answer. They have disappeared from 
us. And they shall bear witness against themselves, that 
they were unbelievers. ^^ God shall say unto them at 
the resurrection. Enter ye with the nations which have 
preceded you, of genii and of men, into hell-fire : so often 
as one nation shall enter, it shall curse its sister, until 

neither : which abstinence they looked 38 Our messengers.'] Viz. The angel 

upon as a piece of merit, but they are here of death, and his assistants. 

told the contrary ^. 39 It shall curse its sister.] That is, 

33 But peculiarly on the day of resur- the nation whose example betrayed them 

rection,] Because then the wicked, who into their idolatry, and other wicked- 

also partook of the blessings of this life, will ness. 
have no share in the enjoyments of the next. 

* Jallalo'ddiyij al Belddwi. 



VII.] AL KORAN. 159 

they shall all have successively entered therem. The 
latter of them shall say of the former of them, O Lord ! 
these have seduced us ; therefore inflict on them a double 
punishment of the fire of hell. God shall answer, It 
shall be doubled unto all ; but ye know it not. ^^ And 
the former of them shall say unto the latter of them, Ye 
have not therefore any favour above us ; taste the punish- 
ment for that which ye have gained. ^^ Verily they who 
shall charge our signs with falsehood, and shall proudly 
reject them, the gates of heaven shall not be opened unto 
them, neither shall they enter into paradise, until a camel 
pass through the eye of a needle ; and thus will we reward 
the wicked doers. ^^ Their couch shall be in hell, and 
over them shall be coverings of fire ; and thus will we 
reward the unjust. '^^ But they who believe, and do that 
which is right, (we will not load any soul but according 
to its ability,) they shall be the companions of paradise ; 
they shall remain therein for ever. ^* And we will re- 
move all grudges from their minds ; rivers shall run at 
their feet, and they shall say. Praised be God, who hath 
directed us unto this felicity ! for we should not have been 
rightly directed, if God had not directed us : now are we 
convinced, by demonstration, that the apostles of our 
Lord came unto us with truth. And it shall be pro- 
claimed unto them. This is paradise, whereof ye are made 
heirs, as a reward for that which ye have wrought. ^^ And 
the inhabitants of paradise shall call out to the inhabi- 
tants of hell-fire, saying, Now have we found that which 
our Lord promised us to be true : have ye also found 

— It is doubled unto you all.~\ Unto those sion was probably taken from onr Saviour's 
who set the example, because they not words in the gospeP; though it be pro- 
only transgressed themselves, but were verbial in the east. 

also the occasion of the others' transgress- 44 And we will remove all grudges from 

ing; and unto those who followed them, their minds, ~\ So that whatever differences, 

because of their own infidelity, and their or animosities, there had been between 

imitating an ill example ^ them in their life-time, they shall now be 

41 The gates of heaven shall not he forgotten, and give place to sincere love 

opened unto them.'] That is, when their and amity. This Ali is said to have 

souls shall, after death, ascend to heaven, hoped would prove true to himself and his 

they shall not be admitted, but shall be inveterate enemies, Othman, Telha, and 

thrown down into the dungeon under the Al Zobeir *. 
seventh earth 2. 45 The inhabitants.] Literally, the 

— The eye of a needle.] This expres- companions. 

' Jallalo' ddin^ al Beiddwi. 2 Jallaldddin. See the Prelim. Disc, ubi sup. 

p. 92. 3 Matth. xix. 24. ^ ^i Beiddwi. 



160 A L KORAN. [chap. 

that which your Lord promised you to be true ? They 
shall answer, Yea. And a crier shall proclaim between 
them, The curse of God shall be on the wicked ; — ^^ who 
turn men aside from the way of God, and seek to render 
it crooked, and who deny the life to come. ^^ And be- 
tween the blessed and the damned there shall be a veil ; 
and men shall stand on Al Araf, who shall know every 
one of them by their marks, and shall call unto the in- 
habitants of paradise, saying. Peace be upon you : yet 
they shall not enter therein, although they earnestly de- 
sire it. ^^ And when they shall turn their eyes towards 
the companions of hell-fire, they shall say, O Lord, place 
us not with the ungodly people ! ^^ And those who stand 
on Al Araf shall call unto certain men, whom they shall 
know by their marks, and shall say. What hath your 
gathering of riches availed you, and that ye were puffed 
up with pride ? ^^ Are these the men on whom ye sware 
that God would not bestow mercy ? Enter ye into para- 
dise ; there shall come no fear on you, neither shall ye 
be grieved. ^^ And the inhabitants of hell-fire shall call 
unto the inhabitants of paradise, saying. Pour upon us 
some water, or of those refreshments which God hath 
bestowed on you. They shall answer, Verily God hath 

45 The crier.'] Some say he will be talized here, for a certain time, with a 

the angel Israfil. bare view of the felicity of that place. 

47 And men shall stand on Al Araf.] 49 Certain men.] That is, the chiefs 

Al Araf is the name of the wall, or parti- and ringleaders of the infidels *. 

tion, which, as Mohammed taught, will 50 On whom ye sware that God would 

separate paradise from hell *. But, as to not bestow mercy.] These were the infe- 

the persons who are to be placed thereon, rior and poorer among the believers, whom 

the commentators differ, as has been else- they despised in their life time, as un- 

where observed 2. worthy of God's favour. 

— fVho shall know every one of them by — Enter ye into paradise, &c.] These 
their marks.] i. e. Who shall distinguish words are directed, by an apostrophe, to 
the blessed from the damned, by their the poor and despised believers above- 
proper characteristics ; such as the white- mentioned. Some commentators, however, 
ness and splendour of the faces of the imagine that these, and the next preceding 
former, and the blackness of those of the words, are to be understood of those who 
latter^. will be confined in Al Araf; and that the 

— Yet they shall not enter therein, al- damned will, in return for their reproach- 
though they earnestly desire it.] From ful speech, swear that they shall never 
this circumstance, it seems, that their enter paradise themselves ; whereupon 
opinion is the most probable, who make God, of his mercy, shall order them to be 
this intermediate partition a sort of pur- admitted by these words ^ 

gatory for those, who, though they de- 51 Or of that which God hath bestowed 

serve not to be sent to hell, yet have not on you.] i. e. Of the other liquors or 

merits sufficient to gain them immediate fruits of paradise. Compare this passage 

admittance into paradise, and will be tan- with the parable of Dives and Lazarus. 

' See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 112. 2 gee ibid. ^ Al Beiddwi. 

* Idem. ^ Idem. 



VII.] AL KORAN. 161 

forbidden them unto the unbelievers ; — '^^ who made a 
laughing-stock, and a sport, of their religion, and whom 
the life of the world hath deceived : therefore this day 
will we forget them, as they did forget the meeting of 
this day, and for that they denied our signs to be from 
God. ^^ And now have we brought unto those of Mecca 
a book of divine revelations ; we have explained it with 
knowledge ; a direction and mercy unto people who shall 
believe. ^^ Do they wait for any other than the interpre- 
tation thereof? On the day whereon the intepretation 
thereof shall come, they who had forgotten the same be- 
fore, shall say, Now are we convinced, by demonstration, 
that the messengers of our Lord came unto us with 
truth : shall we therefore have any intercessors, who will 
intercede for us ? or shall we be sent back into the world, 
that we may do other works than what we did in our life- 
time ? But now have they lost their souls ; and that 
which they impiously imagined, hath fled from them. 
55 Yepiiy jQur Lord is God, who created the heavens and 
the earth in six days ; and then ascended his throne : he 
causeth the night to cover the day ; it succeedeth the 
same swiftly : he alsp created the sun, and the moon, and 
the stars, which are absolutely subject unto his com- 
mand. Is not the w^hole creation, and the empire thereof, 
his ? Blessed be God, the Lord of all creatures ! ^^ Call 
upon your Lord humbly, and in secret, for he loveth 
not those who transgress. ^^ And act not corruptly 
in the earth, after its reformation ; and call upon him 
with fear and desire : for the mercy of God is near 
unto the righteous. ^^ It is he who sendeth the winds, 
spread abroad before his mercy, until they bring a 

54 The interpretation thereof.'] That is, 58 Spread abroad.'] Or ranging over a 

the event of the promises and menaces large extent of land. Some copies, in- 

therein. stead of Noshran, which is the reading I 

— Fled from them.] See chap. vi. have here followed, have Boshran^ which 

p. 138, note 60. signifies good tidings; the rising of the 

56 Who transgress.] Behaving them- wind in such a manner being the forerun- 
selves arrogantly while they pray ; or ner of rain. 

praying with an obstreperous voice, or a — Before his mercy.] That is, rain, 

multitude of words, and vain repetitions ^. For the east wind, says Al Beidawi, raises 

57 After its reformation.] i. e. After the clouds^ the north wind drives them 
that God had sent his prophets, and re- together, the south wind agitates them 
vealed his laws, for the reformation and so as to make the rain fall, and the south 
amendment of mankind. wind disperses them again 2. 

1 Al Beldam.. ^ Idem. 

VOL. I. M 



162 AL KORAN. [chap. 

cloud heavy with rain, which we drive into a dead 
country ; and we cause water to descend thereon, by 
which we cause all sorts of fruits to spring forth. 
Thus will we bring forth the dead from their graves ; 
that, peradventure, ye may consider. ^^ From a good 
country shall its fruit spring forth abundantly, by the 
permission of its Lord ; but from the land which is bad, 
it shall not spring forth otherwise than scarcely. Thus 
do we explain the signs of divine providence unto people 
who are thankful. ^^ We formerly sent Noah unto his 
people : and he said, O my people ! worship God : ye 
have no other God than him. Verily I fear for you the 
punishment of the great day. ^^ The chiefs of his people 
answered him, We surely perceive thee to be in a mani- 
fest error. ^^ He replied, O my people ! there is no error 
in me ; but I am a messenger from the Lord of all crea- 
tures. ^^ I bring unto you the messages of my Lord ; 
and I counsel you aright : for I know from God, that 
which ye know not. ^^ Do ye wonder that an admonition 
hath come unto you from your Lord by a man from 

58 A dead country.'] Or a dry and to call together the workmen who were 

parched land. building the ark, but to give him an op- 

— From their graves.] See the Prelim, portunity of daily admonishing his people 

Disc. § iv. p. 93, 98, &c. of the impending danger of the deluge, 

60 Noah.] Noah, the son of Lamech, which would certainly destroy them if 

according to the Mohammedan writers, they did not repent ^. 
was one of the six principal prophets ^, Some Mohammedan authors pretend, 

though he had no written revelations de- Noah was sent to convert Zohak, one of 

livered to him 2, and the first who ap- the Persian kings of the first race, who 

peared after his great grandfather Edris, refused to hearken to him; and that he after- 

or Enoch. They also say, he was by wards preached God's unity publicly ^. 
trade a carpenter, which they infer from — Worship God : ye have no other God 

his building the ark ; and that the year of hut him.] From these words, and other 

his mission was the fiftieth, or, as others passages of the Koran, where Noah's 

say, the fortieth, of his age ^. preaching is mentioned, it appears that, 

That Noah was a preacher of righteous- according to Mohammed's opinion, a prin- 

ness unto the wicked antediluvians, is tes- cipal crime of the antediluvians was ido- 

tified by scripture *. The eastern Chris- latry ^ 

tians say, that when God ordered Noah — The great day.] Viz. Either the 

to build the ark, he also directed him to day of resurrection, or that whereon the 

make an instrument of wood, such as they flood was to begin. 

make use of at this day, in the east, in- 64 By a man.] For, said they, if God 

stead of bells, to call the people to church, had pleased, he would have sent an angel, 

and named in Arabic, NdkuSf and in mo- and not a man ; since we never heard of 

dern Greek, Semandra; on which he was such an instance in the times of our 

to strike three times every day, not only fathers ^ 

1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 89. ^ y. Reland, de relig. Moh. p. 34. ^ Al Za- 

makhshari. * 2 Pet. ii. 5. ^ Eutych. Annal. p. 37- ^ V. D' Herb el. 

Bibl. Orient, p. 675. ' See chap. Ixxi. and the Prelim. Disc. § i. p. 22. 
^ Al Beiddwi. 



VII.] AL KORAN. 163 

among you, to warn you, that ye may take heed to your- 
selves, and that, peradventure, ye may obtain mercy? 
^^ And they accused him of imposture : but we delivered 
him, and those who were with him in the ark, and Ave 
drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood ; 
for they were a blind people. ^^ And unto the tribe of 
Ad we sent their brother Hud. He said, O my people ! 
worship God : ye have no other God than him ; will ye 
not fear him ? ^^ The chiefs of those among his people 
who believed not, answ^ered. Verily we perceive that thou 
art guided by folly ; and we certainly esteem thee to be 
one of the liars. ^^ He replied, O my people ! I am not 
guided by folly ; but I am a messenger unto you from 
the Lord of all creatures : — ^^ I bring unto you the mes- 
sages of my Lord ; and I am a faithful counsellor unto 
you. ^^ Do ye wonder that an admonition hath come 
unto you from your Lord, by a man from among you, 
that he may warn you ? Call to mind how he hath ap- 
pointed you successors unto the people of Noah, and 
hath added unto you in stature largely. Remember the 
benefits of God, that ye may prosper. '^ They said. Art 
thou come unto us, that we should worship God alone, 

65 And those who were with him in the fourth restoring them to health when 

ark.'] That is, those who believed on afflicted with sickness ^; according to the 

him, and entered into that vessel with signification of the several names, 
him. Though there be a tradition among — Hud.] Generally supposed to be 

the Mohammedans, said to have been re- the same person with Heber ^ ; but others 

ceived from the prophet himself, and con- say, he was the son of Abda'llah, the son 

formable to the scripture, that eight per- of Ribah, the son of Kholud, the son of 

sons, and no more, were saved in the ark ; Ad, the son of Aws or Uz, the son of 

yet, some of them report the number va- Aram, the son of Sem ^ 
riously. One says they were but six, ano- 67 Who believed not.] These words 

ther ten, another twelve, another seventy- were added, because some of the principal 

eight, and another four-score, half men men among them believed on Hud, one 

and half women ^ ; and that one of them of whoin was Morthed Ebn Saad ^, 
was the elder Jorham 2, the preserver, as 70 The successors of the people of Noah.] 

some pretend, of the Arabian language^. Dwelling in the habitations of the antedi- 

i^Q Ad.] Ad was an ancient and potent luvians, who preceded them not many cen- 
tribe of Arabs % and zealous idolaters^, turies ; or having the chief sway in the 
They chiefly worshipped four deities, Sa- earth after them. For the kingdom of 
kia, Hafedha, Razeka, and Salema ; the Shedad, the son of Ad, is said to have ex- 
first, as they imagined, supplying them tended from the sands of Alaj, to the trees 
with rain, the second preserving them of Oman '^^. 

from all dangers abroad, the third pro- — Stature.] See the Prelim. Disc. 

viding food for their sustenance, and the p. 8. 

^ Al Zamakhshari, Jallalo' ddin^ Ebn Shohnah. ^ Idem. See the Prelim. Disc. 

§ i. p. 9. 3 y^ Pocock. Orat. prsefix. Carm. Tograi. * See the Prelim. Disc. 

§ i. p. 6, 7, «. ^ Abulfeda. ^ V. D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Houd. 

7 See the Prel. Disc. p. 7. » ji Beiddivi. ^ Idem. 10 Idem. 

M 2 



164 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



and leave the deities which our fathers worshipped ? 
Now bring down that judgment upon us, with which 
thou threatenest us, if thou speakest truth. ^^ Hud an- 
swered, Now shall there suddenly fall upon you, from 
your Lord, vengeance and indignation. Will ye dispute 
with me concerning the names which ye have named, 
and your fathers ; as to which God hath not revealed 
unto you any authority ? Do ye wait, therefore, and I will 
be one of those who wait with you. ^^ And we delivered 
him, and them who believed with him, by our mercy ; 
and we cut off the uttermost part of those who charged 
our signs with falsehood, and were not believers. ^* And 
unto the tribe of Thamud we sent their brother Saleh. 
He said, O my people ! worship God ; ye have no God 
besides him. Now hath a manifest proof come unto you 
from your Lord. This she-camel of God is a sign unto 
you ; therefore dismiss her freely, that she may feed in 



72 Concerning the names which ye have 
namedf &c.] That is, concerning the idols, 
and imaginary objects of your worship, to 
which ye wickedly give the names, attri- 
butes, and honour, due to the only true 
God. 

73 And we cut off^ &c.] The dreadful 
destruction of the Adites we have men- 
tioned in another place ^, and shall only 
add here some further circumstances of 
that calamity, and which differ a little 
from what is there said; for the Arab 
writers acknowledge many inconsistencies 
in the histories of these ancient tribes 2, 

The tribe of Ad having been, for their 
incredulity, previously chastised with a 
three years' drought, sent Kail Ebn Ithar 
and Morthed Ebn Saad, with seventy 
other principal men, to the temple of 
Mecca to obtain rain. Mecca was then in 
the hands of the tribe of Amalek, whose 
prince was Moawiyah Ebn Beer ; and he 
being without the city when the ambas- 
sadors arrived, entertained them there for 
a month in so hospitable a manner, that 
they had forgotten the business they came 
about, had not the king reminded them of 
it; not as from himself, lest they should 
think he wanted to be rid of them ; but 
by some verses which he put into the 
mouth of a singing woman. At which, 
being roused from their lethargy, Morthed 
told them, the only way they had to obtain 



what they wanted, would be to repent, 
and obey their prophet : but this displeas- 
ing the rest, they desired Moawiyah to 
imprison him, lest he should go with them ; 
which being done. Kail, with the rest, 
entering Mecca, begged of God that he 
would send rain to the people of Ad. 
Whereupon three clouds appeared, a white 
one, a red one, and a black one ; and a 
voice from heaven ordered Kail to choose 
which he would. Kail failed not to make 
choice of the last, thinking it to be loaden 
with the most rain ; but when this cloud 
came over them, it proved to be fraught 
with the divine vengeance, and a tempest 
broke forth from it which destroyed them 
all 3. 

74 Thamud.~\ Thamud was another 
tribe of the ancient Arabs who fell into 
idolatry. See the Prelim. Disc. § i. p. 8. 

— Sdleh.'] Al Beidawi deduces his 
genealogy thus. Saleh, the son of Obeid, 
the son of Asaf, the son of Masekh, the 
son of Obeid, the son of Hadher, the son 
of Thamud K 

— This shC'Camel of God is a sign unto 
youJ] The Thamudites insisting on a 
miracle, proposed to Saleh, that he should 
go with them to their festival, and that 
they should call on their gods, and he on 
his, promising to follow that deity which 
should answer. But after they had called 
on their idols a long time to no purpose. 



1 Prelim. Disc. p. 7- ^ Al Beidawi. V. D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Houd. 

3 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 7, 8. * Ahulfeda, Al Zamakhshari. V. D'HerheL 



Bibl. Orient. Art. Saleh. 



VII.] 



AL KORAN, 



165 



God's earth ; and do her no hurt, lest a painful punish- 
ment seize you. ^^ And call to mind how he hath 
appointed you successors unto the tribe of Ad, and hath 
given you a habitation on earth ; ye build yourselves 
castles on the plains thereof, and cut out the mountains 
into houses. Remember therefore the benefits of God, 
and commit not violence in the earth, acting corruptly. 
^^ The chiefs among his people, who were puffed up with 
pride, said unto those who were esteemed weak, namely, 
unto those who believed among them, Do ye know that 
Saleh hath been sent from his Lord ? They answered , 
We do surely believe in that wherewith he hath been 
sent. ^^ Those who were elated with pride, replied. Verily 
we believe not in that wherein ye believe. ^^ And they 
cut off the feet of the camel, and insolently transgressed 
the command of their Lord, and said, O Saleh, cause 
that to come upon us, with which thou hast threatened 



Jonda Ebn Amru, their prince, pointing 
to a rock, standing by itself, bid Saleh 
cause a she- camel, big with young, to come 
forth from it, solemnly engaging, that, if 
he did, he would believe : and his people 
promised the same. Whereupon Saleh 
asked it of God, and presently the rock, 
after several throes, as if in labour, was 
delivered of a she-camel, answering the 
description of Jonda, which immediately 
brought forth a young one ready weaned, 
and, as some say, as big as herself. Jonda, 
seeing this miracle, believed on the pro- 
phet, and some few with him ; but the 
greater part of the Thamudites remained, 
notwithstanding, incredulous. Of this 
camel the commentators tell several very 
absurd stories ; as that when she went to 
drink, she never raised her head from the 
well, or river, till she had drunk up all 
the water in it, and then she offered her- 
self to be milked, the people drawing from 
her as much milk as they pleased ; and 
some say, that she went about the town 
crying aloud. If any wants milk, let him 
come forth *. 

75 Mountains into houses.'] The tribe of 
Thamud dwelt first in the country of the 
Adites, but their numbers increasing, they 
removed to the territory of Hejr for the 
sake of the mountains, where they cut for 
themselves habitations in the rocks, to be 
seen at this day. 



78 And they cut off the feet of the 
camel.] This extraordinary camel fright- 
ening the other cattle from their pasture, 
a certain rich woman, named OneizaOmm 
Ganem, having four daughters, dressed 
them out, and offered one Kedar his choice 
of them, if he would kill the camel. 
Whereupon he chose one, and, with the 
assistance of eight other men, hamstrung 
and killed the dam, and pursuing the 
young one, which fled to the mountain, 
killed that also, and divided his flesh 
among them 2. Others tell the story some- 
what differently, adding Sadaka Bint al 
Mokhtar as a joint conspiratress with 
Oneiza, and pretending that the young 
one was not killed : for they say, that 
having fled to a certain mountain, named 
Kara, he there cried three times, and Saleh 
bid them catch him if they could, for 
then there might be hopes of their avoid- 
ing the divine vengeance ; but this they 
were not able to do, the rock opening 
after he had cried, and receiving him 
within it^. 

— A7id insolently transgressed the com^ 
mand of their Lord, &c.] Defying the 
vengeance with which they were threat- 
ened ; because they trusted in their strong 
dwellings, hewn in the rocks ; saying, 
that the tribe of Ad perished only because 
their houses were not built with sufficient 
strength ^. 



1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 8. 2 Ahulfeda, 

ubi supra. * Al Kessai. 



3 Al Beiddwi. V. D'HerbeL 



166 



AL KORAN. 



[chap 



us, if thou art one of those who have been sent by God. 
^^ Whereupon a terrible noise from heaven assailed them ; 
and in the morning they were found in their dwellings 
prostrate on their breasts and dead. ^^ And Saleh de- 
parted from them, and said, O my people ! now have I 
delivered unto you the message of my Lord ; and I 
advised you well, but ye love not those who advise you 
well. ^^ And remember Lot, when he said unto his 
people. Do ye commit a wickedness, wherein no creature 
hath set you an example ? ^^ Do ye approach lustfully 
unto men, leaving the women? Certainly ye are people 
who transgress all modesty. ^^ But the answer of his 
people was no other than that they said, the one to the 
other. Expel them your city ; for they are men who pre- 
serve themselves pure from the crimes which ye commit. 
^^ Therefore we delivered him and his family, except his 
wife ; she was one of those who staid behind : ^^ and we 
rained a shower of stones upon them. Behold, therefore. 



79 A terrible noise from heaven.^ Like 
violent and repeated claps of thunder ; 
which, some say, was no other than the 
voice of the angel Gabriel 1, and which 
rent their hearts 2. It is said, that after 
they had killed the camel, Saleh told them, 
that on the morrow their faces should be- 
come yellow, the next day red, and the 
third day black, and that on the fourth 
God's vengeance should light on them ; 
and that the first three signs happening 
accordingly, they sought to put him to 
death, but God delivered him, by sending 
him into Palestine 3. 

— Dead^ Mohammed, in the expe- 
dition of Tabuc, which he undertook 
against the Greeks in the ninth year of 
the Hejra, passing by Hejr, where this 
ancient tribe had dwelt, forbade his army, 
though much distressed with heat and 
thirst, to draw any water there, but ordered 
them, if they had drunk of that water, to 
bring it up again ; or if they had kneaded 
any meal with it, to give it their camels* ; 
and wrapping up his face in his garment, 
he set spurs to his mule, crying out. Enter 
not the houses of those wicked men, but 
rather weep, lest that happen unto you 
which befel them ; and having so said, he 
continued galloping full speed, with his face 
muffled up, till he had passed the valley ^ 



80 And said, &c.] Whether this speech 
was made by Saleh to them at parting, as 
seems most probable, or after the judg- 
ment had fallen on them, the commenta- 
tors are not agreed. 

81 Lot.^ The commentators say, con- 
formably to the scripture, that Lot was 
the son of Haran, the son of Azer or 
Terah, and, consequently, Abraham's ne- 
phew, who brought him with him from 
Chaldea into Palestine, where, they say, 
he was sent by God to reclaim the inha- 
bitants of Sodom, and the other neigh- 
bouring cities, which were overthrown 
with it, from the unnatural vice to which 
they were addicted ^. And this Moham- 
medan tradition seems to be countenanced 
by the words of the apostle, That this 
righteous man dwelling among them, in 
seeing and hearing, vexed his righteous 
soul from day to day with their unlawful 
deeds ^ ; whence it is probable that he 
omitted no opportunity of endeavouring 
their reformation. The story of Lot is 
told with further circumstances in the 
eleventh chapter. 

83 Expel them, &c.] Viz. Lot, and 
those who believe on him. 

84 His wife.~\ See chap. xi. 

85 Stones,~\ See ibid. 



^ See the Prelim. Disc. p. 8. 
* Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 124. 
Orient. Art. Loth. 



2 Ahulfeda, al Beiddwi. 
5 Al Bokkari, 
7 2 Pet. ii. 8. 



^ Al Beiddwi. 
V. D'Herhlot, Bibl. 



VII.] 



AL KORAN, 



167 



what was the end of the wicked. ^^ And unto Madian 
we sent their brother Shoaib. He said unto them, O my 
people ! worship God ; ye have no God besides him. 
Now hath an evident demonstration come unto you from 
your Lord. Therefore, give full measure and just weight, 
and diminish not unto men aught of their matters ; 
neither act corruptly in the earth, after its reformation. 
This will be better for you, if ye believe. ^^ And beset 
not every way, threatening the passenger ; and turning 
aside from the path of God him who believeth in him, and 
seeking to make it crooked. And remember, when ye 
were few, and God multiplied you : and behold what 
hath been the end of those who acted corruptly. ^^ And 
if part of you believe in that wherewith I am sent, and 
part believe not, wait patiently until God judge between 
us ; for he is the best judge. [*IX.] ^^ The chiefs 



86 Madian,~\ or Midian, was a city of 
Hejaz, and the habitation of a tribe of the 
same name, the descendants of Midian, 
the son of Abraham by Keturah *, who 
afterwards coalesced with the Ismaelites, 
as it seems ; Moses naming the same mer- 
chants who sold Joseph to Potiphar, in 
one place Ismaelites ^, and in another 
Midianites^. 

This city was situated on the Red Sea, 
south-east of Mount Sinai, and is doubt- 
less the same with the Modiana of Ptolemy. 
What was remaining of it in Mohammed's 
time was soon after demolished in the suc- 
ceeding wars *, and it remains desolate to 
this day. The people of the country 
pretend to shew the well whence Moses 
watered Jethro's flocks ^. 

— Shoaib.'] Some Mohammedan writ- 
ers make him the son of Mikai'l, the son 
of Yashjar, the son of Madian ^ ; and they 
generally suppose him to be the same 
person with the father-in-law of Moses, 
who is named, in scripture, Reuel or 
Raguel, and Jethro ^ But Ahmed Ebn 
Abd'alhalim charges those who enter- 
tain this opinion with ignorance. Al 
Kessai says, that his father's name was 
Sanun, and that he was first called Boyun, 
and afterwards Shoaib ; and adds, that he 
was a comely person, but spare and lean, 



very thoughtful, and of few words. Dr. 
Prideaux writes this name, after the French 
translation, Chaib ^. 

— An evident demonstration.] This 
demonstration the commentators suppose 
to have been a power of working mira- 
cles, though the Koran mentions none in 
particular. However, they say (after the 
Jews) that he gave his son-in-law that 
wonder-working rod ^, with which he per- 
formed all those miracles in Egypt and 
the desert, and also excellent advice and 
instructions ^^ ; whence he had the sur- 
name of Khattb al Anhiyd, or The preacher 
to the prophets ^i. 

— Give full measure and just weighty 
&c.] For one of the great crimes which 
the Midianites were guilty of, was the 
using of divers measures and weights, a 
great and a small, buying by one and sell- 
ing by another ^2. 

— Reformation.] See before, p. 161, 
note 57. 

87 Beset not every way, threatening the 
passenger.] Robbing on the highway, it 
seems, was another crying sin frequent 
among these people. But some of the 
commentators interpret this passage figu- 
ratively, of their besetting the way of 
truth, and threatening those who gave ear 
to the remonstrances of Shoaib ^^, 



1 Gen. XXV. 2. 2 (jgn. xxxix. 1. 3 q^jj. xxxvii. 36. * V. Golii 

not. in Alfrag. p. 143. ^ Abulfeda Descr. Arab. p. 42. Georgr. Nub. p. 109. 

6 Jl Beiddwi, Tarikh Montakhab. 7 Exod. ii. 18. iii. 1. 8 Life of 

Mahom. p. 24. 9 Al Beiddwi. V. Shalshel. hakkab. p. 12. 10 Exod. 

xviii. 13, &c. 11 V. D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Schoaib. 12 y. ib. 

Al Beiddwi. See Deut. xxv. 13, 14. i3 j^^^^^ 



168 AL KO RAN. [chap. 

of his people, who were elated with pride, answered, 
We will surely cast thee, O Shoaib, and those who 
believe with thee, out of our city; or else thou shalt 
certainly return unto our religion. He said. What 
though we be averse thereto ? ^^ We shall surely 
imagine a lie against God, if we return unto your 
religion, after that God hath delivered us from the 
same : and we have no reason to return unto it, 
unless God our Lord shall please to abandon us. Our 
Lord comprehendeth every thing by his knowledge. 
In God do we put our trust. O Lord ! do thou judge 
between us and our nation with truth ; for thou art the 
best judge. ^^ And the chiefs of his people, who believed 
not, said. If ye follow Shoaib, ye shall surely perish. 
^^ Therefore a storm from heaven assailed them, and in 
the morning they were found in their dwellings dead and 
prostrate. ^^ They who accused Shoaib of imposture be- 
came as though they had never dwelt therein ; they who 
accused Shoaib of imposture perished themselves. ^^And 
he departed from them, and said, O my people ! now have 
I performed unto you the messages of my Lord ; and I 
advised you aright : but why should I be grieved for an 
unbelieving people ? ^^ We have never sent any prophet 
unto a city, but we afflicted the inhabitants thereof with 
calamity and adversity, that they might humble them- 
selves. ^^ Then we gave them in exchange good in lieu 
of evil, until they abounded, and said. Adversity and 
prosperity formerly happened unto our fathers as unto us. 
Therefore we took vengeance on them suddenly, and they 
perceived it not beforehand. ^^ But if the inhabitants of 
those cities had believed and feared God, we would surely 
have opened to them blessings both from heaven and 
earth. But they charged our apostles with falsehood: 
wherefore we took vengeance on them for that which 
they had been guilty of. ^^ Were the inhabitants, there- 
fore, of those cities secure, that our punishment should 
not fall on them by night, while they slept ? ^^ Or were 
the inhabitants of those cities secure that our punish- 

92 A storm from heaven.'] Like that both ; and both these dreadful calamities 

which destroyed the Thamudites. Some may well be supposed to have jointly exe- 

suppose it to have been an earthquake, cuted the divine vengeance, 
for the original word signifies either, or 



VII.] AL KORAN. 169 

ment should not fall on them by day, while they sported ? 
100 "WTere they, therefore, secure from the stratagem of 
God ? But none will think himself secure from the 
stratagem of God, except the people who perish. ^^^ And 
hath it not manifestly appeared unto those who have in- 
herited the earth after the former inhabitants thereof, 
that, if we please, we can afflict them for their sins ? But 
we will seal up their hearts ; and they shall not hearken. 
102 ^^Q ^[\i relate unto thee some stories of these 
cities. Their apostles had come unto them with evident 
miracles, but they were not disposed to believe in that 
which they had before gainsaid. Thus will God seal up 
the hearts of the unbelievers. ^^^ And we found not in 
the greater part of them any observance of their cove- 
nant ; but we found the greater part of them wicked 
doers. ^^^ Then we sent after the above-named apostles, 
Moses with our signs unto Pharaoh and his princes, 
who treated them unjustly : but behold what was the end 
of the corrupt doers. ^^^ And Moses said, O Pharaoh ! 
verily I am an apostle sent from the Lord of all crea- 
tures. ^^^ It is just that I should not speak of God other 
than the truth. Now am I come unto you with an evi- 
dent sign from your Lord : send, therefore, the children 
of Israel away with me. Pharaoh answered, if thou 
comest with a sign, produce it, if thou speakest truth. 

100 The stratagem of God.'] Hereby Masab, the son of Riyan, the son of Wa- 

is figuratively expressed the manner of lid ^ the Amalekite ^. There are histo- 

God's dealing with proud and ungrateful rians, however, who suppose Kabus, the 

men, by suffering them to fill up the mea- brother and predecessor of al Walid, was 

sure of their iniquity, without vouchsafing the prince we are speaking of; and pre- 

to bring them to a sense of their con- tend he lived six hundred and twenty 

dition, by chastisements and afflictions, years, and reigned four hundred. Which 

till they find themselves utterly lost, when is more reasonable, at least, than the opi- 

they least expect it ^ nion of those who imagined it was his 

104 Pharaoh.'] This was the common father Masab, or grandfather Riyan *, 
title, or name, of the kings of Egypt, Abulfeda says, that Masab, being one 
(signifying king in the Coptic tongue,) as hundred and seventy years old, and hav- 
Ptolemy was in after times : and as Caesar ing no child, while he kept the herds, saw 
was that of the Roman Emperors ; and a cow calve, and heard her say, at the 
Koshru, that of the kings of Persia. But same time, O Masab ! be not grieved, for 
which of the kings of Egypt, this Pha- thou shalt have a wicked son, who will be 
raoh of Moses was, is uncertain. Not to at length cast into hell. And he accord- 
mention the opinions of the European ingly had this Walid, who afterwards 
writers, those of the east generally sup- coming to be king of Egypt, proved an 
pose him to have been al Walid, who, ac- impious tyrant. 

cording to some, was an Arab of the tribe — Who treated them unjustly.] By not 

of Ad, or, according to others, the son of believing therein. 

1 Al Beiddwi. 2 gee the Prelim. Disc. p. 9, 10. ^ Abulfeda^ &c. 

^Kitab tafsir lebab, & al Keshaf. 



170 AL KORAN. - [chap. 

107 Wherefore he cast down his rod : and behold, it be- 
came a visible serpent. ^^^ And he drew forth his hand 
out of his bosom ; and behold, it appeared white unto the 
spectators. ^^^ The chiefs of the people of Pharaoh said, 
This man is certainly an expert magician. ^^^ He seeketh 
to dispossess you of your land ; what, therefore, do ye 
direct ? ^^^ They answered. Put off him and his brother 
by fair promises for some time, and, in the meanwhile, 
send unto the cities persons who may assemble — ^^^and 
bring unto thee every expert magician. ^^^ So the ma- 
gicians came unto Pharaoh ; ^^^ and they said, Shall we 
surely receive a reward, if we do overcome ? ^^^ He an- 
swered. Yea; and ye shall certainly be of those who 
approach near unto my throne. ^^^ They said, O Moses ! 
either do thou cast down thy rod first, or we will cast down 
ours. "^ Moses answered, Do ye cast down your rods 
first. And when they had cast them down, they en- 
chanted the eyes of the men who were present, and ter- 
rified them ; and they performed a great enchantment. 
^^^ And we spake by revelation unto Moses, saying. Throw 

107 A visible serpent.'] The Arab wri- white and splendid, surpassing the bright- 
ters tell enormous fables of this serpent, ness of the sun 2. Marracci ^ says, we do 
or dragon. For they say, that he was not read in scripture, that Moses shewed 
hairy, and of so prodigious a size, that, this sign before Pharaoh. It is true, the 
when he opened his mouth, his jaws were scripture does not expressly say so, but 
fourscore cubits asunder ; and when he it seems to be no more than a necessary 
laid his lower jaw on the ground, his inference from that passage, where God 
upper reached to the top of the palace ; tells Moses, that if they will not hearken 
that Pharaoh, seeing this monster make to the first sign, they will believe the lat- 
towards him, fled from it, and was so ter- ter sign; and if they will not believe 
ribly frightened, that he befouled himself, these two signs, then directs him to turn 
and that the whole assembly also betaking the water into blood *. 

themselves to their heels, no less than 113 The magicians.] The Arabian wri- 

twenty-five thousand of them lost their ters name several of these magicians, be- 

lives in the press. They add, that Pha- side their chief priest Simeon, viz. Sadur, 

raoh, upon this, adjured Moses, by God, and Ghadur, Jaath, and Mosfa, Waran, 

who had sent him, to take away the ser- and Zaman, each of whom came attended 

pent, and promised he would believe on with their disciples, amounting in all to 

him, and let the Israelites go ; but when several thousands ^. 

Moses had done what he requested, he 117 A'nd they performed a great en- 

relapsed, and grew as hardened as be- chantmeyit.] They provided themselves 

fore ^. with a great number of thick ropes and 

108 He drew forth his hand, and it he^ long pieces of wood, which they contrived, 
came white.] There is a tradition that by some means, to move, and make them 
Moses was a very swarthy man ; and that, twist themselves one over the other ; and 
when he put his hand into his bosom, and so imposed on the beholders, who at adis- 
drew it out again, it became extremely tance took them to be true serpents^. 

1 At Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ j,-, aIc. p. 284. * Exod. iv. 8, 9. 

5 V. D'Herhelot, Bibl. Orient, art. Mousa, p. 643, &c. Al Kessai. ^ At Beiddwi. 

v. IfHerbeloi, ubi sup. and Koran, c. 20. 



VII.] 



AL KORAN. 



171 



down thy rod. And behold, it swallowed up the rods 
which they had caused falsely to appear changed into 
serpents. ^^^ Wherefore the truth was confirmed, and 
that which they had wrought vanished. ^^^ And Pharaoh 
and his magicians were overcome there, and were ren- 
dered contemptible. ^^^ And the magicians prostrated 
themselves, worshipping ; ^^^ and they said. We believe in 
the Lord of all creatures, — ^^^ the Lord of Moses and 
Aaron ; ^^^ Pharaoh said. Have ye believed on him be- 
fore I have given you permission ? Verily this is a plot 
which ye have contrived in the city, that ye might cast 
forth from thence the inhabitants thereof But ye shall 
surely know that I am your master ; for ^^^ I will cause 
your hands * and your feet to be cut off on the opposite 
sides ; then will I cause you all to be crucified. ^^^ The 
magicians answered. We shall certainly return unto our 
Lord, in the next life ; ^^^ for thou takest vengeance on 
us only because we have believed in the signs of our 
Lord, when they have come unto us. O Lord ! pour on 
us patience ; and cause us to die Moslems. ^^^ And the 



118 Behold i it swallowed up the rods, 
&c.] The expositors add, that when this 
serpent had swallowed up all the rods and 
cords, he made directly towards the as- 
sembly, and put them into so great a ter- 
ror, that they fled, and a considerable 
number were killed in the crowd : then 
Moses took it up, and it became a rod in 
his hand as before. Whereupon the ma- 
gicians declared, that it could be no en- 
chantment ; because in such case, their 
rods and cords would not have disap- 
peared ^ 

121 j:4nd the magicians pro.strated them- 
selves, worshipping, &c.] It seems pro- 
bable that all the magicians were not 
converted by this miracle, for some wri- 
ters introduce Sadur and Ghadur only, 
acknowledging Moses's miracle to be 
wrought by the power of God. These 
two, they say, were brothers, and the sons 
of a famous magician, then dead ; but, on 
their being sent for to court on this occa- 
sion, their mother persuaded them to go 
to their father's tomb, to ask his advice. 
Being come to the tomb the father an- 
swered their call, and, when they had 
acquainted him with the affair, he told 
them, that they should inform themselves, 
whether the rod, of which they spoke, be- 



came a serpent while its masters slept, or 
only when they were awake ; for, said he, 
enchantments have no effect while the 
enchanter is asleep ; and, therefore, if it 
be otherwise in this case, you may be 
assured that they act by a divine power. 
These two magicians then, arriving at the 
capital of Egypt, on inquiry, found, to 
their great astonishment, that, when Moses 
and Aaron went to rest, their rod became 
a serpent, and guarded them while they 
slept 2. And this was the first step to- 
wards their conversion. 

124 This is a plot which ye have con- 
trived, &c.] i. e. This is a confederacy 
between you and Moses, entered into be- 
fore ye left the city, to go to the place of 
appointment, to turn out the Copts, or 
native Egyptians, and establish the Israel- 
ites in their stead ^. 

125 On the opposite sides.'] That is, 
your right hands and your left feet. 

— ■ And I will cause you all to he cru- 
cified.'] Some say, Pharaoh was the first 
inventor of this ignominious and painful 
punishment. 

127 Moslems.] Some think these con- 
verted magicians were executed accord- 
ingly : but others deny it, and say, that 
the king was not able to put them to 



^ Al Beiddwi, 



V. D'Herhel. ubi sup. 



^ Al Beiddwi. 



172 AL KORAN. [chap. 

chiefs of Pharaoh's people said. Wilt thou let Moses 
and his people go, that they may act corruptly in the 
earth, and leave thee and thy gods ? Pharaoh answered, 
We will cause their male children to be slain, and we 
will suffer their females to live ; and by that means we 
shall prevail over them. ^^^ Moses said unto his people, 
ask assistance of God, and suffer patiently : for the earth 
is God's, he giveth it for an inheritance unto such of his 
servants as he pleaseth ; and the prosperous end shall be 
unto those who fear him. ^^^ They answered. We have 
been afflicted by having our male children slain, before 
thou camest unto us, and also since thou hast come unto 
us. Moses said, Peradventure it may happen that your 
Lord will destroy your enemy, and will cause you to suc- 
ceed him in the earth, that he may see how ye will act 
therein. ^^^ And we formerly punished the people of 
Pharaoh with dearth and scarcity of fruits, that they 
might be warned. ^^^ Yet, when good happened unto 
them, they said. This is owing unto us : but if evil befel 
them, they attributed the same to the ill luck of Moses, 
and those who were with him. Was not their ill luck 
with God ? but most of them knew it not. ^^^ And they 
said unto Moses, Whatever sign thou shew unto us, to 
enchant us therewith, we will not believe on thee. 
134 Wherefore we sent upon them a flood, and locusts, and 

death: insisting on these words of the 132 To the ill luck of Moses^ &c.] 

Koran ^, You two, and they who follow Looking on him and his followers as the 

you, shall overcome. occasion of those calamities. The original 

128 Thy gods.~\ Which were the stars, word properly signifies to take an ominous 

or other idols. But some of the commen« and sinister presage of any future event, 

tators, from certain impious expressions of from the flight of birds, or the like, 

this prince recorded in the Koran 2, where- — Was not their ill luck with God ?'\ 

by he sets up himself as the only god of By whose will and decree they were so 

his subjects, suppose that he was the ob- afflicted as a punishment for their wicked- 

ject of their worship, and, therefore, in- ness. 

stead of Alihataca, Thy gods, read, Ilaha- 134 A flood.'\ This inundation, they 

tica, Thy worship ^. say, was occasioned by unusual rains, 

— We will cause their male children to which continued eight days together, and 

he slain, &c.] That is. We will continue the overflowing of the Nile ; and not only 

to make use of the same cruel policy to covered their lands, but came into their 

keep the Israelites in subjection, as we houses, and rose as high as their backs 

have hitherto done. The commentators and necks : but the children of Israel had 

say, that Pharaoh came to this resolution, no rain in their quarters ^. As there is no 

because he had either been admonished mention of any such miraculous inunda- 

in a dream, or by the astrologers, or di- tion in the Mosaic writings, some have 

viners, that one of that nation should sub- imagined this plague to have been either 

vert his kingdom *. a pestilence, or the small pox, or some 

1 Chap, xxviii. ^ [\y\^\^ and chap. xxvi. &c. ^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem, 

Jallalo'ddin. ^ lidem, Abulfed. 



VII.] A L KORAN. 173 

lice, and frogs, and blood ; distinct miracles : but they 
behaved proudly, and became a wicked people. ^^^ And 
when the plague fell on them, they said, O Moses ! en- 
treat thy Lord for us, according to that which he hath 
covenanted with thee: Verily if thou take the plague 
from off us, we will surely believe thee, and we will let 
the children of Israel go with thee. But when we had 
taken the plague from off them, until the term which God 
had granted them was expired, behold, they broke their 
promise. ^^^ Wherefore we took vengeance on them, and 
drowned them in the Red Sea; because they charged our 
signs with falsehood, and neglected them. ^^^ And we 
caused the people, who had been rendered weak, to in- 
herit the eastern parts of the earth, and the western parts 
thereof, which we blessed with fertility ; and the gracious 
word of thy Lord was fulfilled on the children of Israel, 
for that they had endured with patience : and we de- 
stroyed the structures which Pharaoh and his people had 
made, and that which they had erected. ^^^ And we 
caused the children of Israel to pass through the sea, 
and they came unto a people who gave themselves up to 
the worship of their idols, and they said, O Moses ! make 
us a god, in like manner as these people have gods. 
Moses answered, Verily ye are an ignorant people : ^^^ for 
the religion which these follow will be destroyed, and 
that which they do is vain. ^^^ He said. Shall I seek for 
you any other god than God ; since he hath preferred 

other epidemical distemper ^ For the land of Syria ; of which the eastern geo- 

word Tiifdn, which is used in this place, graphers reckon Palestine a part, and 

and is generally rendered a Deluge, may wherein the commentators say, the chil- 

also signify any other universal destruction dren of Israel succeeded the kings of 

or mortality. Egypt and the Amalekites^. 

— Lice,^ Some will have these insects — And we destroyed the structures 

to have been a larger sort of tick ; others, which Pharaoh and his people had made, 

the young locusts before they have &c.] Particularly the lofty tower which 

wings 2. Pharaoh caused to be built, that he might 

135 The plague.'] Viz. Any of the ca- attack the God of Moses *. 

lamities already mentioned, or the pesti- 138 And they came unto a people who 

lence which God sent upon them after- worshipped idols.] These people some will 

wards. have to be of the tribe of Amalek, whom 

136 Red Sea.] See this wonderful Moses was commanded to destroy; and 
event more particularly described in the others, of the tribe of Lakhm. Their 
tenth and twentieth chapters. idols, it is said, were images of oxen, 

137 The eastern parts of the earth, and which gave the first hint to the making of 
the western parts thereof.] That is, the the golden calf s. 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. * V. Kor. chap, xxviii. and xl, 

^ Al Beiddwi. 



174 AL KORAN. [chap. 

you to the rest of the world ? ^^^ And remember when 
we delivered you from the people of Pharaoh, who griev- 
ously oppressed you ; they slew your male children, and 
let your females live : therein was a great trial from your 
Lord. ^^^ And we appointed unto Moses a fast of thirty 
nights before we gave him the law, and we completed 
them by adding of ten more ; and the stated time of his 
Lord w^as fulfilled in forty nights. And Moses said unto 
his brother Aaron, Be thou my deputy among my people 
during my absence ; and behave uprightly, and follow not 
the way of the corrupt doers. ^^^ And when Moses came 
at our appointed time, and his Lord spake unto him, he 
said, O Lord ! shew me thy glory, that I may behold 
thee. God answered. Thou shalt in no wise behold me : 
but look towards the mountain, and if it stand firm in its 
place, then shalt thou see me. But when his Lord ap- 
peared with glory in the mount, he reduced it to dust. 
And Moses fell down in a swoon. And when he came to 
himself, he said. Praise be unto thee ! I turn unto thee 
with repentance, and I am the first of true believers : 
^^^ God said unto him, O Moses ! I have chosen thee 
above all men, by honouring thee with my commissions, 
and by my speaking unto thee : receive, therefore, that 
which I have brought thee, and be one of those who give 
thanks : ^^^ And we wrote for him on the tables an 

142 We appointed unto Moses a fast of 143 And Ms Lord spake unto him.'] 
thirtij nights, and we completed them hy Without the mediation of any other, and 
adding of ten more, &c.] The commen- face to face, as he speaks unto the angels^, 
tators say, that God, having promised — The mountain.'] This mountain the 
Moses to give him the law, directed him Mohammedans name, al Zabir. 
to prepare himself for the high favour of — When his Lord appeared with glory 
speaking with God in person, by a fast of in the mount.] Or, as it is literally, unto 
thirty days; and that Moses accordingly the mount. For some of the expositors 
fasted the whole month of Dhu'lkaada ; pretend that God endued the mountain 
but, not liking the savour of his breath, with life and the sense of seeing, 
he rubbed his teeth with a dentifrice, upon — I am the first of true believers.'] This 
which the angels told him, that his breath is not to be taken strictly. See the like 
before had the odour of musk ^, but that expression in chap. vi. 
his rubbing his teeth had taken it away. The Mohammedans have a tradition, 
Wherefore, God ordered him to fast ten that Moses asked to see God on the day of 
days more, which he did ; and these were Arafat, and that he received the law on 
the first ten days of the succeeding month the day they slay the victims at the pil- 
Dhu'lhajja. Others, however, suppose grimage of Mecca, which days are the 
that Moses was commanded to fast and ninth and tenth of Dhu'lhajja. 
pray thirty days only, and that during the 145 The tables.] These tables, accord- 
other ten God discoursed with him 2. ing to some, were seven in number, and, 

1 See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 132, 133. 2 ji Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin. 

3 Al Beid. V. D'Herb. Bibl. Orient, p. 650. 



VII.] AL KORAN. 175 

admonition concerning every matter, and a decision in 
every case, and said, Receive this with reverence; and com- 
mand thy people that they live according to the most 
excellent precepts thereof. I will shew you the dwelling 
of the wicked. ^^^ I will turn aside from my signs those 
who behave themselves proudly in the earth, without jus- 
tice : and although they see every sign, yet they shall not 
believe therein ; and although they see the way of righte- 
ousness, yet they shall not take that way ; but if they see 
the way of error, they shall take that way. This shall 
come to pass, because they accuse our signs of imposture, 
and neglect the same. ^^^ But as for them who deny the 
truth of our signs, and the meeting of the life to come, 
their works shall be vain : shall they be rewarded other- 
wise than according to what they shall have wrought ? 
^^^ And the people of Moses, after his departure, took a 
corporeal calf, made of their ornaments, which lowed. 
Did they not see that it spake not unto them, neither 
directed them in the way? yet they took it for their god, 
and acted wickedly. ^^^ But when they repented with 
sorrow, and saw that they had gone astray, they said, 
Verily if our Lord have not mercy upon us, and forgive 
us not, we shall certainly become of the number of those 
who perish. ^''^ And when Moses returned unto his 
people, full of wrath and indignation, he said. An evil 
thing is it that ye have committed after my departure ; 

according to others, ten. Nor are the wicked.~\ Viz. The desolate habitations of 

commentators agreed, whether they were the Egyptians, or those of the impious 

cut out of a kind of lote-tree, in paradise, tribes of Ad and Thamud ; or, perhaps, 

called Sedra ; or whether they were chry- hell, the dwelling of the ungodly in the 

solites, emeralds, rubies, or common stone ^. other world. 

But they say, that they were each ten or 148 A corporeal calf.] That is, as some 

twelve cubits long ; for they suppose, that understand it, consisting of flesh and 

not only the ten commandments, but the blood ; or, as others, being a mere body, 

whole law, was written thereon : and some or mass of metal, without a soul ^. 
add, that the letters were cut quite — Of their ornaments.] Such as their 

through the tables, so that they might be rings and bracelets of gold and silver 1 
read on both sides 2 ; which is a fable of — Which lowed.] See chap. xx. and 

the Jews. the notes to chap. ii. 

— An admonition concerning every mat- 149 With sorrow.] Father Marracci 
ter^ and a decision in every case,] That seems not to have understood the meaning 
is, a perfect law, comprehending all neces- of this phrase, having literally translated 
sary instructions, as well in regard to reli- the Arabic words, Wa lamma soMta fi 
gious and moral duties, as the administra- eidihim, without any manner of sense, 
tion of justice. Et cum cadere factus fuisset in manibus 

— / will shew you the dwelling of the eorum» 

1 Al Beiddwi. 2 y. D'Herbel. ubi supra. ^ Al Beiddwi. See chap. xx. 

and the notes to chap. ii. * V. ibid. 



176 AL KORAN. [chap, 

have ye hastened the command of your Lord ? And he 
threw down the tables, and took his brother by the hair 
of the head, and dragged him unto him. And Aaron 
said unto him, Son of my mother, verily the people pre- 
vailed against me, and it wanted little but they had slain 
me : make not my enemies therefore to rejoice over me, 
neither place me with the wicked people. ^^^ Moses said, 
O Lord ! forgive me and my brother, and receive us into 
thy mercy ; for thou art the most merciful of those who 
exercise mercy. ^^^ Verily as for them who took the calf 
for their god, indignation shall overtake them from their 
Lord, and ignominy in this life : thus will we reward 
those who imagine falsehood. ^^^ But unto them who do 
evil, and afterwards repent, and believe in God, verily thy 
Lord will thereafter be clement and merciful. ^^* And 
when the anger of Moses was appeased, he took the 
tables ; and in what was written thereon was a direction 
and mercy, unto those who feared their Lord. ^^^ And 
Moses chose out of his people seventy men, to go up with 
him to the mountain at the time appointed by us„: and 
when a storm of thunder and lightning had taken 
them away, he said, O Lord ! if thou hadst pleased, 
thou hadst destroyed them before, and me also ; wilt 
thou destroy us for that which the foolish men among 
us have committed? This is only thy trial; thou wilt 
thereby lead into error whom thou pleasest, and thou 
wilt direct whom thou pleasest. Thou art our protector, 
therefore forgive us, and be merciful unto us ; for thou 
art the best of those who forgive. '^^ And write down 
for us good in this world, and in the life to come ; for 
unto thee are we directed. God answered, I will inflict 
my punishment on whom I please ; and my mercy ex- 
tend eth over all things : and I will write down good unto 
those who shall fear me, — ^^^ and give alms, and who shall 

150 Have ye hastened the command of — Prevailed against me.'] Literally, 

t/owriorc??] By neglecting his precepts, and rendered me weak, 

bringing down his swift vengeance on you. 152 Indig7iation.~\ See chap. ii. 

— And he threw down the tables,] 154 The tables.] Or, the fragments of 

Which were all broken, and taken up to that which was left. 

heaven, except one only; and this, they 155 A storm, &c.] See chap. ii. and 

say, contained the threats and judicial ordi- chap. iv. 
nances, and was afterwards put into the ark^. 

^ Al Beiddwi. V. D'Herbel. ubi sup. p. 649. 



VII.] AL KORAN. 177 

believe in our signs; — ^^^ who shall follow the apostle, the 
illiterate prophet, whom they shall find written down with 
them in the law and in the gospel : he will command them 
that which is just, and will forbid them that which is evil ; 
and will allow unto them as lawful the good things which 
were before forbidden, and will prohibit those which are 
bad : and he will ease them of their heavy burden, and 
of the yokes which were upon them. And those who 
believe on him, and honour him, and assist him, and 
follow the light, which hath been sent down with him, 
shall be happy. ^^^ Say, O men ! verily I am the mes- 
senger of God unto you all ; unto him belongeth the 
kingdom of heaven and earth ; there is no God but he ; 
he giveth life, and he causeth to die. Believe, therefore, 
in God and his apostle, the illiterate prophet, who be- 
lieveth in God and his word ; and follow him that ye may 
be rightly directed. ^^^ Of the people of Moses there is a 
party who direct others with truth, and act justly accord- 
ing to the same. ^^^ And we divided them into twelve 
tribes, as into so many nations. And we spake by reve- 
lation unto Moses, when his people asked drink of him, 
and we said, strike the rock with thy rod ; and there 
gushed thereout twelve fountains, and men knew their 
respective drinking-place. And we caused clouds to over- 
shadow them, and manna and quails to descend upon 
them, saying. Eat of the good things which we have 
given you for food : and they injured not us, but they 

168 The illiterate prophet.'] That is, imagine they were a Jewish nation, dwell- 

Mohammed. See the Prelim. Disc. §ii.p.49. ing somewhere beyond China, which Mo- 

— Written down,] i. e. Both foretold hammed saw the night he made his journey 
by name and certain description. to heaven, and who believed on him ^ 

— Before for hidden J\ See ch. iii. 161 And there gushed thereout tivelve 

— And will prohibit those which are fountains, &c.] See chap. ii. 

had.] As the eating of blood and swine's To what is said in the notes there, we 
flesh, and the taking of usury, &c. may add, that, according to a certain tra- 

— Yokes, &c.] See ch. ii. dition, the stone, on which this miracle 

159 Unto you all.] That is, to all man- was wrought, was thrown down from pa- 
kind in general, and not to one parti- radise by Adam, and came into the pos- 
cular nation, as the former prophets were session of Shoaib, who gave it with the 
sent. rod to Moses ; and that, according to ano- 

160 Of the people of Moses there is a ther, the water issued thence by three 
party who direct others with truth, &c.] orifices on each of the four sides of the 
Viz. Those Jews who seemed better dis- stone, making twelve in all, and that it 
posed than the rest of their brethren to ran, in so many rivulets, to the quarter of 
receive Mohammed'slaw ; or, perhaps, such each tribe in the camp 2. 

of them as had actually received it. Some — Quails.] See chap. ii. 

^ A I Beiddwi, ^ Idem. 

VOL, I. N 



178 A L KORAN. [chap. 

injured their own souls. ^^^ And call to mind when it 
was said unto them, Dwell in this city, and eat of the 
provisions thereof wherever ye will, and say, For- 
giveness ! and enter the gate worshipping : we will 
pardon you your sins, and will give increase unto the 
well-doers. ^^^ But they who were ungodly among them 
changed the expression into another, which had not 
been spoken unto them. Wherefore we sent down upon 
them indignation from heaven, because they had trans- 
gressed. ^^^And ask them concerning the city, which 
was situate on the sea, when they transgressed on the 
sabbath-day ; when their fish came unto them on their 
sabbath-day, appearing openly on the water ; but on the 
day whereon they celebrated no sabbath, they came not 
unto them. Thus did we prove them, because they were 
wicked doers. ^^^ And when a party of them said unto 
the others. Why do ye warn a people whom God will 
destroy, or will punish with a grievous punishment ? They 
answered. This is an excuse for us unto your Lord ; and 
perad venture they will beware. '^^But when they had 
forgotten the admonitions which had been given them, 
we delivered those who forbade them to do evil : and we 
inflicted on those who had transgressed, a severe punish- 
ment, because they had acted wickedly. ^^^ And when 
they proudly refused to desist from what had been for- 
bidden them, we said unto them. Be ye transformed into 
apes, driven away from the society of men. ^^^ And re- 
member when thy Lord declared that he would surely 

162 Dwell in this cityr\ See this pas- the Red Sea ; though some pretend it was 
sage explained, chap. ii. Midian, and others, Tiberias. The whole 

163 Changed the expression into ano- story is already given in the notes to 
ther^ &c.] Professor Sike says, that, being chap. ii. Some suppose the following 
prone to leave spiritual for worldly mat- five or eight verses to have been revealed 
ters, instead of Hittaton, they said Hin- at Medina. 

fa^ow, which signifies Wheat ^^ and comes 165 ^ party of them.'] Viz. the re- 
much nearer the true word than the ex- ligious persons among them, who strictly 
pression I have, in the place last quoted, observed the sabbath, and endeavoured to 
set down from Jallalo'ddin. Whether he reclaim the others till they despaired of 
took this from the same commentator or success. But some think these words 
not, does not certainly appear, though he were spoken by the offenders, in answer 
mentions him just before; but if he did, to the admonitions of the others, 
his copy must differ from that which I — An excuse for us, &c.] That we 
have followed. have done our duty in dissuading them 

164 And ask them concerning the city, from their wickedness. 
&c.] This city was Ailah, or Elath, on 

1 Sike, in not. ad Evang. Infant, p. 71. 



vil] AL KORAN. 179 

send against the Jews, until the clay of resurrection, some 
nation who should afflict them with a grievous oppres- 
sion : for thy Lord is swift in punishing, and he is also 
ready to forgive, and merciful. ^^^ And we dispersed 
them among the nations in the earth. Some of them are 
upright persons, and some of them are otherwise. And 
we proved them with prosperity, and with adversity, that 
they might return from their disobedience ; — ^^^ and a 
succession of their posterity hath succeeded after them, 
who have inherited the book of the law, who receive the 
temporal goods of this world, and say, It will surely be 
forgiven us ; and if a temporal advantage, like the former, 
be offered them, they accept it also. Is not the covenant 
of the book of the law established with them, that they 
should not speak of God aught but the truth ? Yet they 
diligently read that which is therein. But the enjoyment 
of the next life will be better for those who fear God 
than the wicked gains of these people ; Do ye not there- 
fore understand? ^^^ And eternal felicity is for those who 
hold fast the book of the law, and are constant at prayer : 
for we will by no means suffer the reward of the righteous 
to perish. ^^^ And when we shook the mountain of Sinai 
over them, as though it had been a covering, and they 
imagined that it was falling upon them ; and we said. 
Receive the law which we have brought you with rever- 
ence; and remember that which is contained therein, 
that ye may take heed. ^^^ And when thy Lord drew 
forth their posterity from the loins of the sons of Adam, 

168 A grievous oppression.l See ch. v. in a valley near Mecca. The commenta- 

note. tors tell us, that God stroked Adam's 

170 And received the temporal goods of back, and extracted from his loins his 

this world.^ By accepting of bribes for whole posterity, which should come into 

wresting judgment, and for corrupting the the world until the resurrection, one ge- 

copies of the Pentateuch ; and by extorting neration after another ; that these men 

of usury, &c. ^ were actually assembled all together in 

— That they should not speak of God the shape of small ants, w^hich were en- 

aught but the truth."] Particularly by giv- dued with understanding ; and that after 

ing out that God will forgive their cor- they had, in the presence of the angels, 

ruption without sincere repentance and confessed their dependence on God, they 

amendment. were again caused to return into the loins 

172 Sinai.'] See chap. ii. note. of their great ancestor 2. From this fiction 

173 And when thy Lord drew forth it appears that the doctrine of pre-exist- 
their posterity from the loins of the sons of ence is not unknown to the Mohamme- 
Adam, &c.] This was done in the plain dans ; and there is some little conformity 
of Dahia, in India, or, as others imagine, between it and the modern theory of ge- 

I Al Beiddwi. 2 i^em, Jallalo'ddin, Yahya. V. D'Herhelot, Bibl. 

Orient, p. 54. 

N 2 



180 AL KORAN. [chap. 

and took them to witness against themselves, saying, Am 
not I your Lord ? they answered, Yea ; we do bear wit- 
ness. This was done lest ye should say, at the day of 
resurrection. Verily we were negligent as to this matter, 
because we were not apprised thereof. ^^^ Or lest ye 
should say, Verily our fathers were formerly guilty of 
idolatry, and we are their posterity who have succeeded 
them ; wilt thou, therefore, destroy us for that which vain 
men have committed ? ^^^ Thus do we explain our signs, 
that they may return from their vanities. ^[^ And relate 
unto the Jews the history of him unto whom we brought 
our signs, and he departed from them ; wherefore Satan 
followed him, and he became one of those who were 
seduced. ^^^ And if we had pleased, we had surely raised 
him thereby unto wisdom ; but he inclined unto the earth, 
and followed his own desire. Wherefore his likeness is 
as the likeness of a dog, which if thou drive him away, 
putteth forth his tongue ; or, if thou let him alone, putteth 
forth his tongue also. This is the likeness of the people 
who accuse our signs of falsehood. Rehearse, therefore, 
this history unto them, that they may consider. ^^^ Evil 
is the similitude of those people who accuse our signs of 
falsehood, and injure their own souls. ^^^ Whomsoever 
God shall direct, he will be rightly directed ; and whom- 
soever he shall lead astray, they shall perish. ^^^ More- 
over we have created for hell many of the genii and of 
men ; they have hearts by which they understand not, 
and they have eyes by which they see not, and they have 
ears by which they hear not. These are like the brute 

neration ex animalculis in semine ma- part, at least, of the scripture, having even 

rium. been favoured v^rith some revelations from 

176 And relate unto the Jews the his- God ; who being requested by his nation 

tory of him unto whom we brought our to curse Moses and the children of Israel, 

signSf &c.] Some suppose the person refused it at first, saying. How can I curse 

here intended to be a Jewish rabbi, or one those who are protected by the angels ? 

Ommeya Ebn Abi'lsalt, who read the But afterwards he was prevailed on by 

scriptures, and found thereby that God gifts ; and he had no sooner done it, 

would send a prophet about that time, than he began to put out his tongue like 

and was in hopes that he might be the a dog, and it hung down upon his 

man : but, when Mohammed declared his breast ^. 

mission, believed not on him through envy. 177 ^ut he inclined unto the earthy and 

But, according to the more general opi- followed his own desire."] Loving the wages 

nion, it was Balaam, the son of Beor, of of unrighteousness, and running greedily 

the Canaanitish race, well acquainted with after error for reward 2. 

* Al Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin-f al Zamakhshari. V. D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. 
Balaam. 2 2 Pet. ii. 15. Jude 11. 



vir.] AL KORAN. 181 

beasts ; yea they go more astray ; these are the neg- 
ligent. ^^^ God hath most excellent names : therefore, 
call on him by the same ; and withdraw from those who 
use his names perversely : they shall be rewarded for 
that which they shall have wrought. ^^^ And of those, 
whom we have created, there are a people who direct 
others with truth, and act justly according thereto. 
^^^ But those who devise lies against our signs, we will 
suffer them to fall gradually into ruin, by a method which 
they know not. ^^* And I will grant them to enjoy a 
long and prosperous life ; for my stratagem is effectual. 
^^^ Do they not consider that there is no devil in their 
companion ? He is no other than a public preacher. Or 
do they not contemplate the kingdom of heaven and earth, 
and the things which God hath created ; and consider 
that peradventure it may be that their end draweth nigh ? 
And in what new declaration will they believe after this ? 
*^^ He whom God shall cause to err, shall have no direc- 
tor ; and he shall leave them in their impiety, wandering 
in confusion. ^^^ They will ask thee concerning the last 
hour ; at what time its coming is fixed ? Answer, Verily 
the knowledge thereof is with my Lord ; none shall de- 
clare the fixed time thereof, except he. The expectation 
thereof is grievous in heaven and on earth : it shall come 

181 God hath most excellent names,'] that God hath created many to eternal 

Expressing his glorious attributes. Of misery, so here he is said to have created 

these the Mohammedan Arabs have no others to eternal happiness *. 
less than ninety-nine which are reckoned 183 We will suffer them to fall gradually 

up by Marracci ^ and in the History of into ruin, &c.] By flattering them with 

Mohammedanism, published by the society prosperity in this life, and permitting them 

for promoting Christian Knowledge. These to sin in an uninterrupted security, till 

names form the Mussulman Rosary. they find themselves unexpectedly ruined ^ 

— Who use his names perversely.'] As 185 Do they not consider that there is 

did Walid Ebn al Mogheira, who hearing 710 devil in their companion ?] Viz. in 

Mohammed give God the title of al Rab- Mohammed ; whom they gave out to be 

man, or the Merciful, laughed aloud, say- possessed when he went up to mount Safa, 

ing, that he knew none of that name, ex- and from thence called to the several fami- 

cept a certain man who dwelt in Yama- lies of each respective tribe, in order to 

ma 2 : or, as the idolatrous Meccans did, warn them of God's vengeance, if they 

who deduced the names of their idols continued in their idolatry ^. 
from those of the true God : deriving, for — Jfter this.] i. e. After they have 

example, Allat from Allah : al Uzza from rejected the Koran. For what more evl- 

al Aziz, the Mighty ; and Manat from al dent revelation can they hereafter ex- 

Mannan, the Bountiful ^. pect '^ 1 

182 Of those whom we have created, 187 The expectation thereof is grievous, 

there are a people who direct others with in heaven and on earth.] Not only to men 

truth, &c.] As it is said a little above, and genii, but to the angels also. 

1 In Ale. p. 414. 2 Marracc. vit. Mah. p. 19. ^ M Beiddwi, JallaW ddin. See 
the Prelim. Disc. p. 20. ^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. 



183 AL KORAN, [chap. 

upon you no otherwise than suddenly. They will ask 
thee, as though thou wast well acquainted therewith. 
Answer, Verily the knowledge thereof is with God alone : 
but the greater part of men know it not. ^^^ Say, I am 
able neither to procure advantage imto myself, nor to 
avert mischief from me, but as God pleaseth. If I knew 
the secrets of God, I should surely enjoy abundance of 
good, neither should evil befal me. Verily, I am no other 
than a denouncer of threats, and a messenger of good 
tidings unto people who believe. ^^^ It is he who hath 
created you from one person, and out of him produced 
his wife, that he might dwell with her ; and when he had 
known her, she carried a light burden for a time, where- 
fore she walked easily therewith. But when it became 
more heavy, they called upon God, their Lord, saying, 
If thou give us a child rightly shaped, we will surely be 
thankful. ^^^ Yet when he had given them a child rightly 
shaped, they attributed companions unto him, for that 
which he had given them. But far be that from God, 
which they associated with him ! ^^^ Will they associate 
with him false gods, which create nothing, but are them- 
selves created ; and can neither give them assistance, nor 

189 But when it became more heavy, servant of God, as Adam had designed. 
&c.] That is, when the child grew bigger This proposal was agreed to ; and accord- 
in her womb. ingly> when the child was born, they gave 

190 They attributed compardoyis unto it that name ; upon which it immediately 
him^^LC.'] For the explaining of this whole died i. And with this» Adam and Eve 
passage, the commentators tell the follow- are hereby taxed as an act of idolatry, 
ing story. The story looks like a rabbinical fiction, 

They say, that when Eve was big with and seems to have no other foundation 

her first child, the devil came to her, and than Cain's being called by Moses, Obed 

asked her, whether she knew what she Adamah, that is, A tiller of the ground, 

carried within her, and which way she which might be translated into Arabic by 

should be delivered of it; suggesting, that Abd'alhareth. 

possibly it might be a beast. She, being But al Beidawi, thinking it unlikely 
unable to give an answer to this question, that a prophet (as Adam is by the Mo- 
went in a fright to Adam, and acquainted hammedans supposed to have been) should 
him with the matter, who, not knowing be guilty of such an action, imagines the 
what to think of it, grew sad and pensive. Koran in this place means Kosai, one of 
Whereupon the devil appeared to her Mohammed's ancestors, and his wife, who 
again (or, as others say, to Adam), and begged issue of God, and having four 
pretended that he, by his prayers, would sons granted them, called their names Abd 
obtain of God that she might be safely de- Menaf, Abd Shams, Abd'al Uzza, and 
livered of a son in Adam's likeness, pro- Abd'al Dar, after the names of the four 
vided they would promise to name him principal idols of the Koreish. And the 
Abdo'lhareth, or. The servant of al Ha- following words also he supposes to re- 
reth (which was the devil's name among late to their idolatrous posterity, 
the angels), instead of Abd'allah, or. The 

1 Al Beidawi, Yahya. V. D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient, p. 438, & Selden, De Jure Nat. 
Sec. Hebr. lib. v. c. 8. 



VII.] AL KORAN. 183 

help themselves ? ^^^ And if ye invite them to the true 
direction, they will not follow you ; it will be equal unto 
you, whether ye invite them or whether ye hold your 
peace. ^^^ Verily, the false deities, whom ye invoke be- 
sides God, are servants like unto you. Call therefore 
upon them, and let them give you an answer, if ye speak 
truth. ^^^ Have they feet, to walk with ? Or have they 
hands, to lay hold with ? Or have they eyes, to see with ? 
Or have they ears, to hear with ? Say, call upon your 
companions, and then lay a snare for me, and defer it 
not ; ^^^ for God is my protector, who sent down the book 
of the Koran ; and he protecteth the righteous. ^^^ But 
they whom ye invoke besides him, cannot assist you; 
neither do they help themselves ; ^^^ and if ye call on 
them to direct you, they will not hear. Thou seest them 
look towards thee, but they see not. ^^^ Use indulgence, 
and command that which is just, and withdraw far from 
the ignorant. ^^^ And if an evil suggestion from Satan 
be suggested unto thee to divert thee from thy duty, 
have recourse unto God; for he heareth and knoweth. 
200 Yerily^ they who fear God, when a temptation from 
Satan assaileth them, remember the divine commands, 
and behold, they clearly see the danger of sin, and the 
wiles of the devil. ^^^ But as for the brethren of the 
devils, they shall continue them in error ; and afterwards 
they shall not preserve themselves therefrom. ^^^ And 
when thou bringest not a verse of the Koran unto them, 
they say. Hast thou not put it together ? Answer, I follow 
that only which is revealed unto me from my Lord. 
This book containeth evident proofs from your Lord, and 
is a direction and mercy unto people who believe. ^^^ And 
when the Koran is read, attend thereto, and keep 
silence ; that ye may obtain mercy. ^^* And meditate on 
thy Lord in thine own mind, with humility and fear, 

193 Are servants like unto you,'] Being from the people as they could spare. But 

subject to the absolute command of God. the passage, taken in this sense, was abro- 

For the chief idols of the Arabs were the gated by the precept of legal alms, which 

sun, moon, and stars ^. was given at Medina. 

198 Use indulgence.] Or, as the words 202 Hast thou not put it together ?] 

may also be translated. Take the super- i. e. Hast thou not yet contrived what to 

abundant overplus : meaning that Moham- say ; or, canst thou obtain no revelation 

med should accept such voluntary alms from God ? 

1 See the Prelimi Disc. p. 18. 



184 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



and without loud speaking, evening and morning; and 
be not one of the negligent. ^^^ Moreover the angels 
who are with my Lord, do not proudly disdain his service, 
but they celebrate his praise, and worship him. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

INTITLED, THE SPOILS; REVEALED AT MEDINA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ They will ask thee concerning the spoils : Answer, 
The division of the spoils belongeth unto God and the 
apostle. Therefore fear God, and compose the matter 
amicably among you ; and obey God and his apostle, if 
ye are true believers. ^ Verily the true believers are 
those whose hearts fear when God is mentioned, and 
whose faith increaseth when his signs are rehearsed unto 
them, and who trust in their Lord ; ^ who observe the 
stated times of prayer, and give alms out of that which 
we have bestowed on them. ^ These are really believers : 
they shall have superior degrees of felicity with their 
Lord, and forgiveness, and an honourable provision. 
^ As thy Lord brought thee forth from thy house, with 



TitUi Spoils,'] This chapter was occa- 
sioned by the high disputes which happened 
about the division of the spoils taken at 
the battle of Bedr ^, between the young 
men who had fought, and the old nnen 
who had staid under the ensigns; the 
former insisting they ought to have the 
whole, and^the latter that they deserved 
a share 2. To end the contention, Mo- 
hammed pretended to have received orders 
from heaven to divide the booty among 
them equally, having first taken thereout 
a fifth part for the purposes which will be 
mentioned hereafter. 

Title i Medina.'] Except seven verses, 
beginning at these words, And call to 
mind when the unbelievers plotted against 
thee, &c. Which some think were re- 
vealed at Mecca. 

1 The division of the spoils belongeth 
unto God and the apostle,] It is related, 



that Saad Ebn Abi Wakkas, one of the 
companions, whose brother Omair was 
slain in this battle, having killed Said Ebn 
al As, took his sword, and carrying it to 
Mohammed, desired that he might be 
permitted to keep it ; but the prophet told 
him, that it was not his to give away, and 
ordered him to lay it with the other spoils. 
At this repulse, and the loss of his brother, 
Saad was greatly disturbed ; but in a very 
little while this chapter was revealed, and 
thereupon Mohammed gave him the sword, 
saying. You asked this sword of me when 
I had no power to dispose of it ; but now 
I have received authority from God to 
distribute the spoils, you may take it ^. 

5 As thy Lord brought thee forth from 
thy house.] i. e. From Medina. The parti- 
cle, aSf having nothing in the following 
words to answer it, Al Beidawi supposes 
the connexion to be, that the division of 



See chap. iii. 



2 Al Beiddwi, Jallaloddin, 



^ Al Beiddwi. 



vni.] 



AL KORAN. 



185 



truth ; and part of the believers were averse to thy 
directions : ^ they disputed with thee concerning the 
truth, after it had been made known unto them; no 
otherwise than as if they had been led forth to death, and 
had seen it with their eyes. ^ And call to mind when 
God promised you one of the two parties, that it should 
be delivered unto you ; and ye desired that the party 
which was not furnished with arms should be delivered 



the spoils belonged to the prophet, not- 
withstanding his followers were averse to 
it, as they had been averse to the expedi- 
tion itself. 

— And part of the believers were averse 
to thy directions. ~\ For the better under- 
standing of this passage, it will be neces- 
sary to mention some farther particulars 
relating to the expedition of Bedr. 

Mohammed having received private 
information (for which he pretended he 
was obliged to the angel Gabriel) of the 
approach of a caravan belonging to the 
Koreish, which was on its return from 
Syria, with a large quantity of valuable 
merchandise, and was guarded by no more 
than thirty, or, as others say, forty men, 
set out with a party to intercept it. Abu 
Sofian, who commanded the little convoy, 
having notice of Mohammed's motions, 
sent to Mecca for succours ; upon which 
Abu Jahl, and all the principal men of 
the city, except only Abu Laheb, marched 
to his assistance, with a body of nine 
hundred and fifty men. Mohammed had 
no sooner received advice of this, than 
Gabriel descended with a promise that he 
should either take the caravan, or beat 
the succours ; whereupon he consulted with 
his companions which of the two he should 
attack. Some of them were for setting 
upon the caravan, saying, that they were 
not prepared to fight such a body of 
troops as were coming with Abu Jahl ; 
but this proposal Mohammed rejected, 
telling them, that the caravan was at a 
considerable distance by the sea-side, 
whereas Abu Jahl was just upon them. 
The others, however, insisted so obsti- 
nately on pursuing the first design of 
falling on the caravan, that the prophet 
grew angry, but, by the interposition of 
Abu Beer, Omar, Saad Ebn Obadah, and 
Mokdad Ebn Amru, they, at length, ac- 
quiesced to his opinion. Mokdad, in par- 
ticular, assured him they were all ready 
to obey his orders, and would not say to 
him, as the children of Israel did to Moses, 



Go thou and thy Lord to fight, for we 
will sit here ^ ; but, Go thou and thy Lord 
to fight, and we will fight with you. At 
this Mohammed smiled, and again sat 
down to consult with them, applying him- 
self chiefly to the Ansars, or helpers ; 
because they were the greater part of his 
forces, and he had some apprehension lest 
they should not think themselves obliged 
by the oath they had taken to him at 
al Akaba 2, to assist him against any other 
than such as should attack him in Medina. 
But Saad Ebn Moadh, in the name of the 
rest, told him that they had received him 
as the apostle of God, and had promised 
him obedience, and were, therefore, all to 
a man, ready to follow him where he 
pleased, though it were into the sea. Upon 
which the prophet ordered them, in God's 
name, to attack the succours, assuring 
them of the victory ^. 

6 They disputed with thee concerning 
the truth, 8z:c.] That is, concerning their 
success against Abu Jahl and the Koreish ; 
notwithstanding they had God's promise 
to encourage them. 

— As if they had been led forth to 
death, &c.] The reason of this great 
backwardness was, the smallness of their 
number, in comparison of the enemy, and 
their being unprepared ; for they were all 
foot, having but two horses among them, 
whereas the Koreish had no less than a 
hundred horse*. 

7 When God promised you one of the 
two parties.^ That is, either the caravan, 
or the succours from Mecca. Father 
Marracci, mistaking al ir and al Nafir^ 
which are appellatives, and signify the 
caravan and the troop, or body of succours, 
for proper names, has thence coined two fa- 
milies of the Koreish never heard of before, 
which he calls Arienses and Naphirenses ^ 

— The party which ivas not furnished 
with arms.~\ Viz. The caravan, which 
was guarded by no more than forty horse ; 
whereas the other party was strong and 
well appointed. 



1 Koran, chap. v. 2 ggg ^j^g Prelim. Disc. p. 56, 57- ^ Al Beiddwi, 

* Idem. V. Abulfed. vit. Moham. p. 56. 5 Marracc. in Ale. p. 297. 



186 AL KORAN. [chap. 

unto you : but God purposed to make known the truth 
in his words, and to cut off the uttermost part of the 
unbelievers ; ^ that he might verify the truth, and destroy 
falsehood, although the wicked were averse thereto. 
^ When ye asked assistance of your Lord, and he an- 
swered you. Verily I will assist you with a thousand 
angels, following one another in order. ^^ And this God 
designed only as good tidings for you, and that your 
hearts might thereby rest secure : for victory is from God 
alone , and God is mighty and wise. ^^ When a sleep 
fell on you as a security from him, and he sent down 
upon you water from heaven, that he might thereby 
purify you, and take from you the abomination of Satan, 
and that he might confirm your hearts, and establish your 
feet thereby. ^^ Also when thy Lord spake unto the 
angels, saying. Verily, I am with you ; wherefore confirm 
those who believe. I will cast a dread into the hearts of 
the unbelievers. Therefore strike off their heads, and 
strike off all the ends of their fingers. This shall they 
suffer, because they have resisted God and his apostle : 
and whosoever shall oppose God and his apostle, 
verily God will be severe in punishing him. ^^ This shall 
be your punishment ; taste it therefore : and the infidels 

7 But God would make known the sand, into which their feet sunk as they 

truthf &c.] As if he had said, Your view walked, the enemy having the command 

was only to gain the spoils of the caravan, of the water ; and that having fallen 

and to avoid danger ; but God designed asleep, the greater part of them were dis- 

to exalt his true religion by extirpating turbed with dreams, wherein the devil 

its adversaries ^. suggested to them, that they could never 

9 When ye asked assistance of your expect God's assistance in the battle, since 
Lordy &c.] When Mohammed's men saw they were cut off from the water, and, 
they could not avoid fighting, they recom- besides suffering the inconvenience of 
mended themselves to God's protection ; thirst, must be obliged to pray without 
and their prophet prayed with great earn- washing, though they imagined themselves 
estness, crying out, O God ! fulfil that to be the favourites of God, and that they 
which thou hast promised me : O God ! had his apostle among them. But in the 
if this party be cut off, thou wilt be no night rain fell so plentifully, that it formed 
more worshipped on earth. And he con- a little brook; and not only supplied them 
tinned to repeat these words till his cloak with water for all their uses, but made the 
fell from off his back 2. sand between them and the infidel army 

— A thousand angels.^ Which were firm enough to bear them ; whereupon the 

afterwards reinforced with three thousand diabolical suggestion ceased*, 

more^. Wherefore some copies, instead 12 Therefore strike off their heads, &c.^ 

of a thousand read thousands, in the plural. This is the punishment expressly assigned 

10 Good tidings.~\ See chap. iii. the enemies of the Mohammedan religion ; 

11 When a sleep fell on you, &c.] It though the Moslems did not inflict it on 
is related, that the spot where Moham- the prisoners they took at Bedr, for which 
med's little army lay, was a dry and deep they are reprehended in this chapter. 

* Al Beiddivi. ^ Al Beiddwi. V. Ahulfed, vit. Moham. p. 58. ^ gge 

chap. iii. ^ Al Beiddwi, 



VIII.] AL KORAN. 187 

shall also suffer the torment of hell-fire. ^* O true 
believers ! when ye meet the unbelievers marching in 
great numbers against you, turn not your backs imto 
them : ^^ for whoso shall turn his back unto them on that 
day, unless he turneth aside to fight, or retreateth to 
another party of the faithful, shall draw on himself the 
indignation of God, and his abode shall be hell ; an ill 
journey shall it be thither ! ^^ And ye slew not those 
who were slain at Bedr yourselves, but God slew them. 
Neither didst thou, O Mohammed ! cast the gravel into 
their eyes, when thou didst seem to cast it ; but God cast 
it, that he might prove the true believers by a gracious 
trial from himself; for God heareth and knoweth. ^^This 
was done that God might also weaken the crafty devices 
of the unbelievers. ^^ If ye desire a decision of the mat- 
ter between us, now hath a decision come unto you : and 
if ye desist from opposing the apostle, it will be better 
for you. But if ye return to attack him, we will also 
return to his assistance ; and your forces shall not be of 
advantage unto you at all, although they be numerous : 
for God is with the faithful. ^^ O true believers ! obey 
God and his apostle, and turn not back from him, since 
ye hear the admonitions of the Koran. ^^ And be not 
as those who say. We hear, when they do not hear. 
^\ Verily the worst sort of beasts in the sight of God, are 
the deaf and the dumb, who understand not. ^^ If God, 
had known any good in them, he would certainly have 
caused them to hear : And if he had caused them to hear, 
they would surely have turned back, and have retired 
afar off. ^^ O true believers ! answer God and his apos- 

15 Unless he turneth aside to fight, or from Mecca, took hold of the curtains of 
retreateth to another party, &c.] That is, the Caaba, saying, O God! grant the vic- 
if it be not downright running away, but tory to the superior army, the party that 
done either with design to rally, and at- is most rightly directed, and the most 
tack the enemy again, or by way of feint honourable 2. ^ 
or stratagem, or to succour a party which 22 To hearJ] That is, to hearken to 
is hard pressed, &c. ^ the remonstrance of the Koran. Some 

16 God slew them.'] See chap. iii. say, that the infidels demanded of Mo- 
note, hammed that he should raise Kosai, one 

— Gravel.] See ibid. of his ancestors, to life, to bear witness to 

18 If ye desire a decision, &c.] These the truth of his mission, saying, he was a 

words are directed to the people of Mecca, man of honour and veracity, and they 

whom Mohammed derides, because the would believe his testimony : but they are 

Koreish, when they were ready to set out here told that it would have been in vain ^ 

1 Jl Beiddwi. 2 idem. 3 idem. See chap. vi. 



188 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



tie, when he iiiviteth you unto that which giveth you 
life ; and know that God goeth between a man and his 
heart, and that before him ye shall be assembled. ^^ Be- 
ware of sedition ; it will not affect those who are ungodly 
among you particularly, but all of you in general ; and 
know that God is severe in punishing. ^^ And remember 
when ye w^ere few, and reputed weak in the land : ye 
feared lest men should snatch you away ; but God pro- 
vided you a place of refuge, and he strengthened you with 
his assistance, and bestowed on you good things, that ye 
might give thanks. ^^ O true believers ! deceive not God 
and his apostle ; neither violate your faith, against your 
own knowledge. ^^ And know that your wealth, and your 
children, are a temptation unto you ; and that with God 
is a great reward. ^^ O true believers ! if ye fear God, 
he will grant you a distinction, and will expiate your sins 
from you, and will forgive you ; for God is indued with 
great liberality. ^^And call to mind when the unbe- 
lievers plotted against thee, that they might either detain 



23 God goeth between a man and his 
heart.~\ Not only knowing the innermost 
secrets of his heart, but overruling a man's 
designs, and disposing him either to be- 
lief or infidelity. 

24 Sedition.'] The original word sig- 
nifies any epidemical crime, which involves 
a number of people in its guilt ; and the 
commentators are divided as to its par- 
ticular meaning in this place. 

25 In the land.'] Viz. at Mecca. The 
persons here spoken to are the Mohdjerin, 
or refugees, who fled from thence to Me- 
dina. 

26 Deceive not God and his apostle, &c.] 
Al Beidawi mentions an instance of such 
treacherous dealing in Abu Lobaba, who 
was sent by Mohammed to the tribe of 
Koreidha, then besieged by that prophet 
for having broken their league with him, 
and perfidiously gone over to the enemies 
at the war of the ditch ^, to persuade them 
to surrender at the discretion of Saad Ebn 
Moadh, prince of the tribe of Aws, their 
confederates, which proposal they had re- 
fused. But Abu Lobaba's family and 
effects being in the hands of those of Ko- 
reidha, he acted directly contrary to his 
commission, and, instead of persuading 
them to accept Saad as their judge, when 
they asked his advice about it, drew his 



hand across his throat, signifying that he 
would put them all to death. However, 
he had no sooner done this, than he was 
sensible of his crime, and going into a 
mosque, tied himself to a pillar, and re- 
mained there seven days without meat or 
drink, till Mohammed forgave him. 

27 Your wealth and your children are 
a temptation unto you.] As they were to 
Abu Lobaba. 

28 Distinction.] i. e. A direction that 
you may distinguish between truth and 
falsehood; or success in battle, to distin- 
guish the believers from the infidels ; or 
the like. 

29 And call to mind when the unbe- 
lievers plotted against thee, &c.] When 
the Meccans heard of the league entered 
into by Mohammed with those of Medina, 
being apprehensive of the consequence, 
they held a council, whereat, they say, 
the devil assisted in the likeness of an old 
man of Najd. The point under consider- 
ation being what they should do with Mo- 
hammed, Abu'lbakhtari was of opinion 
that he should be imprisoned, and the 
room walled up, except a little hole, 
through which he should have necessaries 
given him, till he died. This the devil 
opposed, saying, that he might probably 
be released by some of his own party 



^ See Prid. Life of Mah. p. 85. Ahiilf. vit. Moh. p. 76, and the notes to chap, xxxiii. 



viii.] A L KORAN. 189 

thee in bonds, or put thee to death, or expel thee the 
city ; and they plotted against thee : but God laid a plot 
against them : and God is the best layer of plots. ^^ And 
when our signs are repeated unto them, they say, We 
have heard ; if we pleased we could certainly pronounce a 
composition like unto this ; this is nothing but the fables 
of the ancients. ^^ And when they said, O God ! if this 
be the truth from thee, rain down stones upon us from 
heaven, or inflict on us some other grievous punishment. 
^^ But God was not disposed to punish them while thou 
wast with them, nor was God disposed to punish them 
when they asked pardon. ^^ But they have nothing to 
offer in excuse why God should not punish them, since 
they hindered the believers from visiting the holy temple, 
although they are not the guardians thereof. The guar- 
dians thereof are those only who fear God ; — ^^ but the 
greater part of them know it not. ^^ And their prayer 
at the house of God is no other than whistling and clap- 
ping of the hands. Taste, therefore, the punishment, for 
that ye have been unbelievers. ^^ They who believe not, 
expend their wealth to obstruct the way of God : they 

Hesham Ebn Amru was for banishing temple, in the expedition of al Hodei- 

him : but his advice also the devil re- biya*. 

jected, insisting that Mohammed might — Although they are 7iot the guardians 
engage some other tribes in his interest, thereof.^ Because of their idolatry, and 
and make war on them. At length Abu indecent deportment there. For other- 
Jahl gave his opinion for putting him to wise the Koreish had a right to the guar- 
death, and proposed the manner ; which dianship of the Caaba, and it was con- 
was unanimously approved i. tinned in their tribe, and in the same 

— But God laid a plot against them.'\ family, even after the taking of Mecca ^. 

Revealing their conspiracy to Mohammed, 35 Their prayer at the house of God is 

and miraculously assisting him to deceive no other than whistling and clapping of the 

them, and make his escape 2, and after- hands.] It is said that they used to go 

wards drawing them to the battle of Bedr. round the Caaba naked ^, both men and 

30 Fables.'] See chap. vi. women, whistling at the same time through 

31 Jnd when they said, Sic] This was their fingers, and clapping their hands, 
the speech of Al Nodar Ebn al Hareth 3. Or, as others say, they made this noise on 

32 When they asked pardon.] Saying, purpose to disturb Mohammed when at 
God forgive us ! Some of the commen- his prayers, pretending to be at prayers 
tators, however, suppose the persons who also themselves ^ 

asked pardon were certain believers, who 36 They who believe not, expend their 

staid among the infidels : and others think wealth to obstruct the way of God, &c.] 

the meaning to be, that God would not The persons particularly meant in this 

punish them, provided they asked pardon, passage were twelve of the Koreish, who 

33 Since they hindered the believers gave each of them ten camels every day to 
from visiting the holy temple.] Obliging be killed for provisions for their army in 

them to fly from Mecca, and not permit- the expedition of Bedr ; or, according to 
ting them so much as to approach the others, the owners of the effects brought 

^ Al Beiddwi. See the Prelim. Disc. p. 59. 2 gee ibid. ^ ji Beiddwi. 

* See the Prelim. Disc. p. 62. 5 ^qq ^h. iv. note. 6 ggg ^\^^^ y\\^ 

^ Al Beiddwi. 



190 AL KORAN. [chap. 

shall expend it, but afterwards it shall become matter of 
sighing and regret unto them, and at length they shall 
be overcome ; — ^^ and the unbelievers shall be gathered to- 
gether into hell ; — ^^ that God may distinguish the wicked 
from the good, and may throw the wicked one upon the 
other, and may gather them all in a heap, and cast them 
into hell. These are they who shall perish. ^^ Say unto 
the unbelievers, that if they desist from opposing thee, 
what is already past shall be forgiven them ; but if they 
return to attack thee, the exemplary punishment of the 
former opposers of the prophets is already past, and the 
like shall be inflicted on them. Therefore fight against 
them until there be no opposition in favour of idolatry, 
and the religion be wholly God's. If they desist, verily 
God seeth that which they do. ^^ But if they turn back, 
know that God is your patron : he is the best patron, and 
the best helper. [*X.] ^^And know that whenever ye 
gain any spoils, a fifth part thereof belongeth unto God, 
and to the apostle, and his kindred, and the orphans, and 
the poor, and the traveller : if ye believe in God, and that 
which we have sent down unto our servant on the day of 
distinction, on the day whereon the two armies met : and 
God is almighty. ^^When ye were encamped on the 
hithermost side of the valley, and they were encamped 
on the further side, and the caravan was below you ; and 
if ye had mutually appointed to come to a battle, ye 
would certainly have declined the appointment ; ^^ but ye 

by the caravan, who gave great part of some v^rho suppose it was revealed in the 

them to the support of the succours from expedition against the Jewish tribe of 

Mecca. It is also said, that Abu Sofian, Kainoka, which happened a little above a 

in the expedition of Ohod, hired two thou- month after ^. 

sand Arabs, who cost him a considerable — The day of distinction,'] i. e Of the 

sum, besides the auxiliaries which he had battle of Bedr; which is so called because 

obtained gratis ^. it distinguished the true believers from the 

41 A fifth part of the spoils belongeth infidels. 

unto God and his apostle, &c.] According 42 On the hithermost side.] Which was 

to this law, a fifth part of the spoils is ap- much more inconvenient than the other, 

propriated to the particular uses here men- because of the deep sand and want of 

tioned, and the other four-fifths are to be water. 

equally divided among those who were — And the caravan was below you.'] 

present at the action ; but in what man- viz. By the sea- side, making the best of 

ner, or to whom, the first fifth is to be their way to Mecca. 

distributed, the Mohammedan doctors dif- — Ye would have declined the appoint- 

fer, as we have elsewhere observed ^. mentJ] Because of the great superiority 

Though it be the general opinion that this of the enemy, and the disadvantages ye 

verse was revealed at Bedr, yet there are lay under. 

* Al Beiddwi. ^ See the Prelim. Disc. § vi. ^ Al Beiddwi. 

1 



VIII.] AL KORAN. 191 

were brought to an engagement without any previous 
appointment, that God might accomplish the thing which 
was decreed to be done ; ^^ that he who perisheth here- 
after may perish after demonstrative evidence ; and that 
he who liveth may live by the same evidence. God both 
heareth and knoweth. ^^ When thy Lord caused the 
enemy to appear unto thee in thy sleep, few in number ; 
and if he had caused them to appear numerous unto thee, 
ye would have been disheartened, and would have dis- 
puted concerning the matter: but God preserved you 
from this; for he knoweth the innermost parts of the 
breasts of men. '^^ And when he caused them to appear 
unto you, when ye met, to be few in your eyes ; and 
diminished your numbers in their eyes ; that God might 
accomplish the thing which was decreed to be done ; and 
unto God shall all things return. ^^ O true believers ! 
when ye meet a party of the infidels, stand firm, and re- 
member God frequently, that ye may prosper. ^^And 
obey God and his apostle, and be not refractory, lest ye 
be discouraged, and your success depart from you ; but 
persevere with patience, for God is with those who per- 
severe. ^^ And be not as those who went out of their 
houses in an insolent manner, and to appear with osten- 
tation unto men, and turned aside from the way of God : 

43 That God might fulfil the thing ing us, that, just before the battle began, 

which was decreed^ &c.] By granting a the prophet's party seemed fewer than 

miraculous victory to the faithful, and they really were, to draw the enemy to 

overthrowing their enemies ; for the con- an engagement ; but that so soon as the 

viction of the latter, and the confirmation armies were fully engaged, they appeared 

of the former ^ superior, to terrify and dismay their ad- 

45 In thy sleep, &c.] With which vision versaries. It is related, that Abu Jahl, 
Mohammed acquainted his companions for at first, thought them so inconsiderable a 
their encouragement. handful, that he said one camel would be 

— And would have disputed,"] Whether as much as they could all eat *. 

ye should attack the enemy, or fly. 49 Who went out of their hotises with 

46 A7id when he caused them to appear insolence and ostentation^ &c.] These were 
few in your eyes.] It is said, that Ebn the Meccans, who, marching to the assist- 

Masud asked the man who was next him, ance of the caravan, and being come as 

whether he did not see them to be about far as Johfa, were there met by a messen- 

seventy ; to which he replied, that he took ger from Abu Sofian, to acquaint them, 

them to be an hundred 2. that he thought himself out of danger, 

— And diminished your numbers in and therefore they might return home : 
their eyes.] This seeming a contradiction upon which Abu Jahl, to give the greater 
to a passage in the third chapter 3, where opinion of the courage of himself, and his 
it is said that the Moslems appeared to the comrades, and of their readiness to assist 
infidels to be twice their own number, the their friends, swore that they would not 
commentators reconcile the matter, by tell- return till they had been at Bedr, and had 

1 Al Beiddwi. 2 ideni. 3 p^gg 4g. 4 ji Beiddtvi, Jal- 

laJo'ddin, Yahyn. 



192 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



for God comprehendeth that which they do. ^^ And re- 
member when Satan prepared their works for them, and 
said, No man shall prevail against you to-day ; and I will 
surely be near to assist you. But when the two armies 
appeared in sight of each other, he turned back on his 
heels, and said. Verily I am clear of you : I certainly see 
that which ye see not. ^^ I fear God, for God is severe 
in punishing. ^^ When the hypocrites, and those in whose 
hearts there was an infirmity, said, their religion hath 
deceived these men ; but whosoever confideth in God 
cannot be deceived ; for God is mighty and wise. ^^ And 
if thou didst behold when the angels cause the unbe- 
lievers to die : they strike their faces and their backs, 
and say unto them. Taste ye the pain of burning. ^^ This 
shall ye suffer for that which your hands have sent before 
you; and because God is not unjust towards his servants. 
^^ These have acted according to the want of the people 
of Pharaoh, and of those before them, who disbelieved 
in the signs of God : therefore God took them away in 



there drunk wine, and entertained those 
who should be present, and diverted them- 
selves with singing women '. The event 
of which bravado was very fatal, several 
of the principal Koreish, and Abu Jahl in 
particular, losing their lives in the expe- 
dition. 

50 When Satan prepared their works for 
them.'] By inciting them to oppose the 
prophet. 

Some understand this passage figura- 
tively, of the private instigation of the 
devil, and of the defeating of his, designs, 
and the hopes with which he had inspired 
the idolaters. But others take the whole 
literally, and tell us, that when the Ko- 
reish, on their march, bethought them- 
selves of the enmity between them and 
the tribe of Kenana, who were masters of 
the country about Bedr, that consideration 
would have prevailed on them to return, 
had not the devil appeared in the likeness 
of Soraka Ebn Malec, a principal person 
of that tribe, and promised them that they 
should not be molested ; and that himself 
would go with them. But when they 
came to join battle, and the devil saw the 
angels descending to the assistance of the 
Moslems, he retired ; and al Hareth Ebn 
Hesham, who had him then by the hand, 



asked him whither he was going, and if 
he intended to betray them at such a junc^ 
ture ; he answered in the words of this 
passage, I am clear of you, for I see that 
which ye see not ; meaning the celestial 
succours. They say further, that when 
the Koreish, on their return, laid the 
blame of their overthrow on Soraka, he 
swore he did not so much as know of 
their march till he heard they were routed: 
and afterwards, when they embraced Mo- 
hammedism, they were satisfied it was the 
devil 2. 

52 Their religion hath deceived these 
men.] In tempting them to so great a 
piece of folly, as to attack so large a body 
of men with such a handful. 

53 When the angels cause the unbe- 
lievers to die, &c.] This passage is gene- 
rally understood of the angels who slew 
the infidels at Bedr, and who fought (as 
the commentators pretend) with iron 
maces, which shot forth flames of fire at 
every stroke ^. Some, however, imagine, 
that the words hint, at least, at the exami- 
nation of the sepulchre, which the Mo- 
hammedans believe every man must un- 
dergo after death, and will be very terrible 
to the unbelievers *. 

54 Sent before you,] See chap. ii. 



^ Al Beiddwi. 
§ iv. p. 90, &c. 



Idem, JallaW ddin. 



3 lidem. 



* See Prelim. Disc. 



VIII.] AL KORAN. 193 

their iniquity ; for God is mighty and severe in punishing. 
^^ This hath come to pass because God change th not his 
grace, wherewith he hath favoured any people, until they 
change that which is in their souls ; and for that God 
both heareth and seeth. ^^ According to the want of the 
people of Pharaoh, and of those before them, who 
charged the signs of their Lord with imposture, have 
they acted : wherefore we destroyed them in their sins, 
and we drowned the people of Pharaoh ; for they Avere 
all unjust persons. ^^ Verily the worst cattle in the sight 
of God are those who are obstinate infidels, and will not 
believe. ^^ As to those who enter into a league with 
thee, and afterwards violate their league at every conve- 
nient opportunity, they fear not God. ^^ If * thou take 
them in war, disperse, by making them an example, those 
who shall come after them, that they may be w^arned, 
^^ Or, if thou apprehend treachery from any people, throw 
back their league unto them, with like treatment ; for 
God loveth not the treacherous. ^^ And think not that 
the unbelievers have escaped God's vengeance, for they 
shall not weaken the power of God. ^^ Therefore pre- 
pare against them what force ye are able, and troops of 
horse, whereby ye may strike a terror into the enemy of 
God, and your enemy, and into other infidels besides them 
whom ye know not, but God knoweth them. And what- 
soever ye shall expend in the defence of the religion of 
God, it shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be 
treatly unjustly. ^* And if they incline unto peace, do 
thou also incline thereto ; and put thy confidence in God, 
for it is he who heareth and knoweth. ^^ But if they 
seek to deceive thee, verily God will be thy support. It 
is he who hath strengthened thee with his help, and with 
that of the faithful. ^^ He hath united their hearts. If 
thou hadst expended whatever riches are in the earth, thou 
couldest not have united their hearts, but God united 

59 Who enter into a league with thee^ — That the unbelievers have escaped 

and afterwards violate their league, &c>] God' s vengeance .'] Viz. Those who made 

As did the tribe of Koreidha ^, their escape from Bedr. 

62 Think not, &c.] Some copies read 66 Thou couldest not have united their 

it in the third person, Let not the unbe- hearts.'} Because of the inveterate en- 

lievers think, &c. mity which reigned among many of 



' See before, p. 188, and chap, xxxiii. 
VOL. I. O 



194 



AL KORAN. 



[chap, 



them ; for he is mighty and wise. ^^ O prophet ! God is 
thy support, and such of the true believers who follow 
thee. ^^ O prophet ! stir up the faithful to war : if twenty 
of you persevere with constancy, they shall overcome two 
hundred ; and if there be one hundred of you, they shall 
overcome a thousand of those who believe not ; because 
they are a people which do not understand. ^^ Now hath 
God eased you, for he knew that ye were weak. If there 
be an hundred of you who persevere with constancy, they 
shall overcome two hundred ; and if there be a thousand 
of you, they shall overcome two thousand, by the permis- 
sion of God ; for God is with those who persevere. ^^ It 
hath not been granted unto any prophet, that he should 
possess captives, until he had made a great slaughter of 
the infidels in the earth. Ye seek the accidental goods 
of this world, but God regardeth the life to come ; and 
God is mighty and wise. ^^ Unless a revelation had been 
previously delivered from God, verily a severe punish- 
ment had been inflicted on you, for the ransom which ye 



the Arab tribes: and therefore this re- 
conciliation is reckoned by the com- 
mentators as no inconsiderable miracle, 
and a strong proof of their prophet's mis- 
sion. 

67 Follow thee.'] This passage, as some 
say, was revealed in a plain called al Beida, 
between Mecca and Medina, during the 
expedition of Bedr ; and, as others say, 
in the sixth year of the prophet's mission, 
on the occasion of Omar's embracing Mo- 
hammedism. 

69 Two thousand,'] See Levit. xxvi. 8. 
Josh, xxiii. 10. 

70 Until he had made a great slaughter 
of infidels^ &c.] Because severity ought 
to be used where circumstances require 
it, though clemency be more preferable 
where it may be exercised with safety. 
While the Mohammedans, therefore, were 
weak, and their religion in its infancy, 
God's pleasure was, that the opposers 
of it should be cut off, as is particularly 
directed in this chapter. For which rea- 
son they are here upbraided with their 
preferring the lucre of the ransom to their 
duty. 

71 Unless a revelation had previously 
been delivered^ a great punishment had been 
inflicted on you for the ransom which ye 
tooki &c.] That is, had not the ransom 
been, in strictness, lawful for you to ac- 



cept by God's having, in general terms, 
allowed you the spoil, and the captives, ye 
had been severely punished. 

Among the seventy prisoners which the 
Moslems took in this battle, were al Abbas, 
one of Mohammed's uncles, and Okail, 
the son of Abu Taleb, and brother of Ali. 
When they were brought before Moham- 
med, he asked the advice of his companions 
what should be done with them. Abu 
Beer was for releasing them, on their pay- 
ing of ransom, saying, that they were 
near relations to the prophet, and God 
might possibly forgive them on their re- 
pentance; but Omar was for striking off 
their heads, as professed patrons of infi- 
delity. Mohammed did not approve of 
the latter advice, but observed that Abu 
Beer resembled Abraham, who interceded 
for offenders ; and that Omar was like 
Noah, who prayed for the utter extirpa- 
tion of the wicked antediluvians ; and 
thereupon it was agreed to accept a ran- 
som from them, and their fellow-captives. 
Soon after which, Omar, going into the 
prophet's tent, found him and Abu Beer 
weeping, and asking them the reason of 
their tears, Mohammed acquainted him, 
that this verse had been revealed, con- 
demning their ill-timed lenity towards 
their prisoners, and that they had narrowly 
escaped the divine vengeance for it; add- 



VIII.] 



AL KORAK 



195 



took from the captives at Bedr. ^^ Eat, therefore, of 
vrhat ye have acquired, that which is lawful and good ; 
for God is gracious and merciful. ^^ O prophet ! say 
unto the captives who are in your hands, If God shall 
know any good to be in your hearts, he will give you 
better than what hath been taken from you ; and he will 
forgive you, for God is gracious and merciful. ^* But if 
they seek to deceive thee, verily they have deceived God 
before ; wherefore he hath given thee power over them : 
and God is knowing and wise. ^^ Moreover, they who 
have believed, and have fled their country, and employed 
their substance, and their persons in fighting for the reli- 
gion of God, and they who have given the prophet a 
refuge among them, and have assisted him, these shall be 
deemed the one nearest of kin to the other. But they 
who have believed, but have not fled their country, shall 
have no right of kindred at all with you, until they also 



ing, that if God had not passed the matter 
over, they had certainly been destroyed to 
a man, excepting only Omar, and Saad 
Ebn Moadh, a person of as great severity, 
and who was also for putting the prisoners 
to death ^. Yet did not this crime go ab- 
solutely unpunished neither : for in the 
battle of Ohod, the Moslems lost seventy 
men, equal to the number of prisoners 
taken at Bedr ^ ; which was so ordered by 
God, as a retaliation or atonement for the 
same. 

72 Of what ye have acquired.^ i. e. Of 
the ransom which ye have received of your 
prisoners. For, it seems, on this rebuke, 
they had some scruple of conscience whe- 
ther they might convert it to their own 
use or not^. 

73 If God shall know any good to be in 
your hearts, he will give you better than 
what hath been taken from you.'] That is. 
If ye repent and believe, God will make 
you abundant retribution for the ransom 
ye have now paid. It is said that this 
passage was revealed on the particular 
account of al Abbas, who, being obliged 
by Mohammed, though his uncle, to ran- 
som both himself and his two nephews, 
Okail and Nawfal Ebn al Hareth, com- 
plained that he should be reduced to beg 
alms of the Koreish as long as he lived. 
Whereupon Mohammed asked him what 



was to become of the gold which he deli- 
vered to 0mm al Fadl when he left Mecca, 
telling her, that he knew not what might 
befal him in the expedition ; and therefore 
if he lost his life, she might keep it her- 
self for the use of her and her children ? 
Al Abbas demanded who told him this ; 
to which Mohammed replied, that God 
had revealed it to him. And upon this al 
Abbas immediately professed Islamism, 
declaring that none could know of that 
affair except God, because he gave her 
the money at midnight. Some years after, 
al Abbas, reflecting on this passage, con- 
fessed it to be fulfilled; for he was then 
not only possessed of a large substance, 
but had the custody of the well Zemzem, 
which, he said, he preferred to all the 
riches of Mecca *. 

74 To deceive thee.] By not paying the 
ransom agreed on. 

75 They shall be deemed the nearest of 
kin to each other,] And shall consequently 
inherit one another's substance preferably 
to their relations by blood. And this, 
they say, was practised for some time, the 
Mohajerun and Ansars being judged heirs 
to one another, exclusive of the deceased's 
other kindred, till this passage was abro- 
gated by the following : Those who are 
related by blood shall be deemed the nearest 
of kin to each other. 



^ See before, p. 188, & chap, xxiii. - See chap. iii. 

* Idem. V. D'Herbel Bibl. Orient. Art. Abbas. 



3 Al BeiddwL 



o2 



196 A L KORAN. [chap. 

fly. Yet, if they ask assistance of you on account of reli- 
gion, it belongeth unto you to give them assistance ; 
except against a people between whom and yourselves 
there shall be a league subsisting : and God seeth that 
which ye do. ^^ And as to the infidels, let them be 
deemed of kin the one to the other. Unless ye do this, 
there will be a sedition in the earth, and grievous corrup- 
tion. ^^ But as for them who have believed, and left 
their country, and have fought for God's true religion, 
and who have allowed the prophet a retreat among them, 
and have assisted him, these are really believers ; they 
shall receive mercy, and an honourable provision. ^^ And 
they who have believed since, and have fled their country, 
and have fought with you, these also are of you. And 
those who are related by consanguinity shall be deemed 
the nearest of kin to each other, preferably to strangers, 
according to the book of God ; God knoweth all things. 



CHAPTER IX. 

INTITLED, THE DECLARATION OF IMMUNITY ; REVEALED 

AT MEDINA. 

^ A DECLARATION of immunity from God and his apostle 
unto the idolaters with whom ye have entered into 

Title — Immunity,'] The reason why the ment of this chapter bearing a near re- 
chapter had this title appears from the first semblance to that of the preceding, his 
verse. Some, however, give it other titles ; companions differed about it ; some saying, 
and particularly that of Repentance, which that both chapters were but one, and, to- 
is mentioned immediately after. gether, made the seventh of the seven long 

It is observable, that this chapter alone ones ; and others, that they were two dis- 

has not the auspicatory form, In the name tinct chapters ; whereupon, to accommodate 

of the most merciful God, prefixed to it; the dispute, they left a space between 

the reason of which omission, as some them, but did not interpose the distinction 

think, was, because these words imply a of the Bismillah ^ 

concession of security, which is utterly It is agreed, that this chapter was the 

taken away by this chapter, after a fixed last which was revealed ; and the only 

time ; wherefore some have called it the one, as Mohammed declared, which was 

chapter of Punishment. Others say, that revealed entire, and at once, except the 

Mohammed (who died soon after he had re- hundred and tenth. 

ceived this chapter) having given no direc- Some will have the two last verses to 

tion where it should be placed, nor for the have been revealed at Mecca, 
prefixing the Bismillah to it, as had been 1 A declaration of immunity from God 

done to the other chapters, and the argu- and his apostle, &c.] Some understand 

^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin, Yahya^ &c. 



IX.] 



AL KORAN. 



197 



league. ^ Go to and fro in the earth securely four 
months : and know that ye shall not weaken God, and 
that God will disgrace the unbelievers. ^ And a decla- 
ration from God, and his apostle, unto the people, on 
the day of the greater pilgrimage, that God is clear of 
the idolaters — "^ and his apostle also. Wherefore, if ye 
repent, this will be better for you ; but if ye turn back, 
know that ye shall not weaken God : and denounce unto 
those who believe not, a painful punishment. ^ Except 
such of the idolaters with whom ye shall have entered 
into a league, and who, afterwards, shall not fail you in 
any instance, nor assist any other against you. Where- 
fore, perform the covenant which ye shall have made with 
them, until their time shall be elapsed ; for God loveth 
those who fear him. ^ And when the months wherein ye 
are not allowed to attack them shall be passed, kill the 
idolaters wheresoever ye shall find them, and take them 



this sentence of the immunity or security 
therein granted to the infidels, for the 
space of four months ; but others think, 
that the words properly signify, that Mo- 
hammed is here declared by God, to be 
absolutely free, and discharged from all 
truce or league with them, after the expi- 
ration of that time ^ : and this last seems 
to be the truest interpretation. 

Mohammed's thus renouncing all league 
with those who would not receive him as 
the apostle of God, or submit to become 
tributary, was the consequence of the 
great power to which he was now arrived. 
But the pretext he made use of, was the 
treachery he had met with among the 
Jewish and idolatrous Arabs ; scarce any 
keeping faith with him, except Banu 
Damra, Banu Kenana, and a few others ^, 

2 Go to and fro in the earth securely 
fourmotiths.^ These months were Shawdl, 
Dhu'lkaada, Dhu'lhajja, aLndMohari'am ; the 
chapter being revealed in Shawdl. Yet 
others compute them from the tenth of 
Dhu'lhajj a fWhen the chapter was published 
at Mecca, and consequently make them 
expire on the tenth of the former Rahi^. 

3 On the day of the greater pilgrimage.^ 
Viz. The tenth of Dhu'lhajjaf when they 
slay the victims at Medina ; which day is 
their great feast, and completes the cere- 
monies of the pilgrimage. Some suppose 
the adjective greater is added here, to 
distinguish the pilgrimage made at the 



appointed time from lesser pilgrimages, as 
they may be called, or visitations of the 
Caaba, which may be performed at any 
time of the year ; or else, because the 
concourse at the pilgrimage this year was 
greater than ordinary, both Moslems and 
idolaters being present at it. 

The promulgation of this chapter was 
committed by Mohammed to Ali, who 
rode for that purpose on the prophet's 
slit-eared camel from Medina to Mecca, 
and on the day above-mentioned, standing 
up before the whole assembly at al Akaba, 
told them, that he was the messenger of 
the apostle of God unto them ; where- 
upon, they asking him what was his 
errand, he read twenty or thirty verses of 
the chapter to them, and then said, I am 
commanded to acquaint you with four 
things : 1. That no idolater is to come 
near the temple of Mecca after this year; 
2. That no man presume to compass the 
Caaba naked for the future * ; 3. That 
none but true believers shall enter para- 
dise ; and, 4. That public faith is to be 
kept^. 

5 Except such of the idolaters who shall 
not fail you, &c.] So that notwithstand- 
ing Mohammed renounces all league ivith 
those who had deceived him, he decWes 
himself ready to perform his engagements 
to such as had been true to him. 

6 Wherever ye find them,'] Either 
within or without the sacred territory. 



^ Al Beiddwi, 
before, chap, vii. 



Idem. ^ Idem, Al Zamaksh. Jallalo' ddin. * See 

5 Al Beiddwi, V. Ahulfed, vit. Moh. p. 127, &c. 



198 AL KORAN. [chap. 

prisoners, and besiege them, and lay wait for them in 
every convenient place. But if they shall repent, and 
observe the appointed times of prayer, and pay the legal 
alms, dismiss them freely ; for God is gracious and merci- 
ful. ^ And if any of the idolaters shall demand pro- 
tection of thee, grant him protection, that he may hear 
the word of God ; and afterwards let him reach the place 
of his security. This shalt thou do, because they are 
people which know not the excellency of the religion 
thou preachest. ^ How shall the idolaters be admitted 
into a league with God, and with his apostle; except 
those with whom ye entered into a league at the holy 
temple? So long as they behave with fidelity towards 
you, do ye also behave with fidelity towards them ; for 
God loveth those who fear him. ^How can they be 
admitted into a league with you, since, if they prevail 
against you, they will not regard in you either consan- 
guinity or faith ? They will please you with their mouths, 
but their hearts will be averse from you ; for the greater 
part of them are wicked doers. ^^ They sell the signs of 
God for a small price, and obstruct his way ; it is certainly 
evil which they do. ^^ They regard not in a believer 
either consanguinity or faith ; and these are the trans- 
gressors. ^^ Yet, if they repent, and observe the appointed 
times of prayer, and give alms, they shall be deemed 
your brethren in religion. We distinctly propound our 
signs unto people who understand. ^^ But if they violate 
their oaths, after their league, and revile your religion, 
oppose the leaders of infidelity (for there is no trust in 
them), that they may desist from their treachery. ^^ Will 
ye not fight against people who have violated their oaths, 
and conspired to expel the apostle of God ; and who, of 
their own accord, assaulted you the first time ? Will ye 

7 And afterwards let him reach the place have violated their oaths, &c.~\ As did the 
of his security.'] That is, you shall give Koreish in assisting the tribe of Beer 
him a safe-conduct, that he may return against those of Khozaah *, and laying a 
home again securely, in case he shall not design to ruin Mohammed, without any 
think fit to embrace Mohammedism. just provocation ; and as several of the 

8 Except those ivith whom ye entered Jewish tribes did, by aiding the enemy ; 
into a league ySzcJ] These are the persons and endeavouring to oblige the prophet to 
before excepted. leave Medina, as he had been obliged to 

1 4 Will ye not fight against people who leave Mecca 2. 

1 See the Prelim. Disc, p. 64. 2 ^/ Beiddwi. 



IX.] AL KORAN. 199 

fear them ? But it is more just that ye should fear God, 
if ye are true believers. ^^ Attack them, therefore ; God 
shall punish them by your hands, and will cover them 
with shame, and will give you the victory over them ; 
and he will heal the breasts of the people who believe. 
^^ And He will take away the indignation of their hearts : 
for God will be turned unto whom he pleaseth ; and God 
is knowing and wise. ^^ Did ye imagine that ye should 
be abandoned, whereas God did not yet know those 
among you who fought for his religion, and took not any 
besides God, and his apostle, and the faithful, for their 
friends ? God is well acquainted with that which ye do. 
^^ It is not fitting that the idolaters should visit the 
temples of God, being witnesses against their own souls 
of their infidelity. The works of these men are vain ; 
and they shall remain in hell-fire for ever. ^^ But he 
only shall visit the temples of God, who believeth in 
God and the last day, and is constant at prayer, and 
payeth the legal alms, and feareth God alone. These, 
perhaps, may become of the number of those who are 
rightly directed. ^^ Do ye reckon the giving drink to the 
pilgrims, and the visiting of the holy temple, to be 
actions as meritorious as those performed by him who 
believeth in God and the last day, and fighteth for the 
religion of God ? They shall not be held equal with God : 
for God directeth not the unrighteous people. ^^ They 
who have believed, and fled their country, and employed 
their substance, and their persons, in the defence of 
God's true religion, shall be in the highest degree of 

15 And he will heal the breasts of the unbelievers; for if the faithful will but 

people who believe, &c.] Viz. Those of perhaps be saved, what can the others 

Khozaah ; or, as others say, certain fami- hope for^ ? 

lies of Yaman and Saba, who went to 20 Do ye reckon the giving drink to the 

Mecca; and there professed Mohamme- pilgrimSihc.^ This passage was revealed 

dism, but were very injuriously treated by on occasion of some words of al Abbas, 

the inhabitants ; whereupon they com- Mohammed's uncle ; who, when he was 

plained to Mohammed, who bade them taken prisoner, being bitterly reproached 

take comfort, for that joy was approach- by the Moslems, and particularly by his 

ing 1. nephew Ali, answered. You rip up our ill 

19 These, perhaps, may become of the actions, but take no notice of our good 

number of those who are rightly directed.^ ones: we visit the temple of Mecca, and 

These words are to warn the believers adorn the Caaba with hangings, and give 

from having too great a confidence in their drink to the pilgrims (of Zemzem water, 

own merits, and likewise to deter the I suppose,) and free captives^. 

^ Al BeiddwL 2 idem. ^ Idem. 



200 AL KORAN. [chap. 

honour with God ; and these are they who shall be happy. 
^^ Their Lord sendeth them good tidings of mercy from 
him, and good will, and of gardens wherein they shall 
enjoy lasting pleasure : ^^ they shall continue therein for 
ever : for with God is a great reward. ^* O true be- 
lievers ! take not your fathers, or your brethren, for 
friends, if they love infidelity above faith ; and whosoever 
among you shall take them for his friends, they will be 
unjust doers. ^^ Say, If your fathers, and your sons, and 
your brethren, and your wives, and your relations, and 
your substance which ye have acquired, and your mer- 
chandise which ye apprehend may not be sold off, and 
your dwellings wherein ye delight, be more dear unto 
you than God, and his apostle, and the advancement of 
his religion ; wait, until God shall send his command ; 
for God directeth not the ungodly people. ^^ Now hath 
God assisted you in many engagements, and particularly 
at the battle of Honein ; when ye pleased yourselves in 
your multitude, but it was no manner of advantage unto 
you, and the earth became too strait for you, notwith- 
standing it was spacious ; then did ye retreat, and turn 
your backs. ^^ Afterwards God sent down his security 

25 Till God shall send his com- courage was go great, that his uncle, al 
mand,~\ Or shall punish you. Some sup- Abbas, and his cousin, Abu Sofian Ebn al 
pose the taking of Mecca to be here in- Hareth, had much ado to prevent his spur- 
tended ^ ring his mule into the midst of the enemy, 

26 The battle of Honein.'] This battle by laying hold of the bridle and stirrup, 
was fought in the eighth year of the Then he ordered al Abbas, who had the 
Hejra, in the valley of Honein, which lies voice of a Stentor, to recall his flying 
about three miles from Mecca towards troops ; upon which they rallied, and the 
Tayef, beween Mohammed, who had an prophet throwing a handful of dust against 
army of twelve thousand men, and the the enemy, they attacked them a second 
tribes of Hawazen and Thakif, whose time, and, by the divine assistance, gained 
forces did not exceed four thousand. The the victory ^ 

Mohammedans, seeing themselves so great- — Jnd the earth became too strait for 

ly superior to their enemies, made sure of you.] For the valley being very deep, 

the victory ; a certain person, whom some and encompassed by craggy mountains, 

suppose to have been the prophet himself, the enemy placed themselves in ambush 

crying out, These can never be overcome on every side, attacking them in the straits 

by so few. But God was so highly dis- and narrow passages, and from behind the 

pleased with this confidence, that, in the rocks, with great advantage *. 
first encounter, the Moslems were put to 27 His security.] The original word is 

flight 2, some of them running away quite Sakinatf which the commentators interpret 

to Mecca ; so that none stood their ground in this sense ; but it seems rather to sig- 

except Mohammed himself, and some few nify the divine presence^ or Shechinah, 

of his family ; and they say the prophet's appearing to aid the Moslems ' 



5 



1 Al Beiddwl ^ See Prid. Life of Mah. p. 96, &c. Hotting. Hist. Orient, 

p. 271, &c. D'Herbel, Bibl. Orient, p. 601. ^ Al Beiddwi^ Jallalo'ddin, Abulfed, 

vit. Mob. p. 112, &c. * Ebn hhak. ^ See chap. ii. noie. 



IX.] 



AL KORAN. 



201 



upon his apostle, and upon the faithful, and sent down 
troops of angels which ye saw not ; and he punished 
those who disbelieved ; and this was the reward of the 
unbelievers. ^^ Nevertheless, God will hereafter be turned 
unto whom he pleaseth ; for God is gracious and merci- 
ful. ^^ O true believers ! verily the idolaters are unclean ; 
let them not therefore come near unto the holy temple 
after this year. And if ye fear want, by the cutting off 
trade and communication with them, God will enrich 
you of his abundance, if he pleaseth ; for God is knowing 
and wise. ^^ Fight against them w^ho believe not in God, 
nor in the last day, and forbid not that which God, and 
his apostle, have forbidden, and profess not the true 
religion of those unto whom the scriptures have been 
delivered, until they pay tribute by right of subjection. 



' — Troops of angels.'] As to the num- 
ber of these celestial auxiliaries, the com- 
mentators differ : some say they were five 
thousand ; some, eight thousand ; and 
others, sixteen thousand ^ 

28 Nevertheless God will hereafter turn 
unto whom he pleaseth.'^ Besides a great 
number of proselytes, who were gained by 
this battle, Mohammed, on their request, 
was so generous as to restore the captives 
(which were no less than six thousand) to 
their friends, and offered to make amends 
himself to any of his men who should not 
be willing to part with his prisoners ; but 
they all consented to it 2. 

29 After this year.] Which was the 
ninth year of the Hejra. In consequence 
of this prohibition, neither Jews, nor 
Christians, nor those of any other religion, 
are suffered to come near Mecca to this 
day. 

— God will enrich you of his ahundance.'\ 
This promise, says al Beidawi, was ful- 
filled by God's sending plenty of rain, 
and disposing the inhabitants of Tebala 
and Jorash, two towns in Yaman, to em- 
brace Islam, who thereupon brought suffi- 
cient provisions to Mohammed's men ; 
and also by the subsequent coming in of 
the Arabs from all quarters to him. 

30 Who believe not in God, nor in the 
last day.] That is, who have not a just 
and true faith in these matters ; but either 
believe a plurality of gods, or deny the 
eternity of hell-torments ^, or the delights 
of paradise as described in the Koran. 
For, as it appears, by the following words. 



the Jews and Christians are the persons 
here chiefly meant. 

— By right of subjection.] This I 
think the true meaning of the words An 
yadin, which literally signify. By or out of 
hand, and are variously interpreted ; some 
supposing they mean that the tribute is to 
be paid readily, or by their own hands, 
and not by another ; or that tribute is to 
be exacted of the rich only, or those who 
are able to pay it, and not of the poor ; or 
else, that it is to be taken as a favour, that 
the Mohammedans are satisfied with so 
small an imposition, &c. ^. 

That the Jews and Christians are, ac- 
cording to this law, to be admitted to 
protection, on payment of tribute, there is 
no doubt; though the Mohammedan doc- 
tors differ as to those of other religions. 
It is said that Omar at first refused to 
accept tribute from a Magian, till Abda'l- 
rahman Ebn Awf assured him, that Mo- 
hammed himself had granted protection 
to a Magian, and ordered that the profes- 
sors of that religion should be included 
among the people of the book, or those 
who found their religion on some book 
which they suppose to be of divine ori- 
ginal. And it is the more received opinion, 
that these three religions only ought to be 
tolerated on the condition of paying tri- 
bute : others, however, admit the Sabians 
also. Abu Hanifa supposed people of any 
religion might be suffered, except the idol- 
atrous Arabs ; and Malec excepted only 
apostates from Mohammedism. 

The least tribute that can be taken 



Al Beidawi. 



2 Idem 



^ See chap ii. and chap iii. 



Al Beidawi. 



202 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



and they be reduced low. ^^ The Jews say, Ezra is the 
son of God : and the Christians say, Christ is the son of 
God. This is their saying in their mouths : they imitate 
the saying of those who were unbelievers in former times. 
May God resist them. How are they infatuated ! ^^ These 
(the Jews) take their priests and those (the Christians) 
their monks for their lords, besides God, and Christ the 
son of Mary ; although they are commanded to worship 
one God only ; there is no God but he ; far be that from 
him, which they associate with him ! ^^ They seek to 
extinguish the light of God with their mouths ; but God 
willeth no other than to perfect his light, although the 
infidels be averse thereto. ^^ It is he who hath sent his 
apostle with the direction, and true religion : that he may 



from every such person, is generally agreed 
to be a dinar, or about ten shillings a year ; 
nor can he be obliged to pay more, unless 
he consent to it ; and this, they say, ought 
to be laid as well on the poor as on the 
rich ^ But Abu Hanifa decided that the 
rich should pay forty-eight dirhems (twen- 
ty, and sometimes twenty-five, of which 
made a dinar) a-year ; one in middling 
circumstances half that sum ; and a poor 
man, who was able to get his living, a 
quarter of it : but that he who was not able 
to support himself should pay nothing 2. 

31 The Jews say^ Ezra is the son of 
GodJ] This grievous charge against the 
Jews, the commentators endeavour to sup- 
port, by telling us that it is meant of some 
ancient heterodox Jews, or else of some 
Jews of Medina ; who said so for no other 
reason, than for that the law being utterly 
lost, and forgotten, during the Babylonish 
captivity, Ezra having been raised to life, 
after he had been dead one hundred years 3, 
dictated the whole anew to the scribes, 
out of his own memory ; at which they 
greatly marvelled, and declared that he 
could not have done it, unless he were the 
son of God *. Al Beidawi adds, that the 
imputation must be true, because this verse 
was read to the Jews, and they did not 
contradict it ; which they were ready 
enough to do in other instances. 



That Ezra did thus restore, not only the 
Pentateuch, but also the other books of the 
Old Testament, by divine revelation, was 
the opinion of several of the Christian fa- 
thers, who are quoted by Dr. Prideaux ^, 
and of some other writers ^ ; which they 
seem to have first borrowed from a passage 
in that very ancient apocryphal book, 
called (in our English Bible) the second 
book of Esdras ^. Dr. Prideaux ^ tells us, 
that herein the fathers attributed more to 
Ezra than the Jews themselves, who sup- 
pose that he only collected, and set forth a 
correct edition of the scriptures, which he 
laboured much in, and went a great way 
in the perfecting of it. It is not improba- 
ble, however, that the fiction came origi- 
nally from the Jews, though they be now 
of another opinion ; and I cannot fix it 
upon them by any direct proof. For, not 
to insist on the testimony of the Moham- 
medans, (which, yet, I cannot but think 
of some little weight in a point of this 
nature,) it is allowed by the most saga- 
cious critics, that the second book of Ezra 
was written by a Christian indeed 9; but 
yet one who had been bred a Jew, and 
was intimately acquainted with the fables 
of the Rabbins ^^ ; and the story itself is 
perfectly in the taste and way of thinking 
of those men. 

32 For their lords.'] See chap. iii. note. 



1 V. Reland, de jure militari Mohammedanor. p. 17 & 50. ^ ji Beiddwi. 

3 See chap ii. ^ Al Beiddwi, Al Zamakshari, &c. ^ Connect, part i. 

1. v. p. 329. * ^ A thanasius junior f in Synopsi S. Script, t. ii. p. 86. Leontius 

Byzantin. de sectis, p. 428. ^ ch. xiv. 20, &c. ^ Loco citat. » See 

2 Esdras ii. 43—47. and vii. 28, &c. ^^^ V. Dodwelli Dissert. Cyprian. Dissert, 

iv. § ii. Whiston's Essay on the Apostolical Constit. p. 34, 76, and 304, &c. Fabricii 
Codic. Apocryph. Novi Test, part ii. p. 936, &c. 



IX.] AL KORAN. 203 

cause it to appear superior to every other religion, 
although the idolaters be averse thereto. ^^ O true 
believers ! verily many of the priests, and monks, devour 
the substance of men in vanity, and obstruct the way of 
God. But unto those who treasure up gold and silver, 
and employ it not for the advancement of God's true 
religion, denounce a grievous punishment. ^^ On the 
day of judgment their treasures shall be intensely heated 
in the fire of hell, and their foreheads, and their sides, 
and their backs, shall be stigmatized therewith ; and their 
tormentors shall say. This is what ye have treasured up 
for your souls ; taste, therefore, that which ye have trea- 
sured up. ^^ Moreover, the complete number of months 
with God, is twelve months, which were ordained in the 
book of God, on the day whereon he created the heavens 
and the earth : of these, four are sacred. This is the 
right religion : therefore deal not unjustly with yourselves 
therein. But attack the idolaters in all the months as 
they attack you in all ; and know that God is with those 
who fear him. ^^ Verily the transferring of a sacred 
month to another month, is an additional infidelity. The 
unbelievers are led into an error thereby : they allow a 
month to be violated one year, and declare it sacred 
another year, that they may agree in the number of 

35 The priests and monks devour the reasonable that you should observe the 

substance of men^ &c.] By taking of sacred months with regard to those who 

bribes, says al Beidawi ; meaning, proba- do not acknowledge them to be sacred, but 

bly, the money they took for dispensing make war against you therein 2. 

with the commands of God, and by way 38 Verily the transferring of a sacred 

of commutation. month to another month is an additional 

37 The number of months with God is infidelity.'] This was an invention, or 

twelve months.'] According to this passage, innovation, of the idolatrous Arabs, where- 

the intercalation of a month every third Or by they avoided keeping a sacred month, 

second year, which the Arabs had learned when it suited not their conveniency, by 

of the Jews, in order to reduce their lunar keeping a profane month in its stead ; 

years to solar years, is absolutely unlaw- transferring, for example, the observance 

ful. For by this means, they fixed the of Moharram, to the succeeding month 

time of the pilgrimage, and of the fast of Safar. The first man who put this in 

Ramadan, to certain seasons of the year practice, they say, was Jonada Ebn Awf, 

which ought to be ambulatory ^ of the tribe of Kenana^. 

— In the booJc of God.] viz. The pre- These ordinances relating to the months 
served table. were promulgated by Mohammed himself, 

— Four are sacred.] See the Prelim, at the pilgrimage of valediction*. 

Disc. § vii. — They allow a month to be violated 

— Attack the idolaters in all the months^ one year, and declare it sacred another 
as they attack you in all.] For it is not year.] As did Jonada, who made public 

* See Prid. Life of Mahom, p. 65, &c. and the Prelim. Disc. § iv. and vii. 2 ggg 

chap. ii. 3 Al Beidawi, Jallalo' ddin. V. Poc. Spec. p. 323, and the Prelim. Disc. 

§ vii. * Abulfed* vit. Moham. p. 132. 



204 A L KORAN, [chap. 

months which God hath commanded to be kept sacred ; 
and they allow that which God hath forbidden. The evil 
of their actions hath been prepared for them : for God 
directeth not the unbelieving people. ^^ O true believers ! 
what ailed you, that, when it was said unto you. Go forth 
to fight for the religion of God, ye inclined heavily 
towards the earth ? Do ye prefer the present life to that 
which is to come ? But the provision of this life, in 
respect of that which is to come, is but slender. ^^ Un- 
less ye go forth when ye are summoned to war, God will 
punish you with a grievous punishment. *^ And he will 
place another people in your stead, and ye shall not hurt 
him at all ; for God is almighty. ^^ If ye assist not the 
prophet, verily God will assist him, as he assisted him 
formerly, when the unbelievers drove him out of Mecca, 
the second of two : when they were both in the cave ; 
when he said unto his companion. Be not grieved, for 
God is with us. And God sent down his security upon 
him, and strengthened him with armies of angels, whom 
ye saw not. And he made the word of those who believed 
not, to be abased, and the word of God was exalted ; for 
God is mighty and wise. ^^ Go forth to battle, both 
light and heavy, and employ your substance, and your 
persons^ for the advancement of God's religion. This will 

proclamation at the assembly of pilgrims, just ripe, and they had much rather have 

that their gods had allowed Moharram to staid to have gathered them 2. 

be profane ; whereupon they observed it 41 Another people.^ See chap. v. 

not ; but the next year he told them that 42 The second of two.'] That is, having 

the gods had ordered it to be kept only Abu Beer with him. 

sacred 1. — God is with us.] See Prelim. Disc. 

39 When it was said unto you, Go forth § ii. p. 60. 

to fight for the religion of God, ye inclined — Security.] See before, page 200, 

heavily towards the earth, &c.] viz. In the note 27. 

expedition of Tabuc, a town situate about — And he strengthened him with armies 
half-way between Medina and Damascus, of angels, &c.] Who, as some imagine, 
which Mohammed undertook against the guarded him in the cave. Or the words 
Greeks, with an army of thirty thousand may relate to the succours from heaven 
men, in the ninth year of the Hejra. On which Mohammed pretended to have re- 
this expedition the Moslems set out with ceived in several encounters; as at Bedr, the 
great unwillingness, because it was under- war of the ditch, and the battle of Honein. 
taken in the midst of the summer heats, 43 Both light and heavy.] i. e. Whether 
and at a time of great drought and scar- the expedition be agreeable or not ; or 
city ; whereby the soldiers suffered so whether ye have sufficient arms and pro- 
much, that this army was called the dis- visions, or not ; or whether ye be on horse- 
tressed army : besides, their fruits were back or on foot, &c. 

* * Al Beiddwi. ^ Al Belddwi, Jallalo' ddin. V. Abulfed, vit. Moham, 

p. 123. 



IX.] AL KORAN. 205 

be better for you ; if ye know it. ^^ If it had been a 
near advantage and a moderate journey, they had surely 
followed thee ; but the way seemed tedious unto them : 
and yet they will swear by God, saying, If we had been 
able, we had surely gone forth with you. They destroy 
their own souls ; for God knoweth that they are liars. 
*^ God forgive thee ! why didst thou give them leave to 
stay at home, until they who speak the truth, when they 
excuse themselves, had become manifested unto thee, 
and thou hadst know^n the liars ? ^^ They who believe in 
God, and the last day, will not ask leave of thee, to be 
excused from employing their substance, and their per- 
sons, for the advancement of God's true religion ; and 
God knoweth those who fear him. ^^ Verily they only 
will ask leave of thee to stay behind, who believe not in 
God, and the last day, and whose hearts doubt concern- 
ing the faith : wherefore they are tossed to and fro in 
their doubting. ^^ If they had been willing to go forth 
with thee, they had certainly prepared for that purpose a 
provision of arms and necessaries : but God was averse 
to their going forth ; wherefore he rendered them sloth- 
ful ; and it was said unto them. Sit ye still with those 
who sit still. ^^ If they had gone forth with you, they 
had only been a burden unto you, and had run to and fro 
between you, stirring you up to sedition ; and there 
would have been some among you, who would have given 
ear unto them ; and God knoweth the wicked. ^^ They 
formerly sought to raise a sedition, and they disturbed 
thy affairs, until the truth came, and the decree of God 
was made manifest ; although they were averse thereto. 
^^ There is of them who saith unto thee. Give me leave 
to stay behind, and expose me not to temptation. Have 

44 If it had been a near advantage and lah Ebn Obba, and his hypocritical adhe- 
a moderate journey, &c.] That is, had rents, and also three of the Ansars ; for 
there been no difficulties to surmount in which he is here reprehended. 

the expedition of Tabuc, and the march 48 With those who sit still.^ i. e. With 

thither had been short and easy, so that the women and children, and other impo- 

the plunder might have cost them little or tent people. 

no trouble, they w^ould not have been so 50 They formerly sought to raise a 

backward. sedition, &c.] As they did at the battle 

45 Why didst thou give them leave to of Ohod *. 

stay at home, &c.] For Mohammed ex- 51 Expose me not to temptation.!^ By 
cused several of his men, on their request, obliging me to go, against my will, on an 
from going on this expedition ; as Abda'l- expedition, the hardships of which may 

^ See chap. iii. 



206 AL KORAN. [chap. 

they not fallen into temptation at home ? But hell will 
surely encompass the unbelievers. ^^ If good happen 
unto thee, it grieveth them; but if a misfortune befal 
thee, they say. We ordered our business before ; and they 
turn their backs, and rejoice at thy mishap. ^^ Say, 
Nothing shall befal us, but what God hath decreed for 
us ; he is our patron ; and on God let the faithful trust. 
^^ Say, Do ye expect any other should befal us, than one 
of the two most excellent things : either victory or mar- 
tyrdom ? But we expect concerning you, that God inflict 
a punishment on you, either from himself, or by our 
hands. Wait therefore to see what will be the end of both ; 
for we will wait with you. ^^ Say, Expend your money 
in pious uses, either voluntarily, or by constraint, it shall 
not be accepted of with you: because ye are wicked people. 
^^ And nothing hindereth their contributions from being 
accepted of them, but that they believe not in God, and 
his apostle, and perform not the duty of prayer, otherwise 
than sluggishly ; and expend not their money for God's 
service, otherwise than unwillingly. ^^ Let not, therefore, 
their riches, or their children, cause thee to marvel. 
Verily God intendeth only to punish them by these things 
in this world ; and that their souls may depart while they 
are unbelievers. ^^ They swear by God that they are of 
you ; yet they are not of you, but are people who stand 
in fear. ^^ If they find a place of refuge, or caves, or a 
retreating-hole, they surely turn towards the same, and, 
in a headstrong manner, haste thereto. ^^ There is of 
them also who spreadeth ill reports of thee, in relation to 
thy distribution of the alms ; yet, if they receive part 

tempt me to rebel, or to desert. It is i. e. Either by some signal judgment from 

related, that one Jadd Ebn Kais said, that heaven, or by remitting their punishment 

the Ansars well knew he was much given to the true believers. 

to women, and he dared not trust himself 58 That they are of you,'] Viz. Staunch 

with the Greek girls ; wherefore he desired Moslems. 

he might be left behind, and he would — Who stand in fear,] Hypocritically 

assist them with his purse ^ concealing their infidelity, lest ye should 

51 Have they not fallen into temptation chastise them, as ye have done the pro- 
at home ?] Discovering their hypocrisy fessed infidels and apostates ; and yet 
by their backwardness to go to war for the ready to avow their infidelity, when they 
promotion of the true religion. think they may do it with safety. 

52 We ordered our business before.] 60 There is also of them who spreadeth 
That is, we took care to keep out of harm's ill reports of thee in relation to thy distri- 
way, by staying at home. button of the alms^ &c.] This person was 

b A Either from himself, or by our hands.] Abu'l Jowadh the hypocrite, who said 

^ Al Beiddwi, 



IX.] AL KORAN. 207 

thereof, they are well pleased ; but if they receive not a 
part thereof, behold, they are angry. ^^ But if they had 
been pleased with that which God and his apostle had 
given them, and had said, God is our support ; God will 
give unto us of his abundance, and his prophet also; 
verily unto God do we make our supplications : it would 
have been more decent. ^^ Alms are to be distributed 
only unto the poor, and the needy, and those who are 
employed in collecting and distributing the same, and unto 
those whose hearts are reconciled, and for the redemption 
of captives, and unto those who are in debt, and insolvent, 
and for the advancement of God's religion, and unto the 
traveller. This is an ordinance, from God : and God is 
knowing and wise. ^^ There are some of them who injure 
the prophet, and say. He is an ear. Answer, He is an 
ear of good unto you ; he believeth in God, and giveth. 
credit to the faithful, and is a mercy unto such of you 
who believe. But they who injure the apostle of God, 
shall suffer a painful punishment. ^* They swear unto 
you by God, that they may please you ; but it is more 
just that they should please God, and his apostle, if they 
are true believers. ^^ Do they not know that he who 
opposeth God, and his apostle, shall, without doubt, 
be punished with the fire of hell ; and shall remain 
therein for ever ? This will be great ignominy. ^^ The 
hypocrites are apprehensive lest a Sura should be revealed 

Mohammed gave them away among the — Whose hearts are reconciled.^ 

keepers of sheep only ; or, as others sup- That is, who were lately enemies to 

pose, Ebn Dhi'lkhowaifara, who found the faithful, but have now embraced 

fault with the prophet's distribution of the Mohammedism, and entered into amity 

spoils taken at Honein, because he gave with them. For Mohammed, to gain 

them all among the Meccans, to reconcile their hearts, and confirm them in his 

and gain them over to his religion and religion, made large presents to the 

interest ^ chief of the Koreish, out of the spoils at 

62 AlmSi &c.] See what is said as to Honein, as has been just now mentioned 2. 

this point in the Prelim. Disc. § iv. But this law, they say, became of no ob- 

— The poor, and the needy,'] The ligation when the Mohammedan faith was 

commentators make a distinction between established, and stood not in need of such 

these two words in the original. Fakir and methods for its support. 

MesHn : one, they say, signifies him who 63 He is an ear.] i. e. He hears every 

is utterly destitute both of money and thing that we say ; and gives credit to all 

means of livelihood ; the other, one who the stories that are carried to him. 

is in want indeed, but is able to get some- — He is an ear of good unto you.] 

thing towards his own support. But to Giving credit to nothing that may do you 

which of the two words either of these hurt. 

different significations properly belongs, 66 A Sura.] So the Mohammedans 

the critics differ. call a chapter of the Koran 3. 

^ Al Beiddwi. V. Ahulfed. vit. Moham. p. 118, 119. 2 Ahulfed. vit. Moham. 

p. 118, 119. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. § iii. p. 67. 



^08 A L KORAN. [ciiap. 

concerning them, to declare unto them that which is in 
their hearts. Say unto them. Scoff ye ; but God will 
surely bring to light that which ye fear should be dis- 
covered. ^^And if thou ask them the reason of this 
scoffing, they say. Verily we were only engaged in dis- 
course, and jesting among ourselves. Say, Do ye scoff* at 
God and his signs, and at his apostle ? ^^ Offer not an 
excuse ; now are ye become infidels, after your faith. If 
we forgive a part of you, we will punish a part, for that 
they have been wicked doers. ^^ Hypocritical men and 
women are the one of them or the other : they command 
that which is evil, and forbid that which is just, and shut 
their hands from giving alms. They have forgotten God ; 
wherefore he hath forgotten them : verily the hypocrites 
are those who act wickedly. ^^ God denounceth unto the 
hypocrites, both men and women, and to the unbelievers, 
the fire of hell ; they shall remain therein for ever : this 
will be their sufficient reward ; God hath cursed them, 
and they shall endure a lasting torment. ^^ As they who 
have been before you, so are ye. They were superior to 
you in strength, and had more abundance of wealth, and 
of children ; and they enjoyed their portion in this world ; 
and ye also enjoy your portion here, as they who have 
preceded you enjoyed their portion. And ye engage 
yourselves in vain discourses, like unto those wherein 
they engaged themselves. The works of these are vain 
both in this world, and in that which is to come ; and 
these are they who perish. ^^ Have they not been ac- 
quainted with the history of those who have been before 
them ; of the people of Noah, and of Ad, and of Tha- 
MUD, and of the people of Abraham, and of the inha- 
bitants of Madian, and of the cities which were over- 
thrown? Their apostles came unto them with evident 

67 They say^ We were only engaged in of what related to him, or his companions, 

discourse, &c.] It is related that, in the but were only diverting themselves with 

expedition of Tabuc, a company of hypo- indifferent discourse, to beguile the tedi- 

crites, passing near Mohammed, said to ousnessofthe way'. 

one another, Behold that man ; he would 72 The cities which were overthrown.'] 

take the strongholds of Syria : away ! Namely, Sodom and Gomorrah, and the 

away ! which being told the prophet, he other cities which shared their fate, and 

called them to him, and asked them why are thence called al MotaMfdt, or The 

they had said so : whereto they replied, Subverted ^. 
with an oath, that they were not talking 



1 Al Beiddwi. ^ See chap. xi. 



IX ] A L KORAN. 209 

» 

demonstrations : and God was not disposed to treat them 
unjustly ; but they dealt unjustly with their own souls. 
^^And the faithful men, and the faithful women, are 
friends one to another : they command that which is just, 
and they forbid that which is evil ; and they are constant 
at prayer, and pay their appointed alms ; and they obey 
God and his apostle : unto these will God be merciful ; 
for he is mighty and wise. ^^ God promiseth unto the 
true believers, both men and women, gardens through 
which rivers flow, wherein they shall remain for ever ; 
and delicious dwellings in gardens of perpetual abode : 
but good-will from God shall be their most excellent 
reward. This will be great felicity. ^^ O prophet ! wage 
war against the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and be 
severe unto them : for their dwelling shall be hell : an 
unhappy journey shall it be thither ! ^^ They swear by 
God that they said not what they are charged with : yet 
they spake the word of infidelity, and became unbelievers, 
after they had embraced Islam. And they designed that 
which they could not effect ; and they did not disapprove 
of the design for any other reason, than because God, 
and his apostle, had enriched them, of his bounty. If 
they repent, it wiJl be better for them ; but, if they re- 
lapse, God will punish them with a grievous torment, — 

74 Gardens of perpetual abode.] Lite- rode by night over the highest part of al 

Y8i\\y, gardens of Eden ; but the commen- Akaba. But when they were going to 

tators do not take the word Eden in the execute their design. Hodheifa, who fol- 

sense which it bears in Hebrew, as has lowed, and drove the prophet's camel, 

been elsewhere observed ^. which was led by Ammar Ebn Yaser, 

76 They swear by God that they said hearing the tread of camels, and the clash- 
not what they are charged with, &c.] It ing of arms, gave the alarm, upon which 
is related, that al Jallas Ebn Soweid, hear- they fled. Some, however, suppose the 
ing some passages of this chapter, which design here meant, was a plot to expel 
sharply reprehend those who refused to Mohammed from Medina 3. 
go on the above-mentioned expedition of — Because God, and his apostle, had 
Tabuc, declared, that if what Mohammed enriched them.^ For Mohammed's re • 
said of his brethren was true, they were siding at Medina was of great advantage 
worse than asses. Which coming to the to the place, the inhabitants being gene- 
prophet's ear, he sent for him, and denied rally poor, and in want of most conve- 
the words upon oath. But, on the imme- niences of life ; but, on the prophet's 
diate revelation W this passage, he con- coming among them, they became pos- 
fessed his fault, and his repentance was sessed of large herds of cattle, and money 
accepted 2. also. Al Beidawi says, that the above- 

— They designed what they could not named al Jallas, in particular, having a 

effect, &c.~\ The commentators tell us, servant killed, received, by Mohammed's 

that fifteen men conspired to kill Moham- order, no less than ten thousand dirhems, 

med in his return from Tabuc, by pushing or about three hundred pounds, as a fine 

him from his camel into a precipice, as he for the redemption of his blood. 

1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 114. ^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. 

VOL, I. P 



210 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



^^ in this world and in the next ; and they shall have no 
patron on earth, nor any protector. ^^ There are some of 
them who made a covenant with God, saying, Verily if 
he give us of his abundance, we will give alms, and be- 
come righteous people. Yet, when he had given unto 
them of his abundance, they became covetous thereof, 
and turned back, and retired afar off. ^^ Wherefore he 
hath caused hypocrisy to succeed in their hearts, until 
the day whereon they shall meet him ; for that they 
failed to perform unto God that which they had promised 
him, and for that they prevaricated. ^^ Do they not know 
that God knoweth whatever they conceal, and their pri- 
vate discourses ; and that God is the knower of secrets ? 
^^ They who traduce such of the believers as are liberal 
in giving alms beyond what they are obliged, and those 
who find nothing to give, but what they gain by their 
industry : and therefore scoff at them : God shall scoff at 
them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. ^^ Ask 
forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them ; 

are liberalf &c.] Al Beidawi relates that, 
Mohammed exhorting his followers to vo- 
luntary alms, among others, Abda'lrah- 
raan Ebn Awf gave four thousand dirhems, 
which was one half of what he had ; Asem 



78 There are some of them who made a 
covenant with God, &c.] An instance of 
this is given in Thalaba Ebn Hateb, who 
came to Mohammed, and desired him to 
beg of God, that he would bestow riches 
on him. The prophet, at first, advised 
him rather to be thankful for the little 
he had, than to covet more, which might 
become a temptation to him ; but on Tha- 
laba's repeated request, and solemn pro- 
mise that he would make a good use of 
his riches, he was, at length, prevailed on, 
and preferred the petition to God. Tha- 
laba, in a short time, grew vastly rich, 
which Mohammed being acquainted with, 
sent two collectors to gather the alms. 
Other people readily paid them, but when 
they came to Thalaba, and read the in- 
junction to him out of the Koran, he told 
them, that it was not alms, but tribute, or 
next kin to tribute ; and bade them go 
back till he had better considered of it. 
Upon which this passage was revealed ; 
and when Thalaba came afterwards, and 
brought his alms, Mohammed told him, 
that God had commanded him not to 
accept it, and threw dust upon his head, 
saying, This is what thou hast deserved. 
He then offered his alms to Abu Beer, 
who refused to accept them ; as did Omar 
some years after, when he was Khalifa 

81 Who traduce such of the believers as 



Ebn Adda gave an hundred beasts'-loads 
of dates ; and Abu Okail, a saa, which is 
no more than a sixtieth part of a load of 
the same fruit, but was the half of what 
he had earned by a night's hard work. 
This Mohammed accepted ; whereupon 
the hypocrites said, that Abda'lrahman 
and Asem gave what they did out of os- 
tentation, and that God and his apostle 
might well have excused Abu Okail's 
mite ; which occasioned this passage. 

I suppose this collection was made to 
defray the charge of the expedition of 
Tabuc ; towards which, as another writer 
tells us, Abu Beer contributed all that he 
had, and Othman very largely, viz. as it 
is said, three hundred camels for slaugh- 
ter, and a thousand dinars of gold ^. 

82 Ask forgiveness for them, &c.] In 
the last sickness of Abda'llah Ebn Obba, 
the hypocrite (who died in the ninth year 
of the Hejra,) his son, named also Ab- 
da'llah, came and asked Mohammed to 
beg pardon of God for him ; which he did, 
and thereupon the former part of this 
verse was revealed. But the prophet, not 
taking that for a repulse, said, he would 



1 Al Beiddwi. 



2 Abulfed. vit. Moham. p. 123. 



IX.] AL KORAN. J211 

it will be equal. If thou ask forgiveness for them seventy 
times, God will by no means forgive them. This is the 
divine pleasure, for that they believe not in God, and his 
apostle ; and God directeth not the ungodly people. 
^^ They who were left at home in the expedition of Tabuc, 
were glad of their staying behind the apostle of God, and 
were unwilling to employ their substance, and their per- 
sons, for the advancement of God's true religion : and 
they said. Go not forth in the heat. Say, The fire of 
hell will be hotter ; if they understood this. ^* Where- 
fore let them laugh little, and weep much, as a reward 
for that which they have done. ^^If God bring thee 
back unto some of them, and they ask thee leave to go 
forth to war with thee, say. Ye shall not go forth with 
me for the future, neither shall ye fight an enemy with 
me : ye were pleased with sitting at home the first time : 
sit ye at home, therefore, with those who stay behind. 
^^ Neither do thou ever pray over any of them who shall 
die, neither stand at his grave ; for that they believed not 
in God, and his apostle, and die in their wickedness. 
^^ Let not their riches, or their children, cause thee to 
marvel : for God intendeth only to punish them there- 
with in this world ; and that their souls may depart, while 
they are infidels. ^^ When a Sura is sent down, wherein 
it is said. Believe in God, and go forth to war with his 

pray seventy times for him; upon which 86 Neither do thou ever pray over any 

the latter part of the verse was revealed, of them who shall die.^ This passage was 

declaring it would be absolutely in vain, also revealed on account of Abda'llah Ebn 

It may be observed, that the numbers Obba. In his last illness he desired to 

seven and seventy, and seven hundred, see Mohammed, and when he was come, 

are frequently used by the eastern writers, asked him to beg forgiveness of God for 

to signify, not so many precisely, but only him, and requested that his corpse might 

an indefinite number, either greater or be wrapped up in the garment that was 

lesser ^ ; several examples of which are to next his body, (which might have the 

be met with in the scripture 2. same efficacy with the habit of a Francis- 

83 Go not forth in the heat.'] This they can,) and that he would pray over him 

spoke in a scoffing manner to one ano- when dead. Accordingly, when he was 

ther ; because, as has been observed, the dead, the prophet sent his shirt, or inner 

expedition of Tabuc was undertaken in a vestment, to shroud the corpse, and was 

very hot and dry season. going to pray over it, but was forbidden 

85 If God bring thee hack unto some of by these words. Some say they were not 

them^ &c.] That is, if thou return in revealed till he had actually prayed for 

safety to Medina, to the hypocrites, who him*. 

are here called some of them who stayed — Neither stand at his grave.] Either 

behind, because they were not all hypo- by assisting at his funeral, or visiting his 

crites. The whole number is said to have sepulchre, 

been twelve 3. 88 Sura.] See before, p. 207, note 66. 

1 Al BeiddivL 2 Matth. xviii. 22. ^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. 

p 2 



212 A L KORAN. [chap. 

apostle ; those who are in plentiful circumstances among 
them ask leave of thee to stay behind, and say, Suffer us 
to be of the number of those who sit at home. ^^ They 
are well pleased to be with those who stay behind, and 
their hearts are sealed up : wherefore they do not under- 
stand. ^^ But the apostle, and those who have believed 
with him, expose their fortunes and their lives for God's 
service ; they shall enjoy the good things of either life, 
and they shall be happy. ^^ God hath prepared for them 
gardens through which rivers flow; they shall remain 
therein for ever. This will be great felicity. ^^ And cer- 
tain Arabs of the desert came to excuse themselves; 
praying that they might be permitted to stay behind : 
and they sat at home who had renounced God, and his 
apostle. But a painful punishment shall be inflicted on 
such of them as believe not. ^^ In those who are weak, 
or are afflicted With sickness, or in those who find not 
wherewith to contribute to the war, it shall be no crime 
if they stay at home ; provided they behave themselves 
faithfully towards God, and his apostle. There is no 
room to lay blame on the righteous ; for God is gracious 
and merciful. ^^ Nor on those, unto whom, when they 
came unto thee, requesting that thou wouldest supply 
them with necessaries for travelling, thou didst answer, I 
find not wherewith to supply you, returned ; their eyes 
shedding tears for grief, that they found not wherewith to 
contribute to the expedition. ^^ But there is reason to 
blame those who ask leave of thee to sit at home, when 
they are rich. They are pleased to be with those who 
stay behind, and God hath sealed up their hearts : where- 

92 Certain Arabs of the desert came to verty ; as those of Joheina, Mozeina, and 
excuse themselves, &c.] These were the Banu Odhra 2. 

tribes of Asad and Ghatfan, who excused 94 Who requested thee to supply them 

themselves on account of the necessities with 7iecessaries for traveU'mg, &€.] The 

of their fVimilies, which their industry only persons here intended were seven men of 

maintained. But some write, they were the Ansars, who came to Mohammed, and 

the family of Amer Ebn al Tofail, who begged he would give them some patched 

said, that if they went with the army, boots and soled shoes, it being impossible 

the tribe of Tay would take advan- for them to march so barefoot, in such a 

tage of their absence, and fall upon season ; but he told them he could not 

their wives and children, and their cat- supply them : whereupon they went away 

tie 1. weeping. Some, however, say, these were 

93 Who find not wherewith to contri- the Banu Mokren ; and others, Abu Musa, 

bute.^ By reason of their extreme po- and his companions 3. 

•• „_______—_ 

^ J I BcidiuvL ' idem. ^ Idem. 



IX.] AL KORAN. 213 

fore they do not understand. [^XI.] '^^ They will excuse 
themselves unto you, when ye are returned unto them. 
Say, Excuse not yourselves ; we will by no means believe 
you : God hath acquainted us with your behaviour ; and 
God will observe your actions, and his apostle also : and 
hereafter shall ye be brought before him who knoweth 
that which is hidden, and that which is manifest ; and he 
will declare unto you that which ye have done. ^^ They 
will swear unto you by God, when ye are returned unto 
them, that ye may let them alone. Let them alone, 
therefore, for they are an abomination ; and their dwelling 
shall be hell; a reward for that which they have de- 
served. ^^ They will swear unto you, that ye may be well 
pleased with them ; but if ye be well pleased with them, 
verily God will not be well pleased with people who pre- 
varicate. ^^ The Arabs of the desert are more obstinate 
in their unbelief and hypocrisy ; and it is easier for them 
to be ignorant of the ordinances of that which God hath 
sent down unto his apostle: and God is knowing and 
wise. ^^^ Of the Arabs of the desert there is who reckon- 
eth that which he expendeth for the service of God, to 
be as tribute ; and waiteth that some change of fortune 
may befal you. A change for evil shall happen unto 
them : for God both heareth and knoweth. ^^^ And of 
the Arabs of the desert there is who believeth in God, 
and in the last day ; and esteemeth that which he layeth 
out for the service of God to be the means of bringing 
him near unto God, and the prayers of the apostle. Is it 
not unto them the means of a near approach ? God shall 
lead them into his mercy ; for God is gracious and mer- 
ciful. ^^^ As for the leaders, and the first of the Moha- 
JERiN, and the Ansars, and those who have followed 

97 That ye may let them alone.^ And fortune may befal you.'] Hoping that some 

not chastise them. reverse may afford a convenient oppor- 

99 The Arabs of the desert are more tunity of throwing off the burden. 
obstiriate, &C.'] Because of their wild way 101 J7id of the Arabs.'] The Arabs 
of life, the hardness of their hearts, their meant, in the former of these two pas- 
not frequenting people of knowfedge, and sages, are said to have been the tribes of 
the few opportunities they have of being Asad, Ghatfan, and Banu Tamim ; and 
instructed ^. those intended in the latter, Abdallah, 

100 As tribute.] Or a contribution surnamed Dhu'lbajadin, and his people 2. 
exacted by force, the payment of which he 102 The leaders, and the first of the 
can in no wise avoid. Mohdjerm, and the Ansars.] The Mo- 

— And waifclh, that some change of hajerin, or refugees, were those of Mecca, 

^ Al Beiddm. Sec the Prelim. Disc, p, 29 and 36. 2 ji Beiddw'u 



214 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



them in well doing ; God is well pleased with them, and 
they are well pleased in him : and he hath prepared for 
them gardens watered by rivers ; they shall remain therein 
for ever. This shall be great felicity. ^^^ And of the 
Arabs of the desert who dwell round about you, there 
are hypocritical persons : and of the inhabitants of Me- 
dina there are some who are obstinate in hypocrisy. 
Thou knowest them not, O prophet ! but we know them : 
we will surely punish them twice ; afterwards shall they 
be sent to a grievous torment. ^^^ And others have 
acknowledged their crimes. They have mixed a good 
action with another which is bad : peradventure God will 
be turned unto them ; for God is gracious and merciful. 
^^^ Take alms of their substance, that thou mavest cleanse 
them, and purify them thereby ; and pray for them ; for 
thy prayers shall be a security of mind unto them ; and 
God both heareth and knoweth. ^^^ Do they not know 
that God accepteth repentance from his servants, and 
accej)teth alms ; and that God is easy to be reconciled, and 
merciful ? ^^^ Say unto them. Work as ye will ; but God 



who fled thence on account of their re- 
ligion. And the Ansars, or Helpers, were 
those of Medina, who received Moham- 
med, and his followers, into their protec- 
tion, and assisted them against their ene- 
mies. By the leaders of the Mohajerin 
are meant those who believed on Moham- 
med before the Hejra, or early enough to 
pray towards Jerusalem, from which the 
Kebla was changed to the temple of Mecca, 
in the second year of the Hejra; or else 
such of them as were present at the battle 
of Bedr. The leaders of the Ansars were 
those who took the oath of fidelity to him 
at al Akaba, either the first or the second 
time ^. 

103 Of the Arabs of the desert who 
dwell round about you^ &c.] i. e. In the 
neighbourhood of Medina. These were 
the tribes of Joheina, Mozeina, Aslam, 
Ashja and Ghifar 2. 

— We will punish them twice.'} Ei- 
ther by exposing them to public shame, 
and putting them to death ; or by either 
of those punishments and the torment of 
the sepulchre ; or else by exacting alms 
of them by way of fine, and giving them 
corporeal punishment ^. 

104 Others have acknowledged their 



crimes.'] Making no hypocritical excuses 
for them. These were certain men, who 
having stayed at home, instead of accom- 
panying Mohammed to Tabuc, as soon as 
they heard the severe reprehensions and 
threats of this chapter against those who 
had stayed behind, bound themselves to the 
pillars of the mosque, and swore they 
would not loose themselves, till they were 
loosed by the prophet. But when he en- 
tered the mosque to pray, and was informed 
of the matter, he also swore that he would 
not loose them without a particular com- 
mand from God ; whereupon this passage 
was revealed, and they were accordingly 
dismissed*. 

— They have mixed a good action with a 
bad.'] Though they were backward in 
going to war, and held with the hypocrites, 
yet they confessed their crime and repented. 

105 Take alms of their substance, &c.] 
When these persons were loosed, they 
prayed Mohammed to take their substance, 
for the sake of which they had stayed at 
home, as alms, to cleanse them from their 
transgression ; but he told them he had no 
orders to accept any thing from them : 
upon which this verse was sent down, al- 
lowing him to take their alms^ 



1 Al£cid(h 



^ Idem. 



Idem. 



Idem. 



Idem, 



IX.] 



AL KORAN. 



215 



will behold your work, and his apostle also, and the true 
believers: and ye shall be brought before him who knoweth 
that which is kept secret, and that which is made public ; 
and he will declare unto you whatever ye have done. 
^^^ And there are others who wait with suspense the de- 
cree of God ; whether he will punish them, or whether 
he will be turned unto them : but God is knowing and 
wise. '^^ There are some who have built a temple to hurt 
the faithful, and to propagate infidelity, and to foment 
division among the true believers, and for a lurking-place 
for him who hath fought against God, and his apostle, in 
time past ; and they swear, saying. Verily we intended no 
other than to do for the best : but God is witness that 
they do certainly lie. ^^^ Stand not up to pray therein for 
ever. There is a temple founded on piety, from the first 
day of its building. It is more just that thou stand up 
to pray therein : therein are men who love to be purified, 



108 There are others who wait, &c.] 
The persons here intended were the three 
Ansars, whose pardon is granted a little 
below. 

109 There are some who have built a 
temple to hurt the faithful, &c.] When 
Banu Amru Ebn Awf had built the temple 
or mosque of Koba, which will be men- 
tioned by-and-by, they asked Mohammed 
to come and pray in it, and he complied 
with their request. This exciting the envy 
of their brethren, Banu Gamen Ebn Awf, 
they also built a mosque, intending that 
the Imam, or priest, who should officiate 
there, should be Abu Amer, a Christian 
monk; but he dying in Syria, they came 
to Mohammed, and desired he would con- 
secrate, as it were, their mosque, by pray- 
ing in it. The prophet accordingly pre- 
pared himself to go with them, but was 
forbidden by the immediate revelation of 
this passage, discovering their hypocrisy 
and ill design ; whereupon he sent Malec 
Ebn al Dokhshom, Maan Ebn Addi, Amer 
Ebn al Sacan, and al Wahsha, the Ethio- 
pian, to demolish and burn it ; which they 
performed, and made it a dunghill. Ac- 
cording to another account, this mosque 
was built a little before the expedition of 
Tabuc, with a design to hinder Moham- 
med's men from engaging therein ; and 
when he was asked to pray there, he an- 
swered, that he was just setting out on a 



journey ; but when he came back, with 
God's leave, he would do what they de- 
sired ; but when they applied to him 
again, on his return, this passage was re- 
vealed ^ 

— For a lurking-place for him who hath 
fought against God, and his apostle, in time 
past.~\ That is, Abu Amer, the monk, 
who was a declared enemy to Mohammed, 
having threatened him at Ohod, that no 
party should appear in the field against 
him, but he would make one of them ; 
and, to be as good as his word, he con- 
tinued to oppose him till the battle of 
Honein, at which he was present; and 
being put to flight with those of Howazen, 
he retreated into Syria, designing to obtain 
a supply of troops from the Grecian em- 
peror, to renew the war ; but he died at 
Kinnisrin. Others say, that this monk 
w^as a confederate at the war of the ditch, 
and that he fled thence into Syria 2. 

110 There is a temple founded on piety, 
&c.] Viz. That of Koba, a place about 
two miles from Medina, where Mohammed 
rested four days before he entered that 
city, in his flight from Mecca, and where 
he laid the foundation of a mosque ^, 
which was afterwards built by Banu Amru 
Ebn Awf. But according to a different 
tradition, the mosque here meant, was 
that which Mohammed built at Medina. 

— Therein are men who love to he pu^ 



^ Al Beiddivi, Jallalo' ddin. ^ lidem, ^ lid em, Ebn Shonah. V. Ahulfed, 

vit. Moham p. 52. Where the translator, taking this passage of the Koran, which is 
there cited, for the words of his author, has missed the true sense. 



216 AL KORAN. [chap. 

for God loveth the clean. ^^^ Whether, therefore is he 
better, who hath founded his building on the fear of God, 
and his good will ; or he who hath founded his building 
on the brink of a bank of earth, which is washed away 
by waters, so that it falleth with him into the fire of hell ? 
God directeth not the ungodly people. "^ Their building 
which they have built, will not cease to be an occasion of 
doubting in their hearts, until their hearts be cut in 
pieces, and God is knowing and wise. ^^^ Verily God 
hath purchased of the true believers their souls, and their 
substance, promising them the enjoyment of paradise ; on 
condition that they fight for the cause of God : whether 
they slay, or be slain, the promise for the same is assuredly 
due by the law, and the gospel, and the Koran. And 
who performeth his contract more faithfully than God ? 
Rejoice, therefore, in the contract which ye have made. 
This shall be great happiness. ^^^ The penitent, and those 
who serve God, and praise him, and who fast and bow 
down, and worship ; and who command that which is just, 
and forbid that which is evil, and keep the ordinances of 
God, shall likewise be rewarded with paradise : wherefore 
bear good tidings unto the faithful. ^^^ It is not allowed 
unto the prophet, nor those who are true believers, that 

r'lfied.'] Al Beidawi says, that Moham- standing ; and others, of the punishment 

med, walking once with the Mohajenn to they are to expect, either of death in this 

Koba, found the Ansars sitting at the world, or of the rack of the sepulchre, or 

mosque-door, and asked them whether the pains of hell. 

they were believers; and, on their being 115 It is not allowed the prophet — to 

silent, repeated the question : whereupon pray for idolater 3^810,.'] This passage was 

Omar answered, that they were believers ; revealed, as some think, on account of Abu 

and Mohammed demanding whether they Taleb, Mohammed's uncle and great be- 

acquiesced in the judgment Omar had nefactor; who, on his death-bed, being 

made of them, they said, Yes. He then pressed by his nephew to speak a word, 

asked them whether they would be patient which might enable him to plead his cause 

in adversity, and thankful in prosperity ; to before God, that is, to profess Islam, abso- 

which they answering in the affirmative, lutely refused. Mohammed, however, told 

he swore by the Lord of the Caaba, that him, that he would not cease to pray for 

they were true believers. Afterwards he him, till he should be forbidden by God ; 

examined them as to their manner of per- which he was by these words. Others 

forming the legal washings, and particu- suppose the occasion to have been Moham- 

larly, what they did after easing them- med's visiting his mother Amena*s sepul- 

selves : they told him that in such a case chre at al Abwa, soon after the taking of 

they used three stones, and after that Mecca ; for they say, that while he stood 

washed with water ; upon which he re- at the tomb he burst into tears, and said, 

peated these words of the Koran to them. I asked leave of God to visit my mother's 

112 Until their hearts he cut in pieces^] tomb, and he granted it me ; but when I 

Some interpret these words of their being asked leave to pray for her, it w^as denied 

deprived of their judgment and under- me ^ 

^ Al Beidawi. 



IX.] 



AL KORAN, 



217 



they pray for idolaters, although they be of kin, after it is 
become known unto them, that they are inhabitants of 
hell. ^^^ Neither did Abraham ask forgiveness for his 
father, otherwise than in pursuance of a promise which 
he had promised unto him : but when it became known 
unto him, that he was an enemy unto God, he declared 
himself clear of him. Verily Abraham was pitiful and 
compassionate. ^^^ Nor is God disposed to lead people 
into error, after that he hath directed them, until that 
which they ought to avoid is become known unto them ; 
for God knoweth all things. ^^^ Verily unto God belongeth 
the kingdom of heaven, and of earth ; he giveth life, and 
he causeth to die ; and ye have no patron or helper be- 
sides God. ^^^ God is reconciled unto the prophet, and 
unto the Mohajerin, and the Ansars, who followed him 
in the hour of distress, after that it had wanted little but 
that the hearts of a part of them had swerved from their 
duty ; afterwards was he turned unto them ; for he was 
compassionate and merciful towards them. ^^^ And he is 
also reconciled unto the three who were left behind, so 

115 After it is become known unto them, 
that they are inhabitants of hell. ~\ By their 
dying infidels. For otherwise it is not 



only lawful, but commendable, to pray for 
unbelievers, while there are hopes of their 
conversion. 

116 In pursuance of a promise which he 
had promised him.'] Viz. To pray that 
God would dispose his heart to repent- 
ance. Some suppose this was a promise 
made to Abraham, by his father, that he 
w^ould believe in God. For the words may 
be taken either way. 

— When he knew that he was an enemy 
of God, he declared himself clear of him.] 
Desisting to pray for him, when he was 
assured by inspiration that he was not to 
be converted ; or after he actually died an 
infidel. See chap. vi. 

117 ^0 leadj)eople into error.] i. e. To 
consider, or punish them as transgressors. 
This passage was revealed to excuse those 
who had prayed for such of their friends as 
had died idolaters, before it was forbidden; 
or else, to excuse certain people who had 
ignorantly prayed towards the first Kebla, 
and drank wine, &c. 

119 God is reconciled unto the prophet, 
&c.] Having forgiven the crime they 
committed, in giving the hypocrites leave 



to be absent from the expedition to Tabuc ; 
or, for the other sins which they might, 
through inadvertence, have been guilty of. 
For the best men have need of repent- 
ance ^. 

— In the hour of distress,] Viz. In the 
expedition of Tabuc ; wherein Moham- 
med's men were driven to such extremities, 
that (besides what they endured, by reason 
of the excessive heat) ten men were obliged 
to ride by turns on one camel ; and provisions 
and water were so scarce, that two men 
divided a date between them, and they 
were obliged to drink the water out of the 
camels* stomachs 2. 

120 The three who were left behind.] 
Or, as it may be translated, who were left 
in suspense, whether they should be par- 
doned, or not^. These were three An- 
sars, named Caab Ebn Malec, Helal Ebn 
Omeyya, and Merara Ebn Rabi, who went 
not with Mohammed to Tabuc, and were, 
therefore, on in his return, secluded from 
the fellowship of the other Moslems ; the 
prophet forbidding any to salute them, or 
to hold discourse with them. Under which 
interdiction they continued fifty days, till, 
on their sincere repentance, they were, at 
length, discharged from it, by the revela- 
tion of this passage ^ 



1 Al Beiddwi. 2 Uem. s gge before, p. 215, note 108. 

* Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin, Ahidfed. vit. Moh. p. 133, 136. 
VOL. I, Q 



218 A L KORAN. [chap. 

that the earth became too strait for them, notwithstanding 
its spaciousness, and their souls became straitened within 
them, and they considered that there was no refuge from 
God, otherwise than by having recourse unto him. Then 
was he turned unto them, that they might repent: for 
God is easy to be reconciled, and merciful. ^^^ O true 
believers ! fear God, and be with the sincere. ^^^ There 
was no reason why the inhabitants of Medina, and the 
Arabs of the desert, who dwell around them, should stay 
behind the apostle of God, or should prefer themselves 
before him. This is unreasonable : because they are not 
distressed either by thirst, or labour, or hunger, for the 
defence of God's true religion ! neither do they stir a 
step, which may irritate the unbelievers ; neither do they 
receive from the enemy any damage, but a good work is 
written down unto them for the same; for God sufFereth 
not the reward of the righteous to perish. ^^^ And they 
contribute not any sum, either small or great, nor do they 
pass a valley, but it is written down unto them, that God 
may reward them with a recompense exceeding that which 
they have wrought. ^^^ The believers are not obliged to 
go forth to war all together ; if a part of every band of 
them go not forth, it is that they may diligently instruct 
themselves in their religion; and may admonish their 
people, when they return unto them, that they may take 
heed to themselves. ^^^ O true believers ! wage war 
against such of the infidels as are near you ; and let them 

122 Or should prefer themselves before exact knowledge of the several points of 

Mm.] By not caring to share with him their religion, so as to be enabled to in- 

the dangers and fatigues of war. Al Bei- struct such as by reason of their continual 

dawi tells us, that after Mohammed had employment in the wars, have no other 

set out for Tabuc, one Abu Kahithama, means of information. They say, that 

sitting in his garden, where his wife, a after the preceding passages were revealed, 

very beautiful woman, had spread a mat reprehending those who had stayed at home 

for him in the shade, and had set new during the expedition of Tabuc, every man 

dates and fresh water before him, after a went to war; so that the study of religion, 

little reflection^ cried out. This is not well, which is rather more necessary for the de- 

that I should thus take my ease and plea- fence and propagation of the faith, than 

sure, while the apostle of God is exposed even arms themselves, became wholly laid 

to the scorching of the sun^beams, and the aside and neglected ; to prevent which, 

inclemencies of the air ; and immediately for the future, a convenient number are 

mounting his camel, took his sword and hereby directed to be left behind, that they 

lance, and went to join the army. may have leisure to prosecute their studies. 

124 7/" a part of every hand of them go 125 Such of the infidels as are near you.~\ 

not forth, &c.] That is, if some of every Either of your kindred or neighbours; for 

tribe or town, be left behind, the end of these claim your pity and care in the first 

their being so left, is, that they may apply place, and their conversion ought first to 

Ihemselves to study, and attain a more be endeavoured. The persons particularly 



IX.] AL KORAN. 219 

find severity in you : and know that God is with those 
who fear him. ^^^ Whenever a Sura is sent down, there 
are some of them who say. Which of you hath this caused 
to increase in faith ? It will increase the faith of those 
who believe, and they shall rejoice. ^^^ But unto those in 
whose hearts there is an infirmity, it will add farther 
doubt unto their present doubt ; and they shall die in 
their infidelity. ^^^ Do they not see that they are tried 
every year once or twice ? yet they repent not, neither 
are they warned. And whenever a Sura is sent down, 
they look at one another, saying. Doth any one see you ? 
then do they turn aside. ^^^ God shall turn aside their 
hearts from the truth ; because they are a people who do 
not understand. ^^^ Now hath an apostle come unto you 
of our own nation, an excellent person : it is grievous unto 
him that ye commit wickedness ; he is careful over you, 
and compassionate and merciful towards the believers. 
^^^ If they turn back, say, God is my support : there is no 
God but he. On him do I trust ; and he is the Lord of 
the magnificent throne. 

meant in this passage, are supposed to — They look at one another, &c.] They 

have been the Jews of the tribes of Ko- wink at one another to rise, and leave the 

reidha and Nadhir and those of Khaibar ; prophet's presence, if they think they can 

or else the Greeks of Syria ^ do it without being observed ; to avoid 

— Severity.'] Or fierceness in war. hearing the severe and deserved reproofs 

128 They are tried every year once or which they apprehend in every new reve- 

twice.'] i. e- By various kinds of trials ; lation. The persons intended are the 

or by being called forth to war, and by hypocritical Moslems, 

being made witnesses of God's miraculous 130 Our own nation.] See chap. iii. 

protection of the faithful. P- 71j note 165. 

' Al Beiddwi, 



END OF VOL. I. 



Gilbert & Rivington, Printers, St. John's Square, Clerkenwell. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



Chap. Page 

10. Intitled, Jonas ; containing 108 Verses 1 

11. Intitled, Hud ; containing 123 Verses 13 

12. Intitled, Joseph ; containing 1 J 1 Verses 29 

1 3. Intitled, Thunder ; containing 45 Verses 46 

14. Intitled, Abraham ; containing 52 Verses . • • • 52 

15. Intitled, Al Hejr ; containing 98 Verses 59 

16. Intitled, The Bee ; containing 128 Verses 65 

17. Intitled, The Night- Journey ; containing 110 Verses 81 

18. Intitled, The Cave ; containing 110 Verses 95 

19. Intitled, Mary ; containing 98 Verses 109 

20. Intitled, T. H. ; containing 135 Verses 118 

21. Intitled, The Prophets ; containing 112 Verses 130 

22. Intitled, The Pilgrimage ; containing 79 Verses 142 

23. Intitled, The True Believers ; containing 120 Verses 152 

24. Intitled, Light ; containing 65 Verses • 160 

25. Intitled, Al Forkan ; containing 77 Verses 171 

26. Intitled, The Poets ; containing 227 Verses 179 

27. Intitled, The Ant ; containing 93 Verses 189 

28. Intitled, The Story ; containing 87 Verses 199 

29. Intitled, The Spider ; containing 68 Verses 210 

30. Intitled, The Greeks ; containing 60 Verses 217 

31. Intitled, Lokman ; containing 34 Verses 223 

32. Intitled, Adoration ; containing 30 Verses 228 

33. Intitled, The Confederates ; containing 70 Verses 231 

34. Intitled, Saba ; containing 54 Verses 245 

35. Intitled, The Creator ; containing 46 Verses 252 

36. Intitled, Y. S. ; containing 83 Verses 257 

37. Intitled, Those who rank themselves in order; containing 180 Verses 264 

38. Intitled, S. ; containing 88 Verses 272 

39. Intitled, The Troops ; containing 75 Verses 279 

40. Intitled, The True Believer ; containing 86 Verses 287 

41. Intitled, Are distinctly explained ; containing 54 Verses 296 

42. Intitled, Consultation ; containing 53 Verses 302 

43. Intitled, The Ornaments of Gold ; containing ^^ Verses 307 

44. Intitled, Smoke ; containing 58 Verses 314 

,45. Intitled, The Kneeling ; containing 37 Verses » • 317 

46. Intitled, Al Ahkaf ; containing 35 Verses 320 

47. Intitled, Mohammed ; containing 38 Verses , 325 

48. Intitled, The Victory ; containing 29 Verses 330 

49. Intitled, The Inner Apartments ; containing 18 Verses 335 

50. Intitled, K. ; containing 45 Verses 338 

51. Intitled, The Dispersing ; containing 60 Verses 342 

62. Intitled, The Mountain ; containing 49 Verses 345 

53. Intitled, The Star ; containing 62 Verses . . , 347 

54. Intitled, The Moon ; containing 55 Verses 351 

55. Intitled, The Merciful ; containing 78 Verses 354 

56. Intitled, The Inevitahle ; containing 96 Verses 358 

57. Intitled, Iron ; containing 29 Verses 362 

58. Intitled, She who disputed ; containing 22 Verses 366 

59. Intitled, The Emigration ; containing 24 Verses 370 

60. Intitled, She who is tried ; containing 13 Verses 374 

61 . Intitled, Battle Array ; containing 14 Verses 377 

62. Intitled, The Assembly ; containing 1 1 Verses 379 

63. Intitled, The Hypocrites ; containing 11 Verses 380 



IV CONTENTS. 

Chap. Page 

64. Intitled, Mutual Deceit ; containing 18 Verses 382 

65. Intitled, Divorce ; containing 13 Verses 384 

Qiy. Intitled, Prohibition ; containing 13 Verses. , 386 

67. Intitled, The Kingdom ; containing 30 Verses 389 

68. Intitled, The Pen ; containing 52 Verses 391 

69. Intitled, The InfaUible ; containing 52 Verses 395 

70. Intitled, The Steps ; containing 44 Verses , 397 

71. Intitled, Noah ; containing 29 Verses 399 

72. Intitled, The Genii ; containing 28 Verses 401 

73. Intitled, The Wrapped up ; containing 22 Verses 403 

74. Intitled, The Covered ; containing 55 Verses 405 

75. Intitled, The Resurrection ; containing 40 Verses 408 

76. Intitled, Man ; containing 31 Verses , 410 

77- Intitled, Those which are sent ; containing 50 Verses 412 

78. Intitled, The News ; containing 40 Verses •••••••..•••• 414 

79. Intitled, Those who tear forth ; containing 46 Verses 415 

80. Intitled, He frowned ; containing 42 Verses , 417 

81. Intitled, The folding up ; containing 28 Verses 419 

82. Intitled, The Cleaving in sunder ; containing 19 Verses 420 

83. Intitled, Those who give short Measure or Weight ; containing 36 Verses . . 421 

84. Intitled, The Rending in sunder ; containing 23 Verses* 423 

85. Intitled, The Celestial Signs ; containing 21 Verses 424 

^6. Intitled, The Star which appeared by Night; containing 17 Verses 425 

87. Intitled, The Most High ; containing 19 Verses , 426 

88. Intitled, The Overwhelming ; containing 26 Verses 427 

89. Intitled, The Day-Break ; containing 30 Verses 428 

90. Intitled, The Territory ; containing 20 Verses 431 

91. Intitled, The Sun ; containing 15 Verses 432 

92. Intitled, The Night ; containing 21 Verses ib. 

93. Intitled, The Brightness ; containing 11 Verses 433 

94. Intitled, Have we not opened ; containing 8 Verses 434 

95. Intitled, The Fig ; containing 6 Verses 435 

96. Intitled, Congealed Blood ; containing 19 Verses 436 

97. Intitled, Al Kadr ; containing 5 Verses 437 

98. Intitled, The Evidence ; containing 8 Verses 438 

99. Intitled, The Earthquake ; containing 8 Verses 439 

100. Intitled, The War-Horses, which run swiftly; containing 11 Verses 440 

101. Intitled, The Striking; containing 10 Verses ib. 

102. Intitled, The emulous Desire of Multiplying; containing 8 Verses. 441 

103. Intitled, The Afternoon ; containing 3 Verses 442 

104. Intitled, The Slanderer ; containing 8 Verses ib. 

105. Intitled, The Elephant ; containing 5 Verses 443 

106. Intitled, Koreish ; containing 4 Verses 445 

107. Intitled, Necessaries ; containing 7 Verses 446 

108. Intitled, Al Cawtiiar ; containing 3 Verses , ib. 

109. Intitled, The Unbelievers ; containing 6 Verses 447 

110. Intitled, Assistance ; containing 3 Verses 448 

111. Intitled, Abu Laheb ; containing 5 Verses ib. 

112. Intitled, The Declaration of God's Unity ; containing 5 Verses 449 

113. Intitled, The Day-Break ; containing 5 Verses 450 

1 14. Intitled, Men ; containing 6 Verses 451 



AL 

KORAN. 



CHAPTER X. 

INTITLED JONAS ; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ A. L. R. ^ These are the signs of the wise book. ^ It 
is a strange thing unto the men of Mecca, that we have 
revealed our will unto a man from among them, saying, 
Denounce threats unto men if they believe not; and 
bear good tidings unto those who believe, that on the 
merit of their sincerity they have an interest with their 
Lord. The unbelievers say, This is manifest sorcery. 
^ Verily your Lord is God, who hath created the heavens 
and the earth in six days ; and then ascended his throne, 
to take on himself the government of all things. There 
is no intercessor, but by his permission. This is God, 
your Lord ; therefore serve him. Will ye not con- 
sider ? ^ Unto him shall ye all return, according to the 
certain promise of God ; for he produceth a creature, and 
then causeth it to return again; that he may reward 

Title.'] This prophet is mentioned to- — This is manifest sorcery.'] Meaning 

wards the end of the chapter. the Koran. According to the reading of 

1 A. L. R.] See the Prelim. Disc, some copies, the words may be rendered, 

§ iii. This man (i. e. Mohammed) is no other 

3 A man from among them.] And not than a manifest sorcerer, 

one of the most powerful among them 4 There is no intercessor but hy his per- 

neither ; so that the Koreish said it was a mission.] These words were revealed to 

wonder God could find out no other mes- refute the foolish opinion of the idolatrous 

senger than the orphan pupil of Abu Meccans, who imagined their idols were 

Taleb i. intercessors with God for them. 

1 Al Beiddwi. 
VOL. II. B 



2 AL KORAN. [chap. 

those who believe, and do that which is right, with equity. 
But as for the unbelievers, they shall drink boiling water, 
and they shall suffer a grievous punishment, for that they 
have disbelieved. ^ It is he who hath ordained the sun 
to shine by day, and the moon for a light by night ; and 
hath appointed her stations, that ye might know the 
number of years, and the computation of time. God 
hath not created this, but with truth. He explaineth 
his signs unto people who understand. ^Moreover in 
the vicissitude of night and day, and whatever God hath 
created in heaven and earth, are surely signs unto men 
who fear him. ^ Verily they who hope not to meet us 
at the last day, and delight in this present life, and rest 
securely in the same, and who are negligent of our signs ; 
^ their dwelling shall be hell-fire, for that which they have 
deserved. ^^ But as to those who believe, and work righ- 
teousness, their Lord will direct them because of their 
faith ; they shall have rivers flowing through gardens of 
pleasure. ^^ Their prayer therein shall be. Praise be unto 
thee, O God ! and their salutation therein shall be. Peace ! 
and the end of their prayer shall be. Praise be unto God, 
the Lord of all creatures ! ^^ If God should cause evil 
to hasten unto men, according to their desire of hasten- 
ing good, verily their end hath been decreed. Wherefore 
we suffer those who hope not to meet us at the resurrec- 
tion, to wander amazedly in their error. ^^When evil 
befalleth a man, he prayeth unto us lying on his side, or 
sitting, or standing : but when we deliver him from his 
affliction, he continueth his former course of life, as though 
he had not called upon us to defend him against the evil 
which had befallen him. Thus was that which the trans- 
gressors committed, prepared for them. ^^ We have for- 
merly destroyed the generations who were before you, O 
men of Mecca, when they had acted unjustly, and our 
apostles had come unto them with evident miracles, and 
they would not believe. Thus do we reward the wicked 
people. ^^ Afterwards we did cause you to succeed them 
in the earth; that we might see how ye would act. 

II Their salutation.^ Either the mu- 13 Lyingy or sittings or standing.'] i.e. 

tual salutation of the blessed to one ano- in all postures, and at all times, 
ther, or that of the angels to the blessed. 



X.] A L KORAN. 3 

^^ When our evident signs are recited unto them, they 
who hope not to meet us at the resurrection, say. Bring 
a different Koran from this ; or make some change there- 
in. Answer, It is not fit for me, that I should change it 
at my pleasure ; I follow that only which is revealed unto 
me. Verily I fear, if I should be disobedient unto my 
Lord, the punishment of the great day. ^^ Say, If God 
had so pleased, I had not read it unto you, neither had I 
taught you the same. I have already dwelt among you 
to the age of forty years, before I received it. Do ye 
not therefore understand ? ^^ And who is more unjust 
than he who deviseth a lie against God, or accuseth his 
signs of falsehood ? Surely the wicked shall not prosper. 
^^ They worship besides God, that which can neither hurt 
them nor profit them ; and they say. These are our in- 
tercessors with God. Answer, Will ye tell God that 
which he knoweth not, neither in heaven nor in earth ? 
Praise be unto him ! and far be that from him, which 
they associate with him ! ^^ Men were professors of one 
religion only, but they dissented therefrom; and if a 
decree had not previously issued from thy Lord, deferring 
their punishment, verily the matter had been decided 
between them, concerning which they disagreed. ^^ They 
say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his Lord, 
we will not believe. Answer, Verily that which is hidden 
is known only unto God : wait therefore the pleasure of 
God ; and I also will wait with you. ^^ And when we 
caused the men of Mecca to taste mercy, after an afflic- 
tion which had befallen them, behold, they devised a 

IT To the age of forty years."] For so or companions either in heaven or on 
old was Mohammed before he took upon earth, since he acknowledgeth none ? 
him to be a prophet ^ ; during which time 20 Men were professors of one religion 
his fellow -citizens well knew that he had only, &c.] That is to say, the true reli- 
not applied himself to learning of any gion, or Islam, which was generally pro- 
sort, nor frequented learned men, nor had fessed, as some say, till Abel was mur- 
ever exercised himself in composing verses, dered, or, as others, till the days of Noah, 
or orations, whereby he might acquire the Some suppose the first ages after the flood 
art of rhetoric, or elegance of speech 2. A are here intended ; others, the state of 
flagrant proof, says al Beidawi, that this religion in Arabia, from the time of Abra- 
book could be taught him by none but God. ham to that of Amru Ebn Lohai, the great 

19 Intercessors.'] See the Prelim. Disc, introducer of idolatry into that country. 
§ i. p. 17. 22 And when we caused those of Mecca 

— Will ye tell God that which he know- to taste mercy after affliction, &c.] For it 

eth not, &c.] Viz. That he hath equals is said that they were afflicted with a 

^ See the Prelim. Disc. p. 50. Abulfed. vit. Moh. c. 7- ^ See the Prelim. 

Disc. p. 32. 3 Al Belddwi. 

B 2 



4 AL KORAN. [chap. 

stratagem against our signs. Say unto them, God is 
more swift in executing a stratagem than ye. Verily 
our messengers write down that which ye deceitfully de- 
vise. ^^It is he who hath given you conveniences for 
travelling by land and by sea ; so that ye be in ships, 
which sail with them, with a favourable wind, and they 
rejoice therein. And when a tempestuous wind over- 
taketh them, and waves come upon them from every 
side, and they think themselves to be encompassed with 
inevitable dangers : they call upon God, exhibiting the 
pure religion unto him, and saying. Verily, if thou deliver 
us from this peril, we will be of those who give thanks. 
^^ But when he hath delivered them, behold, they behave 
themselves insolently in the earth, without justice. O 
men, verily the violence which ye commit against your 
own souls, is for the enjoyment of this present life only ; 
afterwards unto us shall ye return, and we will declare 
unto you that which ye have done. ^^ Verily the likeness 
of this present life is no other than as water, which we 
send down from heaven, and wherewith the productions 
of the earth are mixed, of which men eat, and cattle also, 
until the earth receive its vesture, and be adorned with 
various plants : the inhabitants thereof imagine that they 
have power over the same ; but our command cometh 
unto it by night, or by day, and we render it as though 
it had been mowen, as though it had not yesterday 
abounded with fruits. Thus do we explain our signs 
unto people who consider. ^^God inviteth unto the 
dwelling of peace, and directeth whom he pleaseth into 
the right way. ^^ They who do right shall receive a most 
excellent reward, and a superabundant addition ; neither 
blackness nor shame shall cover their faces. These shall 
be the inhabitants of paradise, they shall continue therein 

dearth for seven years, so that they were fears directing them in such an extre- 

yery near perishing ; but were no sooner mity, to ask help of him only who could 

relieved by God's sending them plenty, give it. 

than they began again to charge Moham- 26 Unto the dwelling of peace.'] viz. Pa- 

med with imposture, and to ridicule his radise. 

revelations^. 27 And a superabundant addition.] For 

22 Our messengers.] i. e. The guar- their reward will vastly exceed the merit 

dian angels. of their good works. Al Ghazali supposes 

33 Exhibiting the pure religion unto this additional recompense will be the 

him.] That is, applying themselves to beatific vision 2. 

God only, and neglecting their idols ; their — Blackness.] See Prelim. Disc. p. 102. 

I 41 Beiddwi. ^ See the Prelim. Disc. p. 118. 



X.] AL KORAN. 5 

for ever. But they who commit evil shall receive the 
reward of evil, equal thereunto, and they shall be covered 
with shame (for they shall have no protector against 
God), as though their faces were covered with the pro- 
found darkness of the night. These shall be the inha- 
bitants of hell-fire ; they shall remain therein for ever. 
^^ On the day of the resurrection we will gather them all 
together : then will we say unto the idolaters, Get ye to 
your place, ye and your companions : and we will sepa- 
rate them from one another : and their companions shall 
say unto them, Ye did not worship us, ^^ and God is a 
sufficient witness between us and you ; neither did we 
mind your worshipping of us. ^^ There shall every soul 
experience that which it shall have sent before it, and 
they shall be brought before God, their true Lord ; and 
the false deities which they vainly imagined, shall disap- 
pear from before them. ^^ Say, Who provideth you food 
from heaven and earth ? or who hath the absolute power 
over the hearing and the sight ? and who bringeth forth 
the living from the dead, and bringeth forth the dead 
from the living ? and who governeth all things ? They 
will surely answer, God. Say, Will ye not therefore fear 
him ? ^^ This is therefore God, your true Lord : and 
what remaineth there after truth, except error ? How 
therefore are ye turned aside from the truth ? ^^ This is 
the word of the Lord verified upon them who do wickedly; 
that they believe not. ^^ Say, Is there any of your 
companions who produceth a creature, and then causeth 
it to return unto himself? Say, God produceth a crea- 
ture, and then causeth it to return unto himself. How 
therefore are ye turned aside from his worship ? ^^ Say, 
Is there any of your companions who directeth unto 
the truth ? Say, God directeth unto the truth. Whether 
is he, therefore, who directeth unto the truth, more 

— Equal tliereu7ito.] i. e. Though the pretended, that God will, at the last day, 
blessed will be rewarded beyond their de- enable the idols to speak, and that they 
serts, yet God will not punish any beyond will thus reproach their worshippers, in- 
their demerits, but treat them with the stead of interceding for them, as they 
exactest justice. hoped. Some suppose the angels, who 

28 And your companions.^ That is, were also objects of the worship of the 

your idols, or the companions which ye Pagan Arabs, are particularly intended in 

attributed unto God. this place. 

— Ye did not worship us.'\ But ye 30 Shall experience'"] Some copies, in- 
really worshipped your own lusts ; and stead of Tahluy read Tatlu, i. e. shall foU 
were seduced to idolatry, not by us, but low or meditate upon. 

by your own superstitious fancies. It is — Before it.'] See chap. ii. note. 



6 AL KORAN. [chap. 

worthy to be followed ; or he who directeth not, unless 
he be directed ? What aileth you, therefore, that ye 
judge as ye do ? ^^ And the greater part of them follow 
an uncertain opinion only ; but a mere opinion attaineth 
not unto any truth. Verily God knoweth that which 
they do. ^^ This Koran could not have been composed 
by any except God ; but it is a confirmation of that which 
was revealed before it, and an explanation of the scrip- 
ture ; there is no doubt thereof; sent down from the 
Lord of all creatures. ^^ Will they say, Mohammed hath 
forged it ? Answer, Bring therefore a chapter like unto 
it ; and call whom ye may to your assistance, besides God, 
if ye speak truth. ^^ But they have charged that with 
falsehood, the knowledge whereof they do not compre- 
hend, neither hath the interpretation thereof come unto 
them. In the same manner did those who were before 
them, accuse their prophets of imposture ; but behold, 
what was the end of the unjust. ^^ There are some of 
them who believe therein ; and there are some of them 
who believe not therein : and thy Lord well knoweth the 
corrupt doers. ^^ If they accuse thee of imposture, say I 
have my work, and ye have your work ; ye shall be clear 
of that which I do, and I will be clear of that which ye 
do. ^^ There are some of them who hearken unto thee ; 
but wilt thou make the deaf to hear, although they do 
not understand ? *^ And there are some of them who 
look at thee ; but wilt thou direct the blind, although they 
see not ? ^^ Verily, God will not deal unjustly with men 
in any respect : but men deal unjustly with their own 
souls. ^^ On a certain day he will gather them together, 
as though they had not tarried above an hour of a day : 
they shall know one another. Then shall they perish 

40 There are some of them who believe account of certain Meccans, who seemed 

therein, &c.] i. e. There are some of them to attend while Mohammed read the Ko- 

who are inwardly well satisfied of the ran to them, or instructed them in any 

truth of thy doctrine, though they are so point of religion, but yet were as far from 

wicked as to oppose it ; and there are being convinced or edified, as if they had 

others of them who believe it not, through not heard him at all 2. 

prejudice and want of consideration. Or 44 God will not deal unjustly with men : 

the passage may be understood in the but they deal unjustly with their own souls.^ 

future sense, of some who should after- For God deprives them not of their senses, 

wards believe, and repent, and of others or understanding: but they corrupt and 

who should die infidels ^ make an ill use of them. 

42 There are some of them who hearken 45 As though they had not tarried,'} 

unto thee ; but wilt thou make the deaf to Either in the world, or in the grave. 

heary Sec] These words were revealed on — They shall knoiv one another J] As 

1 At Beiddivi, ^ Idem. See chap. 5. 



X.] AL KORAN. 7 

who have denied the meeting of God ; and were not 
rightly directed. ^^ Whether we cause thee to see a part 
of the punishment wherewith we have threatened them, 
or whether we cause thee to die before thou see it ; unto 
us shall they return : then shall God be witness of that 
which they do. ^^ Unto every nation hath an apostle 
been sent : and when their apostle came, the matter was 
decided between them with equity ; and they were not 
treated unjustly. ^^ The unbelievers say, When will this 
threatening be made good, if ye speak truth ? ^^ Answer, 
I am able neither to procure advantage unto myself, nor 
to avert mischief from me, but as God pleaseth. Unto 
every nation is a fixed term decreed ; when their term 
therefore is expired, they shall not have respite for an 
hour, neither shall their punishment be anticipated. ^^ Say, 
Tell me ; if the punishment of God overtake you by night, 
or by day, what part thereof will the ungodly wish to be 
hastened ? ^^ When it falleth on you, do ye then believe 
it ? Now do ye believe, and wish it far from you, whereas 
ye formerly desired it should be hastened ? ^^ Then shall 
it be said unto the wicked. Taste ye the punishment of 
eternity ; would ye receive other than the reward of that 
which ye have wrought ? ^^ They will desire to know of 
thee, w^hether this be true. Answer, Yea, by my Lord, 
it is certainly true ; neither shall ye weaken God's power, 
so as to escape it. ^^ Verily, if every soul which hath 
acted wickedly had whatever is on the earth, it would 
willingly redeem itself therewith at the last day. Yet 
they will conceal their repentance, after they shall have 
seen the punishment ; and the matter shall be decided 
between them with equity ; and they shall not be unjustly 
treated. ^^ Doth not whatsoever is in heaven and on 

if it were but a little while since they 54 They will conceal their repentance.^ 
parted. But this will happen during the To hide their shame and regret ^ ; or be- 
first moments only of the resurrection ; cause their surprise and astonishment will 
for afterwards the terror of the day will deprive them of the use of speech 3. Some, 
disturb and take from them all knowledge however, understand the verb which is 
of one another i. here rendered Will conceal, in the con- 
47 The matter was decided between them trary signification, which it sometimes 
with equity.'] By delivering the prophet, bears ; and then it must be translated, 
and those who believed on him, and de- They will openly declare their repent- 
stroying the obstinate infidels. ance, &c. 

1 Al Beiddwi, See chap. 6. 2 Jallalo' ddin. ^ Al Beiddwi, 



8 AL KORAN. [chap. 

earth belong unto God? Is not the promise of God 
true ? But the greater part of them know it not. ^^ He 
giveth life, and he causeth to die ; and unto him shall ye 
all return. ^^ O men, now hath an admonition come unto 
you from your Lord, and a remedy for the doubts which 
are in your breasts ; and a direction, and mercy unto the 
true believers. ^^ Say, Through the grace of God, and 
his mercy : therein therefore let them rejoice : this will 
be better than what they heap together of worldly riches. 
^^ Say, Tell me ; of that which God hath sent down unto 
you for food, have ye declared part to be lawful, and other 
part to be unlawful ? Say, Hath God permitted you to 
make this distinction ? or do ye devise a lie concerning 
God ? ^^ But what will be the opinion of those who 
devise a lie concerning God, on the day of the resurrec- 
tion ? Verily God is endued with beneficence towards 
mankind; but the greater part of them do not give 
thanks. ^^ Thou shalt be engaged in no business, neither 
shalt thou be employed in meditating on any passage 
of the Koran, nor shall ye do any action, but we will 
be witnesses over you, when ye are employed therein. 
Nor is so much as the weight of an ant hidden from thy 
Lord in earth or in heaven : neither is there any thing 
lesser than that, or greater, but it is written in the per- 
spicuous book. ^^ Are not the friends of God, the per- 
sons on whom no fear shall come, and who shall not be 
grieved ? ^^ They who believe, and fear God, shall receive 
good tidings in this life, and in that which is to come. 
There is no change in the words of God. This shall be 
great felicity. ^^ Let not their discourse grieve thee ; for 
all might belongeth unto God; he both heareth and 
knoweth. ^^ Is not whoever dwelleth in heaven and on 
earth, subject unto God ? What therefore do they follow, 
who invoke idols, besides God ? They follow nothing but 
a vain opinion ; and they only utter lies. ^^ It is he who 
hath ordained the night for you, that ye may take your 
rest therein, and the clear day for labour : verily herein 
are signs unto people who hearken. ^^ They say, God 

69 Unlawful.^ See chap. vi. served table, wherein God's decrees are 

61 An antf &c.] See chap. iv. recorded. 

— The perspicuous book.] The pre- 64 Their discourse.'] Viz. The impious 

and rebellious talk of the infidels. 



X.] AL KORAN. 9 

hath begotten children : God forbid ! He is self-sufficient. 
Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on 
earth : ye have no demonstrative proof of this. Do ye 
speak of God that which ye know not ? ^^ Say, Verily they 
who imagine a lie concerning God, shall not prosper. 
^^ They may enjoy a provision in this world ; but after- 
wards unto us shall they return, and we will then cause 
them to taste a grievous punishment, for that they were 
unbelievers. ^^ Rehearse unto them the history of Noah : 
when he said unto his people, O my people, if my stand- 
ing forth among you, and my warning you of the signs of 
God, be grievous unto you ; in God, do I put my trust. 
Therefore lay your design against me, and assemble your 
false gods ; but let not your- design be carried on by you 
in the dark : then come forth against me, and delay not. 
'^^ And if ye turn aside from my admonitions, I ask not 
any reward of you for the same ! I expect my reward 
from God alone, and I am commanded to be one of those 
who are resigned unto him. ^^ But they accused him of 
imposture; wherefore we delivered him, and those that 
were with him in the ark, and we caused them to survive 
the flood, but we drowned those who charged our signs 
with falsehood. Behold, therefore, what was the end of 
those who were warned by Noah. ^^ Then did we send, 
after him, apostles unto their respective people, and they 
came unto them with evident demonstrations : yet they 
were not disposed to believe in that which they had before 
rejected as false. Thus do we seal up the hearts of the 
transgressors. ^^ Then did we send after them, Moses and 
Aaron unto Pharaoh, and his princes, with our signs : 
but they behaved proudly, and were a wicked people. 
^^ And when the truth from us had come unto them, 
they said. Verily this is manifest sorcery. ^^ Moses 
said unto them. Do ye speak this of the truth after 
it hath come unto you? Is this sorcery? but sorcerers 
shall not prosper. ^^ They said, Art thou come unto us 
to turn us aside from that religion which we found our 

70 Noah.'] See chap vii. their respective people,] As Hud, Saleh, 

71 I ask not any reward, &c.] There- Abraham, Lot, and Shoaib, to those 
fore ye cannot excuse yourselves, by say- of Ad, Thamiid, Babel, Sodom, and Mi- 
ing that I am burthensome to you. dian. 

73 We nent after him, apostles unto 74 Signs.'] See chap. vii. 



10 AL KORAN. [chap. 

fathers practise ; and that ye too may have the command 
in the land ? But we do not believe you. ^^ And Pharaoh 
said, Bring unto me every expert magician. ^^And 
when the magicians were come, Moses said unto them, 
Cast down that which ye are about to cast down. ^^ And 
when they had cast down their rods and cords, Moses 
said unto them, The enchantment which ye have per- 
formed, shall God surely render vain : for God prospereth 
not the work of the wicked doers. ^^ And God will verify 
the truth of his words, although the wicked be averse 
thereto. ^^ And there believed not any on Moses, except 
a generation of his people, for fear of Pharaoh and of 
his princes, lest he should afflict them. And Pharaoh 
w^as lifted up with pride in the earth, and was surely one 
of the transgressors. ^^ And Moses said, O my people, 
if ye believe in God, put your trust in him, if ye be 
resigned to his will. ^^ They answered. We put our trust 
in God : O Lord, suffer us not to be afflicted by unjust 
people ; ^^ but deliver us through thy mercy, from the 
unbelieving people. ^^ And w^e spake by inspiration unto 
Moses and his brother, saying. Provide habitations for 
your people in Egypt, and make your houses a place of 
worship, and be constant at prayer ; and bear good news 
unto the true believers. ^^ And Moses said, O Lord, 
verily thou hast given unto Pharaoh and his people, 
pompous ornaments, and riches in this present life, O 
Lord, that they may be seduced from thy way ; O Lord, 
bring their riches to nought, and harden their hearts ; 
that they may not believe, until they see their grievous 
punishment. ^^ God said. Your petition is heard : be ye 

82 Except a generation of his people.'] here ordered to dispose their oratories in 

For when he first began to preach, a few such a manner, that, when they prayed, 

of the younger Israelites only believed on their faces might be turned tow ards Mecca ; 

him ; the others not giving ear to him, for which he imagines was the Kebla of Moses, 

fear of the king. But some suppose the as it is that of the Mohammedans. The 

pronoun, his^ refers to Pharaoh, and that former commentator adds, that Pharaoh 

these were certain Egyptians, who, together had forbidden the Israelites to pray to 

with his wife Asia, believed on Moses ^ God ; for which reason they were obliged 

SQ A place of worship.'] So Jallalo'ddin to perform that duty privately in their 

expounds the original word Kebla, which houses. 

properly signifies that place or quarter to- 87 Ornaments.] As magnificent apparel, 

wards which one prays. Wherefore al Za- chariots, and the like, 
makhshari supposes, that the Israelites are 88 Your petition is heard.] The pro- 



* Jl Beiddwi, 



X.] AL KORAN. 11 

upright therefore, and follow not the way of those who 
are io-norant. ^^ And we caused the children of Israel 
to pass through the sea; and Pharaoh and his army 
followed them in a violent and hostile manner ; until, 
when he was drowning, he said, I believe that there is no 
God but he on whom the children of Israel believe ; and 
I am one of the resigned. ^^ Now dost thou believe, 
when thou hast been hitherto rebellious, and one of the 
wicked doers ? ^^ This day will we raise thy body from 
the bottom of the sea, that thou mayest be a sign unto 
those who shall be after thee ; and verily a great number 
of men are negligent of our signs. ^^ And we prepared for 
the children of Israel an established dwelling in the 
land of Canaan, and we provided good things for their 
sustenance : and they differed not in point of religion, 
until knowledge had come unto them ; verily thy Lord 
will judge between them on the day of resurrection, con- 
cerning that wherein they disagreed. ^^ If thou art in a 
doubt concerning any part of that which we have sent 
down unto thee, ask them who have read the book of the 
law before thee. Now hath the truth come unto thee 
from thy Lord; be not therefore one of those who 
doubt : ^"^ neither be thou one of those who charge the 
signs of God with falsehood, lest thou become one of 
those who perish. ^^ Verily those against whom the word 
of thy Lord is decreed, shall not believe ; ^^ even, though 

noun is in the dual number ; the antece- 91 We will raise thy dead body, &c.] 

dent being Moses and Aaron. The com- Some of the children of Israel doubting 

mentators say, that in consequence of this whether Pharaoh was really drowned, Ga- 

prayer, all the treasures of Egypt were briel, by God's command, caused his naked 

turned into stones i. corpse to swim to shore that they might 

— Be ye upright.'] Or, as al Beidawi see it 2. The word here translated Body, 

interprets it, Be ye constant and steady signifying also a coat of mail, some ima- 

in preaching to the people. The Moham- gine the meaning to be, that his corpse 

medans pretend that Moses continued in floated armed with his coat of mail, which 

Egypt no less than forty years, after he they tell us was of gold, by which they knew 

had first published his mission ; which that it was he. 
cannot be reconciled to scripture. 92 Until after knowledge had come unto 

89 / believe that there is no God but he, them.] i. e. After the law had been re- 

&c.] These words, it is said, Pharaoh vealed, and published by Moses, 
repeated often in his extremity, that he 93 Concerning that which we have sent 

might be heard. But his repentance came down unto thee.] That is, concerning the 

too late ; for Gabriel soon stopped his truth of the histories which are here 

mouth with mud, lest he should obtain related. The commentators doubt whe- 

mercy ; reproaching him at the same time ther the person here spoken to, be Moham- 

in the words which follow. med himself, or his auditor. 

» JaUaJoddin. 2 -gee Exod. xiv. 30. 



12 AL KORAN. [chap. 

there come unto them every kind of miracle, until they 
see the grievous punishment prepared for them. ^^ And 
if it were not so, some city, among the many which have 
been destroyed, would have believed ; and the faith of its 
inhabitants would have been of advantage unto them : 
but none of them believed, before the execution of their 
sentence, except the people of Jonas. When they be- 
lieved, we delivered them from the punishment of shame 
in this world, and suffered them to enjoy their lives and 
possessions for a time. ^^ But if thy Lord had pleased, 
verily all who are in the earth would have believed in 
general. Wilt thou therefore forcibly compel men to be 
true believers ? ^^ No soul can believe, but by the per- 
mission of God : and he shall pour out his indignation on 
those who will not understand. ^^^ Say, Consider what- 
ever is in heaven and on earth : but signs are of no avail, 
neither preachers, unto people who will not believe. 
^^^ Do they therefore expect any other than some terrible 
judgment, like unto the judgments which have fallen on 
those who have gone before them ? ^^^ Say, Wait ye the 
issue ; and I also will wait with you : then will we deliver 
our apostles and those who believe. Thus is it a justice 
due from us, that we should deliver the true believers. 
^^^ Say, O men of Mecca, if ye be in doubt concerning 
my religion, verily I worship not the idols which ye 
worship, besides God ; but I worship God, who will cause 
you to die : and I am commanded to be one of the true 
believers. ^^^ And it was said unto me. Set thy face 
towards the true religion, and be orthodox ; and by no 

97 The people of Jonas.'] Viz. The in- others say, within forty ^. But when the 
habitants of Nineveh, which stood on or time drew near, and they saw the heavens 
near the place where al Mawsel now overcast with a black cloud, which shot 
stands. This people having corrupted them- forth fire, and filled the air with smoke, 
selves with idolatry, Jonas, the son of and hung directly over their city, they 
Mattai (or Amittai, which the Mohamme- were in a terrible consternation, and get- 
dans suppose to be the name of his mo- ting into the fields with their families 
ther), an Israelite of the tribe of Benjamin, and cattle, they put on sackcloth, and 
was sent by God to preach to and reclaim humbled themselves before God, calling 
them. When he first began to exhort aloud for pardon, and sincerely repenting 
them to repentance, instead of hearkening of their past wickedness. Whereupon 
to him, they used him very ill, so that he God was pleased to forgive them, and the 
was obliged to leave the city, threatening storm blew over 2, 

them, at his departure, that they should — For a time.'] i. e. Until they died ac- 
he destroyed within three days, or, as cording to the ordinary course of nature. 

^ See Jonah iii. 4. * Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin, Ahiilfed. See chap. 21 and 37- 



XI.] AL KORAN. IS 

means be one of those who attribute companions unto 
God ; ^^^ neither invoke, besides God, that which can 
neither profit thee nor hurt thee : for if thou do, thou wilt 
then certainly become one of the unjust. ^^^ If God 
afflict thee with hurt, there is none who can relieve thee 
from it, except he; and if he willeth thee any good, 
there is none who can keep back his bounty ; he will 
confer it on such of his servants as he pleaseth ; and he 
is gracious and merciful. ^^^ Say, O men, now hath the 
truth come unto you from your Lord. He therefore 
who shall be directed, will be directed to the advantage 
of his own soul ; but he who shall err, will err only 
against the same. I am no guardian over you. ^^^ Do 
thou, O prophet, follow that which is revealed unto thee : 
and persevere with patience, until God shall judge, for 
he is the best judge. 



CHAPTER XI. 

INTITLED, hud; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ A. L. R. ^ This book, the verses whereof are guarded 
against corruption, and are also distinctly explained, is a 
revelation from the wise, the knowing God : ^ that ye 
serve not any other than God ; verily I am a denouncer 

Title.'] The story of which prophet is in a clear and perspicuous method, or con- 
repeated in this chapter. tain evident and demonstrative arguments : 

1 A. L. R.\ See the Prelim. Disc. and others, that they comprise judicial 

2 The verses whereof are guarded against declarations to regulate both faith and 
corruption.} According to the various practice '^. 

senses which the verb Ohkimat, in the — And are also distinctly explained.'] 

original, may bear, the commentators sug- The signification of the verb Fossilat, 

gest as many different interpretations, which is here used, being also ambiguous, 

Some suppose the meaning to be, accord- the meaning of this passage is supposed 

ing to our version, that the Koran is not to be, either that the verses are distinctly 

liable to be corrupted ^, as the law and the proposed, or expressed in a clear manner ; 

gospel have been, in the opinion of the or that the subject matter of the whole 

Mohammedans : others, that every verse may be distinguished or divided into 

in this particular chapter is in full force, laws, monitions, and examples; or else 

and not one of them abrogated : others, that the verses were revealed by par- 

that the verses of the Koran are disposed eels ^. 

^ See the Prelim. Disc. p. 87, 88. ^ ^/ Beiddwi, Jallald' ddin, Al Zamakhs- 

hariy &c. ' J idem. 



14 AL KORAN. [chap. 

of threats, and a bearer of good tidings, unto you from 
him ;) ^ and that ye ask pardon of your Lord, and then 
be turned unto him. He will cause you to enjoy a plen- 
tiful provision, until a prefixed time : and unto every one 
that hath merit by good works, will he give his abundant 
reward. But if ye turn back, verily I fear for you the 
punishment of the great day : ^ unto God shall ye return ; 
and he is almighty. ^ Do they not double the folds of 
their breasts, that they may conceal their designs from 
him ? When they cover themselves with their garments, 
doth not he know that which they conceal, and that 
which they discover ? For he knoweth the innermost parts 
of the breasts of men. [*XII.] ^ There is no creature 
which creepeth on the earth, but God provideth its food ; 
and he knoweth the place of its retreat, and where it is 
laid up. The whole is written in the perspicuous book of 
his decrees. ^ It is he who hath created the heavens and 
the earth in six days, (but his throne was above the 
waters before the creation thereof,) that he might prove 
you, and see which of you would excel in works. If thou 
say. Ye shall surely be raised again, after death ; the 
unbelievers will say. This is nothing but manifest sorcery. 
^ And verily if we defer their punishment unto a deter- 
mined season, they will say. What hindereth it from 
falling on us? Will it not come upon them on a day, 
wherein there shall be none to avert it from them ; and 
that which they scoffed at shall encompass them ? 

6 Do they not double the folds of their Mohammedans happened not till after the 

breasts?'] Or, as it may be translated, Hejra. 
Do they not turn away their breasts, &c. 7 The place of its retreat, and where it 

— Innermost part, Sip.] This passage is laid upJ] i. e. Both during its life, and 

was occasioned by the words of certain of after its death ; or the repository of every 

the idolaters, who said to one another, animal before its birth, in the loins and 

When we let down our curtains (such as wombs of the parents, 
the women use in the east to screen them- 8 But his throne was above the waters, 

selves from the sight of the men, when before the creation thereof] For the Mo- 

they happen to be in the room), and wrap hammedans suppose this throne, and the 

ourselves up in our garments, and fold up waters whereon it stands, which waters 

our breasts, to conceal our malice against they imagine are supported by a spirit or 

Mohammed, how should he come to the wind, were, with some other things, created 

knowledge of it? Some suppose the pas- before the heavens and earth. This fancy 

sage relates to certain hypocritical Mos- they borrowed from the Jews, who also 

lems; but this opinion is generally rejected, say, that the throne of glory then stood in 

because the verse was revealed at Mecca, the air, and was borne on the face of the 

and the birth of hypocrisy among the waters by the breath of God's mouth ^ 

1 Eashi, ad Genes, i. 2. V. Reland, de relig, Moh. p. 50, &c. 



XL.] A L KORAN. 15 

^^ Verily, if we cause man to taste mercy from us, and 
afterwards take it away from him ; he will surely become 
desperate, and ungrateful. ^^ And if we cause him to 
taste favour, after an affliction hath befallen him, he will 
surely say. The evils which I suffered are passed from me ; 
and he will become joyful and insolent: ^^ except those 
who persevere with patience, and do that which is 
right ; they shall receive pardon, and a great reward. 
^^ Perad venture thou wilt omit to publish part of that 
which hath been revealed unto thee, and thy breast will 
become straitened, lest they say. Unless a treasure be sent 
down unto him, or an angel come with him, to bear 
witness unto him, we will not believe. Verily thou art a 
preacher only; and God is the governor of all things. 
^^ Will they say. He hath forged the Koran ? Answer, 
Bring therefore ten chapters like unto it, forged by your- 
selves ; and call on whomsoever ye may to assist you, 
except God, if ye speak truth. ^^ But if they whom ye 
call to your assistance hear you not ; know that this book 
hath been revealed by the knowledge of God only, and 
that there is no God but he. Will ye therefore become 
Moslems ? ^^ Whoso chooseth the present life, and the 
pomp thereof, unto them will we give the recompense of 
their works therein, and the same shall not be diminished 
unto them. ^^ These are they for whom no other reward 
is prepared in the next life, except the fire of hell : that 
which they have done in this life shall perish ; and that 
which they have wrought shall be vain. ^^ Shall he there- 
fore be compared with them, who followeth the evident 
declaration of his Lord, and whom a witness from him 
attendeth, preceded by the book of Moses, which was 
revealed for a guide, and out of mercy to mankind? 

10 Desperate.'] Casting aside all hopes 15 By the knowledge of God only.'] 

of the divine favour, for want of patience Or containing several passages wrapped 

and trust in God. up in dark and mysterious expressions, 

14 Ten chapters.] This was the num- which can proceed from, and are per- 

ber which he first challenged them to fectly comprehended by, none but God 2. 
compose; but they not being able to do it, 18 A witness from him.] Viz. The 

he made the matter still easier, challeng- Koran ; or, as others suppose, the angel 

ing them to produce a single chapter only 1, Gabriel. 

comparable to the Koran in doctrine and — Preceded by the book of Moses.] 

eloquence. Which bears testimony thereto. 

^ See chap. ii. and chap. x. ^ See chap. iii. 



16 AL KORAN. [chap. 

These believe in the Koran: but whosoever of the con- 
federate infidels belie veth not therein, is threatened with 
the fire of hell, which threat shall certainly be executed ; 
be not therefore in a doubt concerning it ; for it is the 
truth from thy Lord; but the greater part of men will 
not believe. ^^ Who is more unjust than he who imagineth 
a lie concerning God? They shall be set before their 
Lord at the day of judgment, and the witnesses shall 
say, These are they who devised lies against their Lord. 
Shall not the curse of God fall on the unjust ; ^^ who turn 
men aside from the way of God, and seek to render it 
crooked, and who believe not in the life to come ? 
^^ These were not able to prevail against God on earth, 
so as to escape punishment; neither had they any pro- 
tectors besides God : their punishment shall be doubled 
unto them. They could not hear, neither did they see. 
^^ These are they who, have lost their souls ; and the 
idols which they falsely imagined, have abandoned them. 
^^ There is no doubt but they shall be most miserable in 
the world to come. ^^ But as for those who believe, and 
do good works, and humble themselves before their Lord, 
they shall be the inhabitants of paradise ; they shall 
remain therein for ever. ^^ The similitude of the two 
parties is as the blind and the deaf, and as he who seeth 
and heareth : shall they be compared as equal ? Will ye 
not therefore consider ? ^^ We formerly sent Noah unto 
his people ; and he said. Verily I am a public preacher 
unto you ; that ye worship God alone : ^^ verily I fear for 
you the punishment of the terrible day. ^^ But the chiefs 
of his people, who believed not, answered. We see thee 
to be no other than a man like unto us ; and we do not 
see that any follow thee, except those who are the most 
abject among us, who have believed on thee by a rash 
judgment, neither do we perceive any excellence in you 
above us : but we esteem you to be liars. ^^ Noah said, 
O my people tell me ; if I have received an evident 
declaration from my Lord, and he hath bestowed on me 

19 ^^The witnesses,'] That is, The 25 Of the two parties.'] i. e. The be- 

angels, and prophets, and their own mem- lievers and the infidels, 

bers. 26 Noah.] See chap. 7- 

21 Their punishment shall be doubled.] 28 By a rash judgment.] For want of 

For they shall be punished both in this mature consideration, and moved by the 

life and in the next. first impulse of their fancy. 



XI.] AL KORAN. 17 

mercy from himself, which is hidden from you, do we com- 
pel you to receive the same, in case ye be averse thereto ? 
^^ O my people, I ask not of you any riches, for my preach- 
ing unto you: my reward is with God alone. I will not drive 
away those who have believed : verily they shall meet their 
Lord at the resurrection ; but I perceive that ye are igno- 
rant men. ^^ O my people, who shall assist me against God, 
if I drive them away ? Will ye not therefore consider ? ^^ I 
say not unto you, The treasures of God are in my power ; 
neither do I say, I know the secrets of God; neither do T 
say. Verily I am an angel ; neither do I say of those whom 
your eyes do contemn, God will by no means bestow 
good on them; (God best knoweth that which is in their 
souls ;) for then should I certainly be one of the unjust. 
^^ They answered, O Noah, thou hast already disputed 
with us, and hast multiplied disputes with us ; now there- 
fore do thou bring that punishment upon us, wherewith 
thou hast threatened us, if thou speakest truth. ^* Noah 
said, Verily God alone shall bring it upon you, if he 
pleaseth : and ye shall not prevail against him, so as to 
escape the same. ^^ Neither shall my counsel profit you, 
although I endeavour to counsel you aright ; if God shall 
please to lead you into error. He is your Lord, and 
unto him shall ye return. ^^ Will the Meccans say, 
Mohammed hath forged the Koran ? Answer, If I have 
forged it, on me be my guilt ; and let me be clear of that 
which ye are guilty of. ^^ And it w^as revealed unto 
Noah, saying. Verily none of thy people shall believe, 
except he who hath already believed : be not therefore 
grieved for that which they are doing. ^^ But make an 
ark in our presence, according to the form and dimen- 
sions which we have revealed unto thee ; and speak not 
unto me in behalf of those who have acted unjustly ; for 
they are doomed to be drowned. ^^ And he built the 
ark ; and so often as a company of his people passed by 
him, they derided him : but he said. Though ye scofi:' at 

30 / will not drive away those who have 32 Angel.'] See chap. 6. 
believed.'] For this they asked him to do, 39 They derided him.] For building a 
because they were poor mean people. The vessel in an inland country, and so far 
same thing the Koreish demanded of from the sea ; and for that he was turned 
Mohammed, but he was forbidden to com- carpenter, after he had set up for a pro- 
ply with their request ^ phet 2. 

^ See chap. C. 2 yu BeiddwL 

VOL, II. C 



18 



AL KORAN, 



[chap. 



us now, we will scoff at you hereafter, as ye scoff at us ; 
^^ and ye shall surely know on whom a punishment shall 
be inflicted, which shall cover him with shame, and on 
whom a lasting punishment shall fall. Thus were they 
employed until our sentence was put in execution, and 
the oven poured forth water. And we said unto Noah, 
Carry into the ark of every species of animals one pair, 
and thy family, (except him on whom a previous sentence 
of destruction hath passed,) and those who believe. But 
there believed not with him, except a few. ^^ And Noah 



40 And the oven poured forth water."] 
Or, as the original literally signifies, 
boiled over ; which is consonant to what 
the Rabbins say, that the waters of the 
deluge were boiling hot. 

This oven was, as some say, at Cufa^ 
in a spot whereupon a mosque now stands ; 
or, as others rather think, in a certain 
place in India, or else at Ain Warda, in 
Mesopotamia ^ ; and its exundation was 
the sign by which Noah knew the flood 
was coming 2. Some pretend that it was 
the same oven which Eve made use of to 
bake her bread in, being of a form different 
from those we use, having the mouth in 
the upper part, and that it descended from 
patriarch to patriarch, till it came to 
Noah^. It is remarkable that Moham- 
med, in all probability, borrowed this cir- 
cumstance from the Persian Magi, who 
also fancied that the first waters of the 
deluge gushed out of the oven of a certain 
old woman, named Zala Cufa *. 

But the word Tannur^ which is here 
translated Oven^ also signifying the super- 
ficies of the earth, or a place whence waters 
spring forth, or where they are collected, 
some suppose it means no more in this 
passage, than the spot or fissure whence 
the first eruption of waters brake forth. 

— One pair.'] Or, as the words may 
also be rendered, and some commentators 
think they ought, two pair, that is, two 
males, and two females^ of each species ; 
wherein they partly agree with divers 
Jewish and Christian writers ^, who, from 
the Hebrew expression, .seven and seven, 
and two and two, the male and his female ^, 
suppose there went into the ark fourteen 



pair of every clean, and two pair of every 
unclean, species. There is a tradition that 
God gathered together unto Noah all 
sorts of beasts, birds, and other animals, 
(it being indeed difficult to conceive how 
he should come by them all, without some 
supernatural assistance,) and that as he 
laid hold on them, his right hand con- 
stantly fell on the male, and his left on the 
female ^. 

— Thy family.] Namely, thy wife; 
and thy sons, and their wives ^. 

— Except him on whom a previous sen- 
tence of destruction hath passed.] This 
was an unbelieving son of Noah 9, named 
Canaan ^^, or Yam ^^ ; though others say 
he was not the son of Noah, but his 
grandson by his son Ham, or his wife's 
son by another husband : nay, some pre- 
tend he was related to him no farther than 
by having been educated and brought up 
in his house ^^. The best commentators 
add, that Noah's wife, named Waila, who 
was an infidel, was also comprehended in 
this exception, and perished with her son ^^. 

— And those who believe.] Noah's 
family being mentioned before, it is sup- 
posed that by these words are intended 
the other believers, who were his prose- 
lytes, but not of his family : whence the 
common opinion among the Mohamme- 
dans, of a greater number than eight being 
saved in the ark seems to have taken its 
rise 1*. 

— There believed not with him except a 
few.] Viz. his other wife, who was a true 
believer, his three sons, Shem, Ham, and 
Japhet, and their wives, and seventy-two 
persons more ^^. 



1 Al Beiddwi. ^ Jallalo^ddin, &c. 3 y. D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Noah. 

^ V. Hyde de rel. vet. Persar. and Lord's account of the relig. of the Persees, p. 9. 
5 Aben Ezra, Justin Martyr, Origen, &c. ^ Genes, vii. 2. 7 Jallalo'ddin, 

8 Al Beiddwi. ^ Yahya, *« Jallalo'ddin, Al Beiddwi. ^^ Ebn Shohnah, 

12 Al Zamakhshariy V. D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient, p. 676. '^ JallaWddin, Al Zamakhs- 

hari, Al Beiddwi. 1* See chap. vii. ^^ ggg ibid. 



XI] 



AL KORAN. 



19 



said. Embark thereon, in the name of God; while it 
moveth forward, and while it standeth still ; for my Lord 
is gracious and merciful. ^^ And the ark swam with them 
between waves like mountains : and Noah called up to 
his son, who was separated from him, saying. Embark 
with us, my son, and stay not with the unbelievers. 
^^ He answered, 1 will get on a mountain, which will 
secure me from the water. Noah replied, There is 
no security this day from the decree of God, except 
for him on whom he shall have mercy. And a wave 
passed between them, and he became one of those 
who were drowned. ^^ And it was said, O earth, 
swallow up thy waters; and thou, O heaven, withhold 
thy rain. And immediately the water abated, and 
the decree was fulfilled, and the ark rested on the 
mountain Al Judi ; and it was said. Away with 



41 Embark thereon in the name of God, 
while it moveth forward^ and while it 
standeth still.'] That is, omit no oppor- 
tunity of getting on board. According to 
a different reading, the latter words may 
be rendered, Who shall cause it to move 
forward, and to stop, as there shall be 
occasion. The commentators tell us, that 
the ark moved forwards, or stood still, as 
Noah would have it, on his pronouncing 
only the words. In the name of God ^ 

It is to be observed, that the more 
judicious commentators make the dimen- 
sions of the ark to be the same with those 
assigned by Moses ^ ; notwithstanding 
others have enlarged them most extrava- 
gantly ^, as some Christian writers * have 
also done. They likewise tell us that Noah 
was two years in building the ark, which 
was framed of Indian plane-tree ^ ; that it 
was divided into three stories^ of which 
the lower was designed for the beasts, the 
middle one for the men and women, and 
the upper for the birds ® ; and that the 
men were separated from the women by 
the body of Adam, which Noah had taken 
into tTie ark 7. This last is a tradition of 
the eastern Christians ^, some of whom 
pretended that the matrimonial duty was 



superseded and suspended during the time 
Noah and his family were in the ark ^ ; 
though Ham has been accused of not ob- 
serving continency on that occasion, his 
wife, it seems, bringing forth Canaan in 
the very ark ^^. 

42 Between waves like mountains^] The 
waters prevailing fifteen cubits above the 
mountains ^^ 

— His son.~\ See above, note on ver. 40. 

44 And the ark rested upon the moun- 
tain Al Judi.] This mountain is one of 
those which divide Armenia, on the south, 
from Mesopotamia, and that part of As- 
syria which is inhabited by the Curds, 
from whom the mountains took the name 
of Cardu, or Gardu, by the Greeks turned 
into Gordyssi, and other names ^^. Mount 
Al Judi (which name seems to be a cor- 
ruption, though it be constantly so written 
by the Arabs, for Jordi, or Giordi) is also 
called Thamanin ^^, probably from a town 
at the foot of it ^^ so named from the num- 
ber of persons saved in the ark, the word 
Thamanin signifying eighty , and overlooks 
the country of Diyar Rabiah, near the 
cities of Mawsel, Forda, and Jazirat Ebn 
Omar, which last place one affirms to be 
but four miles from the place of the ark. 



^ Al Beiddwi, &c. ^ idem, &c. ^ Yahya. V. Marracc. in Alcor. p. 340. 

* Origen. contr. Cels. 1. 4. V. Kircher. de Area Noe. c. 8. ^ A I Beiddwi. V. D'Her- 
bel. p. 675. 8z: Eutych. p. 34. ^ Al Beiddwi. V. Eutych. annal. p. 34. ^ Yahya, 

^ Jacob. Edessenus, apud Barcepham de parad. part 1. c. 14. Eutych. ubi sup. V. etiam 
Eliezer. pirke c. 23. ^ Ambros. de Noa. & Area, c. 21. ^^ V. Heidegger, 

Hist. Patriarch, v. 1. p. 409. ^^ Al Beiddwi. 12 gge Bochart. Phaleg. 1. I. c. 3. 

»3 Geogr. Nub. p, 202. i* V. D' Herbel. Bibl. Orient, p. 404 and 676, & Aga- 

thiam, I. 14. p. 135. 

c2 



go 



AL KORAN. 



[chap 



the ungodly people ! ^^ And Noah called upon his 
Lord, and said, O Lord, verily my son is of my family ; 
and thy promise is true : for thou art the most just 
of those who exercise judgment. ^^ God answered, 
O Noah, verily he is not of thy family: this interces- 
sion of thine for him, is not a righteous work. Ask 
not of me therefore that wherein thou hast no know- 
ledge : I admonish tljee, that thou become not one of the 
ignorant. ^^ Noah said, O Lord, I have recourse unto 
thee for the assistance of thy grace, that I ask not of 
thee that wherein I have no knowledge : and unless thou 
forgive me, and be merciful unto me, I shall be one of 
those who perish. ^^ It was said unto him, O Noah, come 
down from the ark, with peace from us, and blessings 
upon thee, and upon a part of those who are with thee : 
but as for a part of them, we will suffer them to enjoy 



and says that a Mohammedan temple was 
built there with the remains of that vessel, 
by the Khalif Omar Ebn Abd'alaziz, whom 
he by mistake calls Omar Ebn al K hat- 
tab i. 

The tradition which affirms the ark to 
have rested on these mountains must have 
been very ancient, since it is the tradition 
of the Chaldeans themselves 2. The Chal- 
dee paraphrasts consent to their opinion ^, 
which obtained very much formerly, espe- 
cially among the eastern Christians *. To 
confirm it, we are told that the remainders 
of the ark were to be seen on the Gor- 
dyaean mountains. Berosus and Abydenus 
both declare there was such a report in 
their time^ ; the first observing that seve- 
ral of the inhabitants thereabouts scraped 
the pitch off the planks as a rarity, and 
carried it about them for an amulet: and 
the latter saying, that they used the wood 
of the vessel against many diseases with 
wonderful success. The relics of the ark 
were also to be seen here in the time of 
Epiphanius, if we may believe him ^. And 
we are told the emperor Heraclius went 
from the town of Thamanin up to the 
mountain Al Judi, and saw the place of 
the ark ^ There was also formerly a fa- 
mous monastery, called the monastery of 
the ark, upon some of these mountains, 
where the Nestorians used to celebrate a 



feast-day on the spot where they supposed 
the ark rested : but in the year of Christ 
776, that monastery was destroyed by 
lightning, with the church, and a numer- 
ous congregation in it ^. Since which 
time it seems the credit of this tradition 
hath declined, and given place to another, 
which obtains at present, and according 
to which the ark rested on mount Masis, 
in Armenia, called by the Turks, Aghir- 
dagh, or the heavy or great mountain, and 
situate about twelve leagues south-east of 
Erivan^. 

45 Thy promise is true.'] Noah here 
challenges God's promise, that he would 
save his family. 

46 He is not of thy family. ~\ Being cut 
off from it on account of his infidelity. 

— Righteous work.] According to a 
different reading, this passage may be ren- 
dered. For he hath acted unrighteously. 

48 Come down from the ark, &c.] The 
Mohammedans say that Noah went into 
the ark on the tenth of Rajeb, and came 
out of it the tenth of al Moharram ; which 
therefore became a fast. So that the whole 
time of Noah's being in the ark, according 
to them, was six months ^®. 

— With peace f and blessing y on a part 
of them.] viz. Such of them as continued 
in their belief. 

— But as for a part of them.] That 



* Benjamin. Itiner. p. 61. ^ Berosus, apud Joseph. Antiq. 1. 1. c. 4. ^ On- 

kelos and Jonathan, in Gen. viii. 4. * V. Eutych. Annal. p. 41. ^ Berosus, 

apud Joseph, ubi sup. Abydenus, apud Euseb. Praep. Ev. 1. 9. c. 4. ^ Epiph. 

Haeres. 18. ^ Elmacin, 1. 1. c. 1. ^ V. Chronic. Dionysii patriarch. Ja- 

cobitar. apud Asseman. Bibl. Orient, t. ii. p. 113. ^ Al Beiddwi. '^^ Ibid. 

See D'Herbel. ubi. sup. 



XI.] AL KORAN. ^1 

the provision of this world ; and afterwards shall a griev- 
ous punishment from us be inflicted on them, in the life 
to come. ^^ This is a secret history, which we reveal unto 
thee : thou didst not know it, neither did thy people be- 
fore this. Wherefore persevere with patience ; for the 
prosperous issue shall attend the pious. ^^ And unto the 
tribe of Ad we sent their brother Hud. He said, O my 
people, worship God ; ye have no God besides him : ye 
only imagine falsehood, in setting up idols and interces- 
sors of your own making. ^^ O my people, I ask not of 
you, for this my preaching, any recompense : my recom- 
pense do I expect from him only, who hath created me. 
Will ye not therefore understand ? ^^ O my people, ask 
pardon of your Lord ; and be turned unto him : he will 
send the heaven to pour forth rain plentifully upon you ; 
and he will increase your strength by giving unto you 
farther strength : therefore turn not aside to commit evil. 
^^They answered, O Hud, thou hast brought us no proof 
of what thou sayest ; therefore, we will not leave our 
gods for thy saying, neither do we believe thee. ^^ We 
say no other than that some of our gods have afflicted 
thee with evil. He replied. Verily I call God to witness, 
and do ye also bear witness, that I am clear of that which 
ye associate with God, besides him. ^^ Do ye all there- 
fore join to devise a plot against me, and tarry not ; ^^ for 
I put my confidence in God, my Lord and your Lord. 
There is no beast, but he holdeth it by its forelock : verily 
my Lord proceedeth in the right way. ^^ But if ye turn 
back, I have already declared unto you that with which 
I was sent unto you ; and my Lord shall substitute ano- 
ther nation in your stead ; and ye shall not hurt him at 
all: for my Lord is guardian over all things. ^^And 
when our sentence came to be put in execution, we de- 
ls, such of his posterity as should depart the time of the drought, as well as their 
from the true faith, and fall into ido- lands 2. 

latr y . 54 Have afflicted thee with evil.'] Or mad- 

50 Hud.'] See chap. vii. ness ; having deprived thee of thy reason 

52 He will send you rain plentifully.] for the indignities thou hast offered them. 
For the Adites were grievously distressed 56 There is no beast, but he holdeth it by 

by a drought for three years ^ its forelock.] That is, he exerciseth an 

— And will increase your strerigth.] By absolute power over it ; a creature held 
giving you children ; the wombs of their in this manner, being supposed to be re- 
wives being also rendered barren, during duced to the lowest subjection. 

' See the notes to chap. vii. * Al Beiddwi, 



22 AL KORAN. [chap. 

livered HuD, and those who had believed with him, 
through our mercy ; and we delivered them from a griev- 
ous punishment. ^^ And this tribe of Ad wittingly re- 
jected the signs of their Lord, and were disobedient unto 
his messengers, and they followed the command of every 
rebellious perverse person. ^^ Wherefore they were fol- 
lowed in this world by a curse, and they shall be followed 
by the same on the day of resurrection. Did not Ad 
disbelieve in their Lord ? Was it not said. Away with 
Ad, the people of Hud ? ^^ And unto the tribe of Tha- 
MUD we sent their brother Saleh. He said unto them, 
O my people, worship God ; ye have no God besides him. 
It is he who hath produced you out of the earth, and 
hath given you an habitation therein. Ask pardon of 
him therefore, and be turned unto him ; for my Lord is 
near, and ready to answer. ^^ They answered, O Saleh, 
thou wast a person on whom we placed our hopes before 
this. Dost thou forbid us to worship that which our 
forefathers worshipped ? But we are certainly in doubt 
concerning the religion to which thou dost invite us, as 
justly to be suspected. ^^ Saleh said, O my people, tell 
me ; if I have received an evident declaration from my 
Lord, and he hath bestowed on me mercy from himself; 
who will protect me from the vengeance of God, if I be 
disobedient unto him ? For ye shall not add unto me, 
other than loss. ^^ And he said, O my people, this she- 
camel of God is a sign unto you ; therefore dismiss her 
freely, that she may feed in God's earth, and do her no 
harm, lest a swift punishment seize you. ^^ Yet they 
killed her; and Saleh said. Enjoy yourselves in your 
dwellings for three days, after which ye shall be destroyed. 
This is an infallible prediction. ^^ And when our decree 
came to be executed, we delivered Saleh, and those who 
believed with him, through our mercy, from the disgrace 
of that day ; for thy Lord is the strong, the mighty God, 

58 And those who believed with himJ] prudence, and other good qualities, which 

Who were in number four thousand^. we observed in thee; but thy dissenting 

61 Saleh.'] See chap. vii. from us in point of religious worship has 

62 We had placed our hopes on thee frustrated those hopes 2. 

before this,] Designing to have made 65 For three days.] viz. Wednesday, 
thee our prince, because of the singular Thursday, and Friday ^. See chap. vii. 



1 At BeiddwL 2 idem. s idem. 



XI.] AL KORAN. 2 



a 



^^ But a terrible noise from heaven assailed those who had 
acted unjustly ; and in the morning they were found in 
their houses, lying dead and prostrate ; ^^ as though they 
had never dwelt therein. Did not Thamud disbelieve in 
their Lord ? Was not Thamud cast far aw^ay ? ^^ Our 
messengers also came formerly unto Abraham, with good 
tidings. They said. Peace be upon thee. And he an- 
swered, And on you be peace ! and he tarried not, but 
brought a roasted calf ^^ And when he saw that their 
hands did not touch the meat, he misliked them, and 
entertained a fear of them. But they said. Fear not : 
for we are sent unto the people of Lot. ^^ And his wife 
Sarah was standing by, and she laughed ; and we pro- 
mised her Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob. ^^ She said, 
Alas ! shall I bear a son, who am old ; this my husband 
also being advanced in years? Verily this would be a 
wonderful thing. ^^ The angels answered. Dost thou 
wonder at the effect of the command of God ? The 
mercy of God and his blessings be upon you, the family 
of the house : for he is praise- worthy, and to be glorified. 
^^ And when his apprehension had departed from Abra- 
ham, and the good tidings of Isaac's birth had come unto 
him, he disputed with us concerning the people of Lot : 

69 Our messengers.~\ These were the covering themselves, and ridding Abra- 
angels, who were sent to acquaint Abra- ham and herself of their apprehensions ; 
ham with the promise of Isaac, and to and another, that it was at the approach- 
destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. Some of ing destruction of the Sodomites, (a very 
the commentators pretend they were probable motive in one of her sex !) Some 
twelve, or nine, or ten, in number ; but however interpret the original word dif- 
others, agreeably to scripture, say they ferently, and will have it that she did not 
were but three, viz. Gabriel, Michael, and laugh, but that her courses, which had 
Israfil ^ stopped for several years, came upon her 

70 He entertained a fear of them.'] Ap- at this time, as a previous sign of her 
prehending they had some ill design against future conception ^. 

him, because they would not eat with him, 72 Shall I bear a son who am old, my 

— We are sent unto the people of Lot] husband also being advanced in years?] 
Being angels, whose nature needs not the Al Beidawi writes, that Sarah was then 
support of food 2. ninety or ninety-nine years old, and Abra- 

71 Sarah was standing by.] Either be- ham an hundred and twenty. 

hind the curtain or door of the tent; or 73 The family of the house.] Or the 

else waiting upon them. stock whence all the prophets were to 

— Jnd she laughed.] The commen- proceed for the future. Or the expression 
tators are so little acquainted with scrip- may perhaps refer to Abraham and Is- 
ture, that, not knowing the true occasion mael's building the Caaba, which is often 
of Sarah's laughter, they strain their in- called, by way of excellence, The house, 
ventions to give some reason for it. One 74 He disputed with us concerning the 
says, that she laughed at the angels dis- people of Lot.] That is, he interceded 

1 Idem. Jallalo' ddin. See Gen. xviii. 2 ^i Beidawi, ^ Idem. 

Jallalo'ddin^ Al ZamaJchshari. 



24 AL KORAN. [chap, 

for Abraham was a pitiful, compassionate, and devout 
person. ^^ The angels said unto him, O Abraham, abstain 
from this ; for now is the command of thy Lord come, 
to put their sentence in execution, and an inevitable 
punishment is ready to fall upon them. ^^ And when 
our messengers came unto Lot, he was troubled for them, 
and his arm was straitened concerning them, and he said. 
This is a grievous day. ^^ And his people came unto him, 
rushing upon him : and they had formerly been guilty of 
wickedness. Lot said unto them, O my people, these 
my daughters are more lawful for you : therefore fear 
God, and put me not to shame by wronging my guests. 
Is there not a man of prudence among you? ^^They 
answered, Thou knowest that we have no need of thy 
daughters ; and thou well knowest what we would have. 
^^ He said. If I had strength sufficient to oppose you, or I 
could have recourse unto a powerful support, I would 
certainly do it. ^^ The angels said, O Lot, verily we are 
the messengers of thy Lord ; they shall by no means 
come in unto thee. Go forth therefore with thy family, 
in some part of the night, and let not any of you turn 
back : but as for thy wife, that shall happen unto her 

with us for them ^. JaDalo'ddin, instead seeing his distress, struck them on the face 

of the numbers mentioned by Moses, says, with one of his wings, and blinded them : so 

that Abraham first asked whether God that they moved off, crying out for help, and 

would destroy those cities if three hundred saying that Lot had magicians in his house, 

righteous persons were found therein, and — But as for thy wife^ &c.] This 

so fell successively to two hundred, forty, seems to be the true sense of the passage; 

fourteen, and at last came to one: but but, according to a different reading of the 

there was not one righteous person to be vowel, some interpret it. Except thy wife ; 

found among them, except only Lot and the meaning being, that Lot is here com- 

his family. manded to take his family with him, ex- 

76 He was troubled for them.^ Because cept his wife. Wherefore the commenta- 

they appeared in the shape of beautiful tors cannot agree whether Lot's wife went 

young men, which must needs tempt those forth with him or not ; some denying it, 

of Sodom to abuse them ^. and pretending that she was left behind, 

— His arm was straitened concerning and perished in the common destruction ; 

them.~\ i. e. He knew himself unable to and others affirming it, and saying, that 

protect them against the insults of his when she heard the noise of the storm, 

townsmen. and overthrow of the cities, she turned 

80 The angels said, Lot, — they shall back, lamenting their fate, and was imme- 

hy no means come in unto thee. ^ Al Beidawi diately struck down and killed by one of 

says, that Lot shut his door, and argued the stones mentioned a little lower ^ ; a 

the matter with the riotous assembly from punishment she justly merited for her in- 

behind it ; but at length they endeavoured fidelity, and disobedience to her hus- 

to get over the wall: whereupon Gabriel, band*. 



IV. Gen. xviii. 23, &c. ^ Jalkilo'ddin, Al Beiddwl. V. Joseph. Ant. 1. I.e. H, 
^ lidem interpretcs. ^ See chap. Ixvi. 



XI.] AL KORAN. 25 

which shall liappen unto them. Verily the prediction of 
their punishment shall be fulfilled in the morning : is not 
the morning near ? ^^ And when our command came, 
we turned those cities upside down, and we rained upon 
them stones of baked clay, one following another, ^^ and 
being marked, from thy Lord ; and they are not far dis- 
tant from those who act unjustly. ^^ And unto Madian 
we sent their brother Shoaib: he said, O my people, 
w orship God ; ye have no God but him : and diminish 
not measure and weight. Verily I see you to be in a 
happy condition : but I fear for you the punishment of 
the day which will encompass the ungodly. ^^ O my 
people, give full measure, and just weight ; and diminish 
not unto men aught of their matters ; neither commit 
injustice in the earth, acting corruptly. ^^ The residue 
which shall remain unto you as the gift of God, after ye 
shall have done justice to others, will be better for you, 
than wealth gotten by fraud ; if ye be true believers. ^^ I 
am no guardian over you. ^^ They answered, O Shoaib, 
do thy prayers enjoin thee, that ^ve should leave the gods 
which our fathers worshipped ; or that we should not do 
what we please with our substance? Thou only, it seems, 
art the wise person, and fit to direct. ^^ He said, O my 
people, tell me ; If I have received an evident declara- 
tion from my Lord, and he hath bestowed on me an 
excellent provision, and I will not consent unto you in 
that which I forbid you ; do I seek any other than your 

81 We turned those cities upside down.~\ — Arid they are not far distant from 
For they tell us, that Gabriel thrust his those who act unjustly,'] This is a kind of 
wing under them, and lifted them up so threat to other wicked persons, and parti- 
high, that the inhabitants of the lower cularly to the infidels of Mecca, who de- 
heaven heard the barking of the dogs, and served, and might justly apprehend, the 
the crowing of the cocks ; and then invert- same punishment. 

ing them, threw them down to the earth i. 83 Shoaib.] See chap. vii. 

— Stones of baked clay.] The kiln — I see you to be in a happy condition.] 

wherein they were burned some imagine That is, enjoying plenty of all things ; and 

to have been hell. therefore having the less occasion to de- 

82 And being marked.] i. e. As some fraud one another, and being the more 
suppose, streaked with white and red, or strongly bound to be thankful and obe- 
having some other peculiar mark to dis- dient unto God. 

tinguish them from ordinary stones. But 87 That we should not do what we please 

the common opinion is, that each stone with our substance.] For this liberty they 

had the name of the person who was to imagined was taken from them, by his 

be killed by it written thereon 2. The prohibition of false weights and mea- 

army of Abraha al Ashram was also de- sures, or to diminish or adulterate their 

stroyed by the same kind of stones. coin ^. 

^ Jallalo' ddin, Al Beiddwi, ^ lidem. ^ Al Beiddwi, 



26 A L KORAN. [chap. 

reformation to the utmost of my power ? My support is 
from God alone ; on him do I trust, and unto him do I 
turn me. ^^ O my people, let not your opposing of me, 
draw on you a vengeance like unto that which fell on the 
people of Noah, or the people of Hud, or the people of 
Saleh : neither was the people of Lot far distant from 
you. ^^ Ask pardon therefore of your Lord ; and be 
turned unto him ; for my Lord is merciful, and loving. 
^^ They answ^ered, O Shoaib, we understand not much of 
what thou sayest ; and we see thee to be a man of no 
power among us : if it had not been for the sake of thy 
family, we had surely stoned thee, neither couldest thou 
have prevailed against us. ^^ Shoaib said, O my peoj)le, 
is my family more worthy in your opinion, than God ? and 
do ye cast him behind you with neglect? Verily my 
Lord comprehendeth that which ye do. ^^ O my people, 
do ye work according to your condition ; I will surely 
work according to my duty. ^^ And ye shall certainly 
know on whom will be inflicted a punishment which shall 
cover him with shame, and who is a liar. Wait therefore 
the event ; for I also will wait it with you. ^^ Wherefore 
when our decree came to be executed, we delivered 
Shoaib and those who believed with him, through our 
mercy : and a terrible noise from heaven assailed those who 
had acted unjustly ; and in the morning they were found 
in their houses lying dead and prostrate, ^^ as though they 
had never dwelt therein. Was not Madian removed from 
off the earth, as Thamud had been removed ? ^^ And we 
formerly sent Moses with our signs, and manifest power, 
^^ unto Pharaoh and his princes : but they followed the 
command of Pharaoh ; although the command of Pha- 

89 Neither was the people of Lot far which disqualified him for the prophetic 

distant from you. ] For Sodom and Go- office. 

niorrah were situate not a great way from — For the sake of thy family.'] i. e. For 
you, and their destruction happened not the respect we bear to thy family and re- 
many ages ago ; neither did they deserve lations, whom we honour as being of our 
it, on account of their obstinacy and wick- religion, and not for any apprehension we 
edness, much more than yourselves. have of their power to assist you against 

91 A man of no power.] The Arabic us. The original word, here translated 

word Daif Weak, signifying also, in the Family, signifies any number from three 

Hamyaritic dialect. Blind, some suppose to seven or ten, but not more ^ 

that Shoaib was so, and that the Midian- 93 My duty.] See chap. vi. 

ites objected that to him, as a defect 97 Moses.] See chap. vii. 

* Al Beiddwi. 



XI.] AL KORAN. 27 

RAOH did not direct them aright. ^^ Pharaoh shall pre- 
cede his people on the day of resurrection, and he shall 
lead them into hell-fire: an unhappy way shall it be 
which they shall be led. ^^^ They were followed in this 
life by a curse, and on the day of resurrection miserable 
shall be the gift which shall be given them. ^^^ This is 
a part of the histories of the cities, which we rehearse 
unto thee. Of them there are some standing ; and others 
which are utterly demolished. ^^^ And we treated them 
not unjustly, but they dealt unjustly with their own souls: 
and their gods which they invoked, besides God, were of 
no advantage unto them at all, when the decree of thy 
Lord came to be executed on them, neither were they 
any other than a detriment unto them. ^^^ And thus was 
the punishment of thy Lord inflicted, when he punished 
the cities which were unjust ; for his punishment is griev- 
ous and severe. ^^* Verily herein is a sign unto him who 
feareth the punishment of the last day : that shall be a 
day whereon all men shall be assembled, and that shall be 
a day whereon witness shall be borne : ^^^ we defer it not, 
but to a determined time. ^^^ When that day shall come, 
no soul shall speak to excuse itself, or to intercede for 
another, but by the permission of God. Of them one 
shall be miserable, and another shall be happy. ^^^ And 
they who shall be miserable, shall be thrown into hell-fire ; 
there shall they wail and bemoan themselves. ^^^ They 
shall remain therein so long as the heavens and the earth 
shall endure ; except what thy Lord shall please to remit 
of their sentence ; for thy Lord afFecteth that which he 
pleaseth. ^^^ But they who shall be happy, shall be ad- 
mitted into paradise ; they shall remain therein so long as 

101 Demolished.'} Literally, 7nown shall endure.'\ This is not to be strictly 

down : the sentence presenting the dif- understood, as if either the punishment 

ferent images of corn standing and cut of the damned should have an end, or the 

down, which is also often used by the sacred heavens and the earth should endure for 

writers. ever; the expression being only used by 

107 There shall they wail and bemoan way of image or comparison, which needs 
themselves.'] The two w^ords in the original not agree in every point with the thing 
signify properly, the vehement drawing in signified. Some, however, think the fu- 
and expiration of one's breath, which is ture heavens and earth, into which the 
usual to persons in great pain and anguish ; present shall be changed, are here 
and particularly the reciprocation of the meant ^. 

voice of an ass, when he brays. — Remit, &c,} See the Prelim. Disc. 

108 So long as the heavens and the earth § iv. 

' Al Beiddwi. 



28 AL KORAN. [chap. 

the heavens and the earth endure ; besides what thy Lord 
shall please to add unto their bliss ; a bounty which shall 
not be interrupted. ^^^ Be not therefore in doubt con- 
cerning that which these men worship : they worship no 
other than what their fathers worshipped before them ; 
and we will surely give them their full portion, not in the 
least diminished. ^^^ We formerly gave unto Moses the 
book of the law ; and disputes arose among his people 
concerning it : and unless a previous decree had proceeded 
from thy Lord, to bear with him during this life, the 
matter had been surely decided between them. And thy 
people are also jealous and in doubt concerning the 
Koran. ^^^ But unto every one of them will thy Lord 
render the reward of their works ! for he well knoweth 
that which they do. ^^^ Be thou stedfast, therefore, as 
thou hast been commanded ; and let him also be steadfast 
who shall be converted with thee, and transgress not : for 
he seeth that which ye do. ^^^ And incline not unto those 
who act unjustly, lest the fire of hell touch you : for ye 
have no protectors, except God ; neither shall ye be as- 
sisted against him. ^^^ Pray regularly morning and even- 
ing, and in the former part of the night, for good works 
drive away evils. This is an admonition unto those who 
consider : ^^^ wherefore persevere with patience ; for God 
suifereth not the reward of the righteous to perish. 
117 "W^CTe such of the generations before you endued with 
understanding and virtue, who forbad the acting corruptly 
in the earth, any more than a few only of those whom we 
delivered ? But they who were unjust followed the delights 
which they enjoyed in this world, and were wicked doers : 
"^ and thy Lord was not of such a disposition as to de- 
stroy the cities unjustly, while their inhabitants behaved 

115 Morning and evening.'] Literally, sires and appetites, and placing their whole 

i7i the two extremities of the day. felicity therein. 

— And in the former part of the night.'] — Wicked doers.] Al Beidawi says, 

That is, after sunset, and before supper ; that this passage gives the reason why the 

when the Mohammedans say their fourth nations were destroyed of old ; viz. for their 

prayer, called by them Saldt al moghreb, violence and injustice, their following their 

or the evening prayer ^. own lusts, and for their idolatry and unbelief. 

117 Followed the delights which they 118 Unjustly.] Or as the commentator 

enjoyed in this world.] Making it their just named explains it,for their idolatry only, 

sole business to please their luxurious de- when they observedjustice in other respects. 

* Al Beidawi. 



XII.] AL KORAN. 29 

themselves uprightly. ^^^ And if thy Lord pleased, he 
would have made all men of one religion ; but they shall 
not cease to differ among themselves, unless those on 
v^hom thy Lord shall have mercy : and unto this hath 
he created them ; for the word of thy Lord shall be 
fulfilled, when he said. Verily I will fill hell altogether 
with genii and men. ^^^ The whole which we have related 
of the histories of our apostles do we relate unto thee, 
that we may confirm thy heart thereby ; and herein is the 
truth come unto thee, and an admonition, and a warning 
unto the true believers. ^^^ Say unto those who believe 
not, Act ye according to your condition ; we surely will 
act according to our duty : ^^^ and wait the issue ; for we 
certainly wait it also. ^^^ Unto God is known that which 
is secret in heaven and earth ; and unto him shall the 
whole matter be referred. Therefore worship him, and put 
thy trust in him ; for thy Lord is not regardless of that 
which ye do. 

121 DutyJ] See chap. vi. 



CHAPTER XIL 

INTITLED, JOSEPH; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God, 

' A. L. R. ^ These are the signs of the perspicuous book ; 
^ which we have sent down in the Arabic tongue, that 
peradventure ye might understand. ^ We relate unto 
thee a most excellent history, by revealing unto thee this 
Koran, whereas thou wast before one of the negligent. 

Title.'] The Koreish, thinking to puz- the Ajaredites and the Maimunians, as 

zle Mohammed, at the instigation, and by apocryphal and spurious, 

the direction, of certain Jewish Rabbins, 1 A. L. R.] See the Prelim. Disc, 

demanded of him how Jacob's family hap- 4 This Koran.] Or this particular chap- 

pened to go down into Egypt ; and that ter. For the word Koran, as has been 

he would relate to them the history of elsewhere observed 2, properly signifying 

Joseph, with all its circumstances : where- no more than a reading, or lecture, is often 

upon he pretended to have received this used to denote, not only the whole volume, 

chapter from heaven, containing the story but any distinct chapter, or section of 

of that patriarch ^. It is said, however, it. 

to have been rejected by two Mohamme- — One of the negligent.] i e. So far 

dan sects, branches of the Kharejites, called from being acquainted with the story, that 

1 Jl Beiddwi. 2 Prclim. Disc. § iii. p. 66. 



30 A L KORAN. [chap. 

^ When Joseph said unto his father, O my father, verily 
I saw in my dream eleven stars, and the sun and the 
moon ; I saw them make obeisance unto me. ^ Jacob 
said, O my child, tell not thy vision to thy brethren, lest 
they devise some plot against thee ; for the devil is a 
professed enemy unto man : ^ and thus, according to thy 
dream, shall thy Lord choose thee, and teach thee the 
interpretation of dark sayings, and he shall accomplish 
his favour upon thee and upon the family of Jacob, as he 
hath formerly accomplished it upon thy fathers Abraham 
and Isaac ; for thy Lord is knowing and wise. ^ Surely 
in the history of Joseph and his brethren there are signs 
of God's providence to the inquisitive ; ^ when they said 
to one another, Joseph and his brother are dearer to our 
father than we, who are the greater number : our father 
certainly maketh a wrong judgment. ^^ Wherefore slay 
Joseph, or drive him into some distant or desert part of 
the earth, and the face of your father shall be cleared 
towards you; and ye shall afterwards be people of in- 
tegrity. " One of them spoke and said. Slay not Joseph, 
but throw him to the bottom of the well ; and some 
travellers will take him up, if ye do this. ^^ They said 
unto Jacob, O father, why dost thou not intrust Joseph 
with us, since we are sincere well-wishers unto him? 

it never so much as entered into thy all difficulties respecting either religion or 

thoughts : a certain argument, says al justice. 

Beidawi, that it must have been revealed 9 His brother.'] Viz. Benjamin ; his 

to him from heaven. brother by the same mother. 

5 His father.'] Who was Jacob, the 10 The face of your father shall be 

son of Isaac, the son of Abraham ^. cleared towards you.] Or, he will settle 

— Eleven stars.] The commentators his love wholly upon you, and ye will 

give us the names of these stars, (which 1 have no rival in his favour, 

think it needless to trouble the reader 11 One of them, &:c.] This person, as 

with,) as Mohammed repeated them at some say, was Judah, the most prudent 

the request of a Jew, who thought to and noble-minded of them all ; or, ac- 

entrap him by the question ^. cording to others, Reuben, whom the 

6 Lest they devise some plot against Mohammedan writers call Rubil ^. And 
thee.] For they say, Jacob, judging that both these opinions are supported by the 
Joseph's dream portended his advance- account of Moses, who tells us, that Reuben 
ment above the rest of the family, justly advised them not to kill Joseph, but to 
apprehended his brethren's envy might throw him into a pit, privately intending 
tempt them to do him some mischief. to release him*, and that afterwards Judah, 

7 The interpretation of dark sayings.] in Reuben's absence, persuaded them not 
That is, of dreams ; or, as others suppose, to let him die in the pit, but to sell him to 
of the profound passages of scripture, and the Ishmaelites ^. 



^ A I Beidawi, &c. ^ Idem. Al Zamakhshari, ^ Al Beidawi. 

* Gen. xxxvii. 21, 22. ^ Ibid. v. 26, 27. 

1 



XII.] 



AL KORAN, 



31 



^" Send him with us to-morrow, into the field, that he may 
divert himself, and sport, and we will be his guardians. 
^* Jacob answered. It grieveth me that ye take him away ; 
and I fear lest the wolf devour him while ye are negligent 
of him. ^^ They said, Surely if the wolf devour him, 
when there are so many of us, we shall be weak indeed. 
^^ And when they had carried him with them, and agreed 
to set him at the bottom of the well, they executed their 
design : and we sent a revelation unto him, saying, Thou 
shalt hereafter declare this their action unto them ; and 
they shall not perceive thee to be Joseph. ^^ And they came 
to their father at even, weeping, and said, ^^ Father, we 
went and ran races with one another, and we left Joseph 
with our baggage, and the wolf hath devoured him ; but 
thou wilt not believe us, although we speak the truth. 
^^ And they produced his inner garment stained with false 



13 That he may divert himself , &c.] 
Some copies read, in the first person, plural. 
That we may divert ourselves, &c. 

14 Lest the ivolf devour him*'] The 
reason why Jacob feared this beast in par 
ticular, as the commentators say, was 
either because the land was full of wolves ; 
or else because Jacob had dreamed he saw 
Joseph devoured by one of those creatures ^. 

15 We shall he weak indeed.] i. e. It 
will be an instance of extreme weakness 
and folly in us, and we shall be justly 
blamed for his loss. 

16 At the bottom of the well.'] This 
well, say some, was a certain well near 
Jerusalem, or not far from the river Jor- 
dan ; but others call it the well of Egypt, 
or Midian. The commentators tell us, that 
when the sons of Jacob had gotten Joseph 
with them in the field, they began to 
abuse and beat him so unmercifully, that 
they had killed him, had not Judah, on 
his crying out for help, insisted on the 
promise they had made, not* to kill him, 
but to cast him into the well. Whereupon 
they let him down a little way ; but as he 
held by the sides of the well, they bound 
him, and took off his inner garment, 
designing to stain it with blood, to deceive 
their father. Joseph begged hard to have 
his garment returned him, but to no pur- 
pose, his brothers telling him, with a sneer, 



that the eleven stars and the sun and the 
moon might clothe him and keep him 
company. When they had let him down 
half-way, they let him fall thence to the 
bottom ; and there being water in the 
well, (though the scripture says the con- 
trary,) he was obliged to get upon a stone, 
on which as he stood weeping, the angel 
Gabriel came to him with the revelation 
mentioned immediately 2. 

— We sent a revelation unto him.] 
Joseph being then but seventeen years old, 
al Beidawi observes, that herein he re- 
sembled John the Baptist and Jesus, who 
were also favoured with the divine com- 
munication very early. The commenta- 
tors pretend that Gabriel also clothed him 
in the well with a garment of silk of 
paradise. For they say, that when Abra- 
ham was thrown into the fire by Nimrod ^, 
he was stripped ; and that Gabriel brought 
this garment, and put it on him ; and that 
from Abraham it descended to Jacob, who 
folded it up, and put it into an amulet, 
which he hung about Joseph's neck, whence 
Gabriel drew it out*. 

18 And ran races, &c.] These races 
they used by way of exercise ; and the 
commentators generally understand here 
that kind of race wherein they also showed 
their dexterity in throwing darts, which 
is still used in the east. 



^ A I Beidawi, Jallalo* ddirt, Al Zamakhshari. 
* Al Beiddwi, Al Zamakhshari. 



2 lidem. 



3 See chap. xxi. 



32 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



blood. Jacob answered, Nay, but ye yourselves have 
contrived the thing for your own sakes ; however, patience 
is most becoming, and God's assistance is to be implored 
to enable me to support the misfortune which ye relate. 
^^ And certain travellers came, and sent one to draw 
water for them : and he let down his bucket, and said. 
Good news ! this is a youth. And they concealed him, 
that they might sell him as a piece of merchandise : but 
God knew that which they did. ^^ And they sold him for 
a mean price, for a few pence, and valued him lightly. 
^^ And the Egyptian who bought him, said to his wife. 
Use him honourably ; peradventure he may be serviceable 
to us, or we may adopt him for our son. Thus did we 



19 Ye yourselves have contrived the 
thing, &c.] This Jacob had reason to 
suspect, because, when the garment was 
brought to him, he observed, that though 
it was bloody, yet it was not torn ^. 

20 Certain travellers.'] Viz. a caravan 
or company travelling from Midian to 
Egypt, who rested near the well three days 
after Joseph had been thrown into it. 

— They sent one to draw water, &c.] 
The commentators are so exact as to give 
us the name of this man, who, as they pre- 
tend, was Malec Ebn Dhor, of the tribe 
of Khozaah 2. 

— He let down his bucket.] And Jo- 
seph, making use of the opportunity, took 
hold of the cord, and was drawn up by 
the man. 

— Good news.] The original words 
are, Ya hoshra : the latter of which some 
take for the proper name of the water- 
drawer's companion, whom he called to 
his assistance : and then they must be 
translated, O Boshra. 

— They concealed him, &c.] The ex- 
positors are not agreed whether the pro- 
noun, they, relates to Malec and his com- 
panions, or to Joseph's brethren. They 
who espouse the former opinion say, that 
those who came to draw water, concealed 
the manner of their coming by him from 
the rest of the caravan, that they might 
keep him to themselves ; pretending that 
some people of the place had given him to 
them to sell for them in Egypt. And they 
who prefer the latter opinion, tell us, that 
Judah carried victuals to Joseph every day 
while he was in the well, but not finding 
him there on the fourth day, he acquainted 



his brothers with it : whereupon they all 
went to the caravan, and claimed Joseph 
as their slave, he not daring to discover 
that he was their brother, lest something 
worse should befal him ; and at length 
they agreed to sell him to them ^. 

21 They sold him for a mean price, &c.] 
Namel}'^, twenty or twenty-two dirhems, 
and those not of full weight neither ; for 
having weighed one ounce of silver only, 
the remainder was paid by tale, which is 
the most unfair way. of payment ^. 

22 The Egyptian who bought him.] His 
name was Kitfir, or Itfir, (a corruption 
of Potiphar;) and he was a man of great 
consideration, being superintendent of the 
royal treasury ^. 

The commentators say, that Joseph 
came into his service at seventeen, and 
lived with him thirteen years j and that 
he was made prime minister in the thirty- 
third year of his age, and died at an hun- 
dred and twenty. 

They who suppose Joseph was twice 
sold, differ as to the price the Egyptian 
paid for him : some saying it was twenty 
dinars of gold, a pair of shoes, and two 
white garments ; and others, that it was a 
large quantity of silver, or of gold. 

— His wife.] Some call her Rail; 
but the name she is best known by, is that 
of Zuleikha. 

— Or we may adopt him.] Kitfir hav- 
ing no children. It is said that Joseph 
gained his master's good opinion so sud- 
denly by his countenance; which Kitfir, 
who, they pretend, had great skill in phy- 
siognomy, judged to indicate his prudence 
and other good qualities. 



^ Al Beiddwi. 



2 Idem. 



' Idem. 



Idem. 



Idem. 



XII.] AL KORAN. 33 

prepare an establishment for Joseph in the earth, and we 
tanght him the interpretation of dark sayings : for God is 
well able to effect his purpose ; but the greater part of 
men do not understand. ^^ And when he had attained 
the age of strength, we bestowed on him wisdom, and 
knowledge ; for thus do we recompense the righteous. 
^^ And she, in whose house he was, desired him to lie 
with her ; and she shut the doors, and said. Come hither. 
He answered, God forbid ! Verily my lord hath made my 
dwelling with him easy ; and the ungrateful shall not 
prosper. ^^ But she resolved within herself to enjoy him, 
and he would have resolved to enjoy her, had he not seen 
the evident demonstration of his Lord. So we turned 
away evil and filthiness from him, because he was one of 
our sincere servants. ^^ And they ran to get one before 
the other to the door : and she rent his inner garment 
behind. And they met her lord at the door. She said. 
What shall be the reward of him who seeketh to commit 
evil in thy family, but imprisonment, and a painful punish- 
ment? ^^ And Joseph said. She asked me to lie with 
her. And a witness of her family bore witness, saying, 
If his garment be rent before, she speaketh truth, and he 
is a liar : ^^ but if his garment be rent behind, she lieth, 
and he is a speaker of truth. ^^ And when her husband 
saw that his garment was torn behind, he said, This is a 

24 My lord.'] Viz. Kitfir. But others master, appeared to him: but the more 
understand it to be spoken of God. general opinion is, that it was the appa- 

25 Had he not seen the evident deinon- rition of his father Jacob, who bit his fin- 
st ration of his Lord.'\ That is, had he not gers' ends; or, as some write, struck him 
seriously considered the filthiness of whore- on the breast; whereupon his lubricity 
dom, and the great guilt thereof. Some, passed out at the ends of his fingers ^. 
however, suppose that the words mean For this fable, so injurious to the cha- 
some miraculous voice or apparition, sent racter of Joseph, the Mohammedans are 
by God to divert Joseph from executing obliged to their old friends the Jews 2, 
the criminal thoughts which began to who imagine that he had a design to lie 
possess him. For they say, that he was with his mistress, from these words of 
so far tempted with his mistress's beauty Moses ^, And it came to pass — that Joseph 
and enticing behaviour, that he sat in her went into the house to do his business, &c. 
lap, and even began to undress himself, 26 They ran to the door."] He flying 
when a voice called to him, and bid him from her, and she running after to detain 
beware of her; but he taking no notice of him. 

this admonition, though it was repeated 27 A witness of her family.'] Viz. A 
three times, at length the angel Gabriel, cousin of hers, who was then a child in 
or, as others will have it, the figure of his the cradle^. 

^ Al jBeiddwiy al Zamakhsharif Jallalo' ddi7i, Yahya. ^ Talm. Babyl. Sed. 

Nashim, p. 36. V. Bartolocc. Bibl. Rabb. part. iii. p. 509. ^ Qenes. xxxix. 11. 

^ Supra citati interpretes. 

VOL. II. D • 



34 AL KORAN. [chap. 

cunning contrivance of your sex : for surely your cunning 
is great. ^^ O Joseph, take no farther notice of this affair : 
and thou, O woman, ask pardon for thy crime ; for thou 
art a guilty person. ^^ And certain women said publicly 
in the city. The nobleman's wife asked her servant to lie 
with her ; he hath inflamed her breast with his love, and 
we perceive her to be in a manifest error. ^^ And when 
she heard of their subtle behaviour, she sent unto them, 
and prepared a banquet for them, and she gave to each of 
them a knife ; and she said unto Joseph, Come forth unto 
them. And when they saw him, they praised him 
greatly ; and they cut their own hands, and said, O God ! 
this is not a mortal ; he is no other than an angel, 
deserving the highest respect. ^^ And his mistress said. 
This is he, for whose sake ye blamed me : I asked him to 
lie with me, but he hath constantly refused. But if he 
do not perform that which I command him, he shall 
surely be cast into prison, and he shall be made one of the 
contemptible. ^* Joseph said, O Lord, a prison is more 
eligible unto me than the crime to which they invite me ; 
but unless thou turn aside their snares from me, I shall 
youthfully incline unto them, and I shall become one 
of the foolish. ^^ Wherefore his Lord heard him, and 
turned aside their snare from him ; for he both heareth 
and knoweth. ^^ And it seemed good unto them, even 

31 Certain women^ &c.] These women, the pronoun to it here (which possibly the 
whose tongues were so free with Zuleikha's Latin translators did not observe) abso- 
character on this occasion, were five in lutely overthrows that interpretation, 
number, and the wives of so many of the — They cut their own handsJ] Through 
king's chief officers, viz. his chamberlain, extreme surprise at the wonderful beauty 
his butler, his baker, his jailer, and his of Joseph ; which surprise Zuleikha fore- 
herdsman *. seeing, put knives into their hands, on 

32 She sent unto them.'] The number purpose that this accident might happen, 
of all the women invited was forty, and Some writers have observed, on occasion 
among them were the five ladies above- of this passage, that it is customary in the 
mentioned 2. east for lovers to testify the violence of 

— They praised him greatly.'] The old their passion by cutting themselves, as a 

Latin translators have strangely mistaken sign that they would spend their blood in 

the sense of the original word Acbarnaho, the service of the person beloved ; which 

which they render Menstruates sunt / and is true enough ; but I do not find that any 

then rebuke Mohammed for the indecency, of the commentators suppose these Egyp- 

crying out demurely in the margin, O tian ladies had any such design. 

foedum Sf obscoenum prophetam ! Erpenius^ 36 It seemed good unto them,] That is, 

thinks that there is not the least trace to Kitfir and his friends. The occasion of 

of such a meaning in the word : but he is Joseph's imprisonment is said to be, either 

mistaken ; for the verb Cabara, in the that they suspected him to be guilty, not- 

fourth conjugation, which is here used, withstanding the proofs which had been 

has that import ; though the subjoining of given of his innocence; or else that Zu- 

1 Al Beiddwi. 2 idem. 3 jj^ ^q^^ ^^ Ylhi, Josephi. 



XII.] AL KORAN. 35 

after they had seen the signs of his innocency, to imprison 
him for a time. ^^ And there entered into the prison with 
him two of the king's servants. One of them said, It 
seemed to me in my dream that 1 pressed wine out of 
grapes. And the other said, It seemed unto me in my 
dream that I carried bread on my head, whereof the 
birds did eat. Declare unto us the interpretation of our 
dreams, for we perceive that thou art a beneficent per- 
son. ^^ Joseph answered. No food wherewith ye may be 
nourished shall come unto you, but I will declare unto 
you the interpretation thereof, before it come unto you. 
This knowledge is a part of that which my Lord hath 
taught me : for I have left the religion of people who 
believe not in God, and who deny the life to come ; ^^ and 
I follow the religion of my fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, 
and Jacob. It is not lawful for us to associate any thing 
with God. This knowledge of the divine unity hath been 
given us of the bounty of God towards us, and towards 
mankind ; but the greater part of men are not thankful. 
^^ O my fellow-prisoners, are sundry lords better, or the 
only true and mighty God ? ^^ Ye worship not, besides him, 
other than the names which ye have named, ye and your 
fathers, concerning which God hath sent down no autho- 
ritative proof: yet judgment belongeth unto God alone; 
who hath commanded that ye worship none besides him. 
This is the right religion : but the greater part of men 
know it not. ^^ O my fellow-prisoners, verily the one of 
you shall serve wine unto his lord, as formerly; but the 
other shall be crucified, and the birds shall eat from off 
his head. The matter is decreed concerning which ye 
seek to be informed. And Joseph said unto him, whom 
he judged to be the person who should escape of the two, 

leikha desired it, feigning to deceive her dare unto you the interpretation thereof 

husband, that she wanted to have Joseph before it come unto you.'] The meaning of 

removed from her sight, till she could con- this passage seems to be, either that Jo- 

quer her passion by time ; though her seph, to show he used no arts of divination 

real design was, to force him to com- or astrology, promises to interpret their 

pliance. dreams to them immediately even before 

37 Two of the king's servants.] Viz. they should eat a single meal : or else, he 
His chief butler and baker; who were ac- here offers to prophesy to them before- 
cused of a design to poison him. hand, the quantity and quality of the vic- 

— One of them.] Namely, the butler, tuals which should be brought them, as a 

38 No food wherewith ye may be nour- test of his skill. 

ished, shall come unto you, but I will de- 41 Names.] See chap. vii. 

D 2 



36 AL KORAN. [chap. 

Remember me in the presence of thy lord. But the devil 
caused him to forget to make mention of Joseph unto 
his lord, wherefore he remained in the prison some years. 
^^ And the king of Egypt said. Verily I saw in my dream 
seven fat kine, which seven lean kine devoured ; and 
seven green ears of corn, and other seven withered ears. 
O nobles, expound my vision unto me, if ye be able to 
interpret a vision. ^^ They answered, they are confused 
dreams : neither are we skilled in the interpretation of 
such kind of dreams. ^^ And Joseph's fellow-prisoner, 
who had been delivered, said, (for he remembered Joseph 
after a certain space of time,) I will declare unto you the 
interpretation thereof; wherefore let me go unto the 
person who will interpret it unto me. And he went to 
the prison, and said, ^^ O Joseph, thou man of veracity, 
teach us the interpretation of seven fat kine, which seven 
lean kine devoured ; and of seven green ears of corn, 
and other seven withered ears, which the king saw in 
his dream ; that I mav return unto the men who have 
sent me, that peradventure they may understand the 
same. ^^ Joseph answered. Ye shall sow seven years as 
usual : and the corn which ye shall reap, do ye leave in 
its ear, except a little whereof ye may eat. ^^ Then shall 
there come, after this, seven grievous years of famine, 
which shall consume what ye shall have laid up as a 
provision for the same, except a little which ye shall have 
kept. ^^ Then shall there come, after this, a year wherein 
men shall have plenty of rain, and wherein they shall 

42 But the devil caused him to forget to 43 The Icing of Egypt. ^ This prince, 

mention Joseph unto his lord.'] According as the oriental writers generally agree, was 

to the explication of some, who take the Riydn, the son of al Walid the Amale- 

pronoun, him^ to relate to Joseph, this kite^, who was converted by Joseph to 

passage may be rendered, But the devil the worship of the true God, and died in 

caused him (i. e. Joseph) to forget to the lifetime of that prophet. But some 

make his application unto his lord ; and pretend that the Pharaoh of Joseph and 

to beg the good offices of his fellow~pri- of Moses, were one and the same person, 

soner for his deliverance, instead of rely- and that he lived (or rather reigned) four 

ing on God alone, as it became a prophet, hundred years *. 

especially, to have done ^. 47 Ye shall leave the corn in the ear, 

— Some years.~\ The original word &c.] To preserve it from the weevil ^. 

signifying any number, from three to nine, 49 Wherein men shall have plenty of 

or ten ; the common opinion is, that Jo- rain.~\ Notwithstanding what some an- 

seph remained in prison seven years ; cient authors write to the contrary ^, it 

though some say he was confined no less often rains in winter in the Lower Egypt ; 

than twelve years 2. and even snow has been observed to fall 

^ Al Belddwi. ^ Idem, JallaWddin. ^ See the Prelim. Disc. p. 9, 10. 

* Al Beicldwi. See chap. vii. ^ Al Beiddwi. ^ PlatOy in Timaeo. Pomp. Mela, 



XII.] AL KORAN. 37 

press wine and oil. ^^ And when the chief butler had 
reported this, the king said. Bring him unto me. And 
when the messenger came unto Joseph, he said. Return 
unto thy lord, and ask of him, what was the intent of the 
women who cut their hands, for my Lord well knoweth 
the snare which they laid for me. ^^ And when the 
women were assembled before the king, he said unto 
them, What was your design, when ye solicited Joseph 
to unlawful love ? They answ^ered, God be praised ! we 
know not any ill of him. The nobleman's wife said. Now 
is the truth become manifest : I solicited him to lie with 
me ; and he is one of those who speak truth. ^^ And 
when Joseph was acquainted therewith, he said. This 
discovery hath been made that my lord might know that 
I was not unfaithful unto him in his absence, and that 
God directeth not the plot of the deceivers. [*XIII.] 
^^ Neither do I absolutely justify myself: since every soul 
is prone unto evil, except those on whom my Lord shall 
shew mercy ; for my Lord is gracious and merciful. 
^^ And the king said. Bring him unto me : I will take 
him into my own peculiar service. And when Joseph 
was brought unto the king, and he had discoursed with 

at Alexandria, contrary to the express — The snare which they had laid for 

assertion of Seneca ^ In the upper Egypt, me.'] Endeavouring, both by threats and 

indeed, towards the cataracts of Nile, it persuasions, to entice me to commit folly 

rains very seldom 2. Some, however, sup- with my mistress. 

pose I hat the rains here mentioned, are 53 Neither do I absolutely justify my-^ 

intended of those which should fall in self] According to a tradition of Ebn 

Ethiopia, and occasion the swelling of the Abbas, Joseph had no sooner spoken the 

Nile, the great cause of the fertility of foregoing words, asserting his innocency, 

Egypt; or else of those which should fall than Gabriel said to him. What! not 

in the neighbouring countries, which were when thou wast deliberating to lie with 

also afflicted with famine during the same her ? Upon which Joseph confessed his 

time. frailty*. 

50 Return unto thy lord, and ask of 54 And when Joseph ivas brought unto 

him, &c.] Joseph, it seems, cared not to the king, &c.] The commentators say, 

get out of prison, till his innocence was that Joseph being taken out of prison, 

publicly known and declared. It is ob- after he had washed and changed his 

served by the commentators, that Joseph clothes, w-as introduced to the king, whom 

does not bid the messenger move the king he saluted in the Hebrew tongue ; and on 

to inform himself of the truth of the affair, the king's asking what language that was, 

but bids him directly to ask the king, to he answered, that it was the language of 

incite him to make the ^proper inquiry his fathers. This prince, they say, un- 

with the greater earnestness. They also derstood no less than seventy languages, 

observe that Joseph takes care not to men- in every one of which he discoursed with 

tion his mistress, out of respect and gra- Joseph, who answered him in the same ; 

titude for the favours he had received while at which the king greatly marvelling, de- 

in her house ^. sired him to relate his dream, which he 

^ Nat. qusest. 1. 4. 2 ggg Greaves' Descr. of the Pyramids, p. 74, &c. Rai/s 

Collection of Travels, t. ii. p. 92. ^ ^i Beiddwi, &c. ■* Idem. 



38 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



him, he said, Thou art this day firmly established with us, 
and shalt be intrusted with our affairs. ^^ Joseph an- 
swered. Set me over the store-houses of the land ; for I 
will be a skilful keeper thereof. ^^ Thus did we establish 
Joseph in the land, that he might provide himself a 
dwelling therein, where he pleased. We bestow our 
mercy on whom we please, and we suffer not the reward 
of the righteous to perish : ^'^ and certainly the reward of 
the next life is better, for those who believe, and fear 
God. ^^ Moreover, Joseph's brethren came, and went in 
unto him ; and he knew them, but they knew not him. 
^^ And when he had furnished them with their provisions, 
he said. Bring unto me your brother, the son of your 



did, describing the most minute circum- 
stances ; whereupon the king placed Jo- 
seph by him on his throne, and made him 
his Wazir, or chief minister. Some say 
that his master Kitfir dying about this 
time, he not only succeeded him in his 
place, but, by the king's command, mar- 
ried the widow, his late mistress, whom he 
found to be a virgin, and who bare him 
Ephrahim and Manasses^. So that, ac- 
cording to this tradition, she is the same 
woman who is called Asenath by Moses. 
This supposed marriage, which authorized 
their amours, probably encouraged the 
Mohammedan divines to make use of the 
loves of Joseph and Zuleikha, as an alle- 
gorical emblem of the spiritual love be- 
tween tbe Creator and the creature, God 
and the soul ; just as the Christians apply 
the song of Solomon to the same mystical 
purpose 2. 

58 Moreover^ Joseph's brethren earner 
&c.] Joseph, being made Wazir, governed 
with great wisdom ; for he not only caused 
justice to be impartially administered, and 
encouraged the people to industry and the 
improvement of agriculture during the 
seven years of plenty, but began and per- 
fected several works of great benefit ; the 
natives at this day ascribing to the patri- 
arch Joseph almost all the ancient works of 
public utility throughout the kingdom; 
particularly the rendering the province of 
al Feyyum, from a standing pool or marsh, 
the most fertile and best cultivated land in 
all Egypt ^ When the years of famine 
came, the effects of which were felt not 
only in Egypt, but in Syria and the neigh- 
bouring countries, the inhabitants were 
obliged to apply to Joseph for corn, which 



he sold to them ; first for their money, 
jewels, and ornaments, then for their cattle 
and lands, and at length for their persons; 
so that all the Egyptians, in general, be- 
came slaves to the king; though Joseph, 
by his consent, soon released them, and 
returned them their substance. The dearth 
being felt in the land of Canaan, Jacob 
sent all his sons, except only Benjamin, into 
Egypt for corn. On their arrival, Joseph 
(who well knew them) asked them who 
they were, saying he suspected them to be 
spies ; but they told him they came only 
to buy provisions, and that they were all 
the sons of an ancient man named Jacob, 
who was also a prophet. Joseph then asked 
how many brothers there were of them ; 
and they answered, Twelve ; but that one 
of them had been lost in a desert. Upon 
which he inquired for the eleventh brother, 
there being no more than ten of them pre- 
sent. They said, he was a lad, and with 
their father, whose fondness for him would 
not suffer him to accompany them in their 
journey. At length Joseph asked them, 
who they had to vouch for their veracity ; 
but they told him they knew no man 
who could vouch for them in Egypt. 
Then, replied he, one of you shall stay be- 
hind with me as a pledge, and the others 
may return home with their provisions ; 
and when ye come again, ye shall bring 
your younger brother with you, that I may 
know ye have told me the truth. Where- 
upon, it being in vain to dispute the mat- 
ter, they cast lots who should stay behind, 
and the lot fell upon Simeon. When 
they departed, Joseph gave each of them 
a camel, and another for their bro- 
ther 4. 



1 Al Beiddwi, Kitah Tafasir, &c. 
^ V. Golii not. in Alfragan. p. 175, &c, 
Voy, torn, ii p. 205, & tom. iii, p. 53. 



2 V. D'Herbeloi, Bibl. Orient, art. Jousouf. 
Klrcher. (Edip. /Egypt, vol. i. p. 8. Lucas 
^ xil Beiddwi, 



XII.] AL KORAN. 39 

father : do ye not see that I give full measure, and that 
I am the most hospitable receiver of guests ? ^^ But if ye 
bring him not unto me, there shall be no corn measured 
unto you from me, neither shall ye approach my pre- 
sence. ^^ They answered, We will endeavour to obtain 
him of his father, and we will certainly perform what thou 
requirest. ^^ And Joseph said to his servants. Put their 
money, which they have paid for their corn, into their 
sacks, that they may perceive it, when they shall be re- 
turned to their family : peradventure they will come back 
unto us. ^^And when they were returned unto their 
father, they said, O father, it is forbidden to measure out 
corn unto us any more, unless we carry our brother Ben- 
jamin with us : wherefore send our brother ^with us, and 
we shall have corn measured unto us ; and we will cer- 
tainly guard him from any mischance. ^^ Jacob answered, 
Shall I trust him with you with any better success than 
I trusted your brother Joseph with you heretofore ? But 
God is the best guardian ; and he is the most merciful of 
those who shew mercy. ^^ And when they opened their 
provisions, they found their money had been returned unto 
them ; and they said, O father, what do we desire further ? 
This our money hath been returned unto us; we will there- 
fore return, and provide corn for our family : we will take 
care^ of our brother; and we shall receive a camel's bur- 
then more than we did the last time. This is a small 
quantity. ^^ Jacob said, I will by no means send him 
with you, until ye give me a solemn promise, and swear 
by God, that ye will certainly bring him back unto me, 
unless ye be encompassed by some inevitable impediment. 
And when they had given him their solemn promise, he 
said, God is witness of what we say. ^^ And he said. My 
sons, enter not into the city by one and the same gate ; 
but enter by diiferent gates. But this precaution will be 

62 Their money. ^ The original word now brought was not sufficient for the sup- 
signifying not only money, but also goods port of their families, so that it was neces- 
bartered or given in exchange for other sary for them to take another journey ; or 
merchandise ; some commentators tell us, else that a camel's load more or less was 
they paid for their corn, not in money, but but a trifle to the king of Egypt. Some 
in shoes and dressed skins i. suppose these to be the words of Jacob, 

65 Thisisasmallqumitity.'] The mean- declaring it was too mean a consideration 

ing may be, either that the corn they had to induce him to part with his son. 

^ Al BeiddwL 



40 A L KORAN. [chap. 

of no advantage unto you against the decree of God ; for 
judgment belongeth unto God alone : in him do I put my 
trust, and in him let those confide who seek in whom to 
put their trust. ^^ And when they entered the city, as 
their father had commanded them, it was of no advantage 
unto them against the decree of God ; and the same 
served only to satisfy the desire of Jacob's soul, which 
he had charged them to perform : for he was endued with 
knowledge of that which we had taught him ; but the 
greater part of men do not understand. ^^ And when 
they entered into the presence of Joseph, he received his 
brother Benjamin as his guest, and said. Verily I am thy 
brother: be not therefore afflicted for that which they 
have committed against us. ^^ And when he had furnished 
them with their provisions, he put his cup in his brother 
Benjamin's sack. Then a crier cried after them, saying, 
O company of travellers, ye are surely thieves. ^^ They 
said, (and turned back unto them,) What is it that ye 
miss ? ^^ They answered, We miss the prince's cup : and 
unto him. who shall produce it, shall be given a camel's 
load of corn ; and I will be surety for the same. ^^ Jo- 
seph's brethren replied, By God, ye do well know, that 
we came not to act corruptly in the land, neither are we 
thieves. ^^ The Egyptians said. What shall be the re- 
ward of him who shall appear to have stolen the cup, if 
ye be found liars ? ^^ Joseph's brethren answered. As to 
the reward of him, in whose sack it shall be found, let 
him become a bondman in satisfaction for the same : thus 

69 He received Ms brother Benjamin as of him whom he had lost ; to which Ben- 
Ms guest, &c.] It is related that Joseph, jamin replied, Who can find a brother 
having invited his brethren to an enter- comparable unto thee ? yet thou art not 
tainment, ordered them to be placed two the son of Jacob and Rachel. And upon 
and two together ; by which means, Ben- this Joseph discovered himself to him ^ 
j^min, the eleventh, was obliged to sit 7^ His cup.l Some imagine this to be 
alone, and, bursting into tears, said, If my a measure holding a Sad, (or about a gal- 
brother Joseph were alive, he would have Ion,) wherein they used to measure corn, 
sat with me. Whereupon Joseph ordered or give water to the beasts. But others 
him to be seated at the same table with take it to be a drinking-cup of silver or 
himself; and when the entertainment was gold. 

over, dismissed the rest, ordering that they 73 Ye well know thai we came not to act 

should be lodged two and two in a house ; corruptly, &c.] Both by our behaviour 

but kept Benjamin in his own apartment, among you ; and our bringing again our 

where he passed the night. The next day money, which was returned unto us with-. 

Joseph asked him, whether he would ac- out our knowledge, 

cept of himself for his brother, in the room Tb Thus do ive reward those who are 

^ Al Beiddwi. 



XII.] AL KORAN. 41 

do we reward the unjust, who are guilty of theft. '^^ Then 
he began by their sacks, before he searched the sack of 
his brother ; and he drew out the cup from his brother's 
sack. Thus did we furnish Joseph with a stratagem. It 
was not lawful for him to take his brother for a bondman, 
by the law of the king of Egypt, had not God pleased to 
allow it, according to the offer of his brethren. We exalt 
to degrees of knowledge and honour whom we please : 
and there is one who is knowing above all those who are 
endued with knowledge. ^^ His brethren said. If Benja- 
min be guilty of theft, his brother Joseph hath been also 
guilty of theft heretofore. But Joseph concealed these 
things in his mind, and did not discover them unto them : 
and he ^aid within himself. Ye are in a worse condition 
than us two ; and God best knoweth what ye discourse 
about. ^^ They said unto Joseph, Noble lord, verily this 
lad hath an aged father : wherefore take one of us in his 
stead ; for we perceive that thou art a beneficent person. 
^^ Joseph answered, God forbid that we should take any 
other than him with whom we found our goods ; for then 
should we certainly be unjust. And when they despaired 
of obtaining Benjamin, they retired to confer privately 
together. ^^ And the elder of them said. Do ye not 
know that your father hath received a solemn promise 
from you, in the name of God ; and how perfidiously ye 
behaved heretofore towards Joseph ? Wherefore I will 

guilty of theft. ~\ This was the method of take him from her, she contrived the fol- 

punishing theft, used by Jacob and his lowing stratagem to keep him. Having a 

family : for among the Egyptians it was girdle which had once belonged to Abra- 

punished in another manner. ham, she girt it about the child, and then 

76 He began by their sacks, &c.] Some pretending she had lost it, caused strict 
suppose this search was made by the per- search to be made for it : and it being at 
son whom Joseph sent after them ; others, length found on Joseph, he was adjudged, 
by Joseph himself, when they were brought according to the above-mentioned law of 
back to the city. the family, to be delivered to her as her 

— It was not lawful for him to take his property. Some, however, say, that Jo- 

br other for a bondman, by the law of Egypt. ^ seph actually stole an idol of gold, which 

For there the thief was not reduced to ser- belonged to his mother's father, and de- 

vitude, but was scourged, and obliged to stroyed it ; a story probably taken from 

restore the double of what he had stolen ^. Rachel's stealing the images of Laban : and 

77 His brother Joseph hath been guilty others tell us that he once stole a goat, or 
of theft heretofore.^ The occasion of this a hen, to give to a poor man 2. 
suspicion, it is said, was, that Joseph 80 The elder of them.~\ Viz. Reuben, 
having been brought up by his father's But some think Simeon or Judah to be 
sister, she became so fond of him, that here meant ; and instead of the elder, in- 
when he grew up, and Jacob designed to terpret it, the most prudent of them. 

' Jl Beiddwif Jallalo'ddin. - Jallalo'ddin, 



42 AL KORAN. [chap. 

by no means depart the land of Egypt, until my father 
give me leave to return unto him, or God maketh known 
his will to me ; for he is the best judge. ^^ Return ye to 
your father, and say, O father, verily thy son hath com- 
mitted theft ; we bear witness of no more than what we 
know, and we could not guard against what we did not 
foresee : ^^ and do thou inquire in the city, where we have 
been, and of the company of merchants with whom we 
are arrived, and thou wilt find that we speak the truth. 
^^ And when they were returned, and had spoken thus to 
their father, he said. Nay, but rather ye yourselves have 
contrived the thing for your own sakes ; but patience is 
most proper for me ; peradventure God will restore them 
all unto me ; for he is knowing and wise. ^* And he 
turned from them and said, O how I am grieved for 
Joseph ! And his eyes became white with mourning, he 
being oppressed with deep sorrow. ^^ His sons said. By 
God, thou wilt not cease to remember Joseph, until thou be 
brought to death's door, or thou be actually destroyed by 
excessive affliction. ^^ He answered, I only represent my 
grief, which I am not able to contain, and my sorrow unto 
God ; but I know, by revelation from God, that which ye 
know not. ^^ O my sons, go and make inquiry after 
Joseph and his brother ; and despair not of the mercy of 
God ; for none despaireth of God's mercy, except the 
unbelieving people. ^^ Wherefore Joseph's brethren re- 
turned into Egypt: and when they came into his presence, 
they said. Noble lord, the famine is felt by us and our 
family, and we are come with a small sum of money : yet 
give unto us full measure, and bestow corn upon us as 
alms ; for God rewardeth the alms-givers. ^^ Joseph 

83 Peradventure God will restore them yet alive ; of which some tell us he was 
alii &c.] i. e. Joseph, Benjamin, and Si- assured by the angel of death in a dream ; 
meon. though others suppose he depended on the 

84 His eyes became white.'] That is, completion of Joseph's dream, which must 
the pupils lost their deep blackness, and have been frustrated had he died before 
became of a pearl colour, (as happens in his brethren had bowed down before him 2. 
suffusions,) by his continual weeping; S^ A small sum of money .] Their money 
which very much weakened his sight, being clipped and adulterated. Some, 
or, as some pretend, made him quite however, imagine they did not bring mo- 
blind ^ ney, but goods to barter, such as wool and 

86 / know by revelation from God, that butter, or other commodities of small 
ivhich ye know not.] Viz. That Joseph is value 3. 

' Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. 



XII.] AL KORAN. 43 

said unto them. Do ye know what ye did unto Joseph 
and his brother, when ye were ignorant of the conse- 
quences thereof? ^^ They answered, Art thou really Jo- 
seph ? He replied, I am Joseph ; and this is my brother. 
Now hath God been gracious unto us. For whoso feareth 
God, and persevereth with patience, shall at length find 
relief; since God will not suffer the reward of the right- 
eous to perish. ^^ They said, By God, now hath God 
chosen thee above us ; and we have surely been sinners. 
^^ Joseph answered, Let there be no reproach cast on 
you this day. God forgiveth you; for he is the most 
merciful of those who shew mercy. ^^ Depart ye with 
this my inner garment, and throw it on my father's 
face ; and he shall recover his sight : and then come 
unto me with all your family. ^^And when the com- 
pany of travellers was departed from Egypt, on their 
journey towards Canaan, their father said unto those 
who were about him, -Verily I perceive the smell of 
Joseph ; although ye think that I dote. ^^ They answer- 
ed. By God, thou art in thy old mistake. ^^ But when 
the messenger of good tidings was come with Joseph's 
inner garment, he threw it over his face ; and he reco- 
vered his eye-sight. And Jacob said, Did I not tell you 

89 Do ye know what ye did unto Joseph 93 My inner garment.~\ Which the 
and his brother, &c.] The injury they did commentators generally suppose to be the 
Benjamin^ was the separating him from same garment with which Gabriel invested 
his brother ; after which they kept him him in the well ; which having originally 
in so great subjection, that he durst not come from paradise, had preserved the 
speak to them, but with the utmost submis- odour of that place, and was of so great 
sion. Some say that these words were virtue as to cure any distemper in the 
occasioned by a letter which Joseph's bre- person who was touched with it ^. 

thren delivered to him from their father, 94 I perceive the smell of Joseph.~\ This 

requesting the releasement of Benjamin, was the odour of the garment above- 

and by their representing his extreme mentioned, brought by the wind to Ja- 

affliction at the loss of him and his brother, cob, who smelt it, as is pretended, at the 

The commentators observe that Joseph, distance of eighty parasangs * ; or, as 

to excuse his brethren's behaviour towards others will have, three or eight days' jour- 

him, attributes it to their ignorance, and ney ofF^. 

the heat of youth ^ 95 Thou art in thy old mistake,^ Being 

90 Art thou really Joseph ?] They say led into this imagination by thy excessive 
that this question was not the effect of a love of Joseph. 

bare suspicion that he was Joseph, but that 96 The messenger of good tidings.^ viz. 

they actually knew him, either by his Judah, who, as he had formerly grieved 

face and behaviour; or by his fore-teeth, his father, by bringing him Joseph's coat 

which he shewed in smiling; or else by stained with blood, now rejoiced him as 

putting off his tiara, and discovering a much, by being the bearer of this vest, and 

whitish mole on his forehead -. the news of Joseph's prosperity ^. 

^ Al BeiddwL ^ Idem. ^ Xdem, Jallalo' ddin. * Idem. 

'' Jidlalo'ddin. ^ Al Beiddwi. 



44 AL KORAN. [chap. 

that I knew from God that which ye knew not ? ^^ They 
answered, O father, ask pardon of our sins for us, for we 
have surely been sinners. ^^ He replied, I will surely ask 
pardon for you of my Lord ; for he is gracious and mer- 
ciful. ^^And when Jacob and his family arrived in 
Egypt, and were introduced unto Joseph, he received 
his parents unto him, and said, Enter ye into Egypt, by 
God's favour, in full security. ^^^And he raised his 
parents to the seat of state, and they, together with his 
brethren, fell down and did obeisance unto him. And he 
said, O my father, this is the interpretation of my vision, 
which I saw heretofore ; now hath my Lord rendered it 
true. And he hath surely been gracious unto me, since 
he took me forth from the prison, and hath brought you 
hither from the desert ; after that the devil had sown 
discord between me and my brethren ; for my Lord is 
gracious unto whom he pleaseth ; and he is the knowing, 
the wise God. ^^^ O Lord, thou hast given me a part of 
the kingdom, and hast taught me the interpretation of 
dark sayings. The Creator of heaven and earth ! thou 
art my protector in this world, and in that which is to 
come : make me to die a Moslem, and join me with the 
righteous. ^^^This is a secret history which we reveal 
unto thee, O Mohammed, although thou wast not present 
with the brethren of Joseph when they concerted their 

98 I will ask pardon for you, ^c.'\ De- father and mother, after they had bowed 

ferring it, as some fancy, till he should down to him, and not before 2. 

see Joseph, and have his consent. 101 Make me to die, &c.] The Mo- 

— His parents."] Viz. His father, and hammedan authors write, that Jacob dwelt 

Leah, his mother's sister, whom he looked in Egypt twenty-four years, and at his 

on as his mother after Rachel's death ^. death ordered his body to be buried in 

Al Beidawi tells us, that Joseph sent Palestine by his father ; which Joseph 

carriages and provisions for his father, and took care to perform ; and then returning 

his family; and that he and the king of into Egypt, died twenty- three years after. 

Egypt went forth to meet them. He adds, They add, that such high disputes arose 

that the number of the children of Israel among the Egyptians concerning his bu- 

who entered Egypt with him, was seventy- rial, that they had like to have come to 

two; and that when they were led out blows; but at length they agreed to put 

thence by Moses, they were increased to his body into a marble coffin, and to sink 

six hundred thousand five hundred and it in the Nile ; out of a superstitious ima- 

seventy men, and upwards, besides the old gination, that it might help the regular 

people and children. increase of the river, and deliver them 

\{){i And he raised his parents to the seat from famine, for the future: but when 

of state, and they, together with his bre- Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt, he 

threiif fell down, and did obeisance unto took up the coffin, and carried Joseph's 

him.] A transposition is supposed to be bones with him into Canaan, where he 

in these words, and that he seated his buried them by his ancestors^. 

* Al Bciddwi. See Gen. xxxvii. 10. - Idem. ^ Al Beiddivi. 



xii.] AL KORAN. 45 

design, and contrived a plot against him. ^^^But the 
greater part of men, although thou earnestly desire it, 
will not believe. ^^^ Thou shalt not demand of them any 
reward for thy publishing the Koran ; it is no other than 
an admonition unto all creatures. ^^^ And how many signs 
soever there be of the being, unity, and providence of 
God, in the heavens and the earth ; they will pass by 
them, and will retire afar off from them. ^^^And the 
greater part of them believe not in God, without being 
also guilty of idolatry. ^^^ Do they not believe that some 
overwhelming affliction shall fall on them as a punish- 
ment from God ; or that the hour of judgment shall over- 
take them suddenly, while they consider not its approach ? 
^^^ Say unto those of Mecca, This is my way : I invite 
you unto God, by an evident demonstration ; both I and 
he who followeth me ; and praise be unto God ! I am 
not an idolater. ^^^ We sent not any apostles before thee, 
except men unto whom we revealed our will, and whom 
we chose out of those who dwelt in cities. Will they 
not go through the earth, and see what hath been the 
end of those who have preceded them ? But the dwelling 
of the next life shall surely be better for those who fear 
God. Will they not therefore understand? ^^^ Their 
predecessors were borne with for a time, until, when our 
apostles despaired of their conversion, and they thought 
that they were liars, our help came unto them, and we 
delivered whom we pleased ; but our vengeance was not 
turned away from the wicked people. ^^^ Verily, in the 
histories of the prophets and their people, there is an 
instructive example unto those who are endued with un- 
derstanding. The Koran is not a new-invented fiction ; 
but a confirmation of those scriptures which have been 
revealed before it, and a distinct explication of every thing 
necessary, in respect either to faith or practice, and a 
direction and mercy unto people who believe. 

106 Without being also guilty of ido- 109 Of those wJw dwelt in cities.^ And 
latry.~\ For this crime Mohammed charges not of the inhabitants of the deserts: be- 
not only on the idolatrous Meccans, but cause the former are more knowing and 
also the Jews and Christians; as has been compassionate, and the latter more igno- 
already observed more than once. rant and hardhearted ^. 

^ Al Beiddwi. See the Prelim. Disc. § i. p. 3G. 



46 AL KORAN. [chap. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

INTITLED THUNDER ; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ A. L. M. R. ^ These are the signs of the book of the 
Koran : and that which hath been sent down unto thee 
from thy Lord is the truth ; but the greater part of men 
will not believe. ^ It is God who hath raised the heavens 
without visible pillars; and then ascended his throne, 
and compelled the sun and the moon to perform their 
services : every of the heavenly bodies runneth an ap- 
pointed course. He ordereth all things. He sheweth his 
signs distinctly, that ye may be assured ye must meet 
your Lord at the last day. ^ It is he who hath stretched 
forth the earth, and placed therein stedfast mountains 
and rivers ; and hath ordained therein of every fruit two 
different kinds. He causeth the night to cover the day. 
Herein are certain signs unto people who consider. ^ And 
in the earth are tracts of land of different natures, though 
bordering on each other ; and also vineyards, and seeds, 
and palm-trees springing several from the same root, and 
singly from distinct roots. They are watered with the 
same water, yet we render some of them more excellent 
than others to eat. Herein are surely signs unto people 
who understand. ^ If thou dost wonder at the infidels' 
denying the resurrection, surely wonderful is their say- 
ing. After we shall have been reduced to dust, shall we 
be restored in a new creature ? ^ These are they who 
believe not in their Lord ; these shall have collars on 
their necks, and these shall be the inhabitants of hell- 

Title — Thunder,] This word occurs in sour, black and white, small and large, 

the fifteenth verse. &c. ^ 

Title — Mecca,'] Or, according to some 5 Lands of different nature.] Some 

copies, at Medina. tracts being fruitful, and others barren ; 

1 A, L. M. R.] The meaning of these some plain, and others mountainous ; some 

letters is unknown. Of several conjee- proper for corn, and others for trees, &c, ^ 

tural explications which are given of them, 7 These shall have collars on their necks.] 

the following is one : 1 am the most wise The collar here mentioned is an engine 

and knowing God. something like a pillory, but light enough 

4 Two different kinds.] As sweet and for the criminal to walk about with. Bc- 

1 Al Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin. ^ Idem. 



XIII.] AL KORAN. 47 

fire : therein shall they abide for ever. ^ They will ask 
of thee to hasten evil rather than good ; although there 
have already been examples of the divine vengeance be- 
fore them. Thy Lord is surely endued with indulgence 
towards men, notwithstanding their iniquity; but thy 
Lord is also severe in punishing. ^The infidels say, 
Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his Lord, we 
will not believe. Thou art commissioned to be a preacher 
only, and not a worker of miracles : and unto every peo- 
ple hath a director been appointed. ^^ God knoweth what 
every female beareth in her womb ; and what the wombs 
want or exceed of their due time, or number of young. 
With him is every thing regulated according to a deter- 
mined measure. ^^ He knoweth that which is hidden, 
and that which is revealed. He is the great, the most 
high. ^^ He among you who concealeth his words, and 
he who proclaimeth them in public ; he also who seeketh 
to hide himself in the night, and he who goeth forth 
openly in the day ; is equal in respiect to the knowledge 
of God. ^^ Each of them hath angels mutually succeed- 
ing each other, before him, and behind him ; they watch 
him by the command of God. Verily God will not change 
his grace which is in men, until they change the disposi- 
tion in their souls by sin. When God willeth evil on a 
people, there shall be none to avert it ; neither shall they 
have any protector beside him. ^^ It is he who causeth 
the lightning to appear unto you, to strike fear and to 
raise hope, and who formeth the pregnant clouds. ^^ The 
THUNDER celebrateth his praise, and the angels also, for 
fear of him. He sendeth his thunderbolts, and striketh 

sides the hole to fix it on the neck, there 13 Waich him.'] See the Prelim. Disc, 

is another for one of the hands, which is § iv. 

thereby fastened to the neck i. And in 14 To raise hope.'] Thunder and light- 

this manner the Mohammedans suppose ning being the sign of approaching rain : 

the reprobates will appear at the day of a great blessing, in the eastern countries 

judgment 2. Some understand this pas- more especially. 

sage figuratively, of the infidels' being 15 The thunder celebrateth ?iis praise.] 

bound in the chains of error and obsti- Or causeth those who hear it to praise him, 

nacy ^ Some commentators tell us, that by the 

8 They will ask of thee to hasten evil word thunder, in this place, is meant the 

rather than good.] Provoking and daring angel who presides over the clouds, and 

thee to call down the divine vengeance on drives them forwards with twisted sheets 

them for their impertinency. of fire *. 

1 V. Char din, Voy. de Perse, t. ii. p. 229. 2 gge chap. v. ^ Al Beiddwi. 

* Al Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin. 



48 AL KORAN. [chap. 

therewith whom he pleaseth, while they dispute concern- 
ing God, for he is mighty in power. ^^ It is he who ought 
of right to be invoked ; and the idols which they invoke 
besides him, shall not hear them at all ; otherwise than 
as he is heard, who stretched forth his hands to the 
water, that it may ascend to his mouth, when it can- 
not ascend thither : the supplication of the unbelievers 
is utterly erroneous. ^'^ Whatsoever is in heaven and on 
earth, w^orshippeth God voluntarily or of force : and 
their shadows also, morning and evening. ^^ Say, Who 
is the Lord of heaven and earth ? Answer, God. Say, 
Have ye therefore taken unto yourselves protectors be- 
beside him, who are unable either to help or to defend 
themselves from hurt ? Say, Shall the blind and the see- 
ing be esteemed equal ? or shall darkness and light be 
accounted the same ? or have they attributed companions 
unto God who have created as he hath created, so that 
their creation bear any resemblance unto his ? Say, God 
is the creator of all things ! he is the one, the victorious 
God. ^^ He causeth water to descend from heaven, and 
the brooks flow according to their respective measure, and 
the floods bear the floating froth : and from the metals 
which they melt in the fire, seeking to cast ornaments or 
vessels for use, there ariseth a scum like unto it. Thus 
God setteth forth truth and vanity. But the scum is 
thrown oiF, and that which is useful to mankind remaineth 
on the earth. Thus doth God put forth parables. ^^ Unto 

15 While they dispute concerning God.] the missionary, Who is this apostle; and 

This passage was revealed on the follow- what is God ? Is he of gold, or of silver, 

ing occasion. Amer Ebn al Tofail, and or of brass? Upon which a thunderbolt 

Arbad Ebn Rabiah, the brother of Labid, struck off his skull and killed him. 
went to Mohammed with an intent to kill 17 Whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, 

him; and Amer began to dispute with worshippeth God voluntarily or of force. ^ 

him concerning the chief points of his The infidels and devils themselves being 

doctrine, while Arbad, taking a compass, constrained to humble themselves before 

went behind him to despatch him with his him, though against their will, when they 

sword : but the prophet, perceiving his are delivered up to punishment, 
design, implored God's protection; where- — And their shadows also, morning and 

upon Arbad was immediately struck dead evening.~\ This is an allusion to the in- 

by thunder, and Amer was struck with a creasing and diminishing of the shadows 

pestilential boil, of which he died in a according to the height of the sun ; so that 

short time, in a miserable condition ^ when they are the longest, which is in the 

Jallalo'ddin, however, tells another morning and the evening, they appear 

story, saying, that Mohammed having sent prostrate on the ground, in the posture of 

one to invite a certain man to embrace his adoration, 
religion, the person put this question to 

* Jl Beiddwi. V. Golii not. in Adagia Arab, adject, ap. Gram. Erpenii, p. 99. 



XIII.] A L KORAN. 49 

those who obey their Lord shall be given the most ex- 
cellent reward : but those who obey him not, although 
they were possessed of whatever is in the whole earth, 
and as much more, they would give it all for their ransom. 
These will be brought to a terrible account : their abode 
shall be in hell ; an unhappy couch shall it be ! ^^ Shall he, 
therefore, who knoweth that what hath been sent down 
unto thee from thy Lord is truth, be rewarded as he who 
is blind ? ^^ The prudent only will consider ; who fulfil 
the covenant of God, and break not their contract ; ^^ and 
who join that which God hath commanded to be joined, 
and who fear their Lord, and dread an ill account ; ^^ and 
who persevere out of a sincere desire to please their 
Lord, and observe the stated times of prayer, and give 
alms out of what we have bestowed on them, in secret 
and openly, and who turn away evil with good: ^^ the 
reward of these shall be paradise, gardens of eternal abode, 
which they shall enter ; and also whoever shall have 
acted uprightly, of their fathers, and their wives, and their 
posterity : and the angels shall go in unto them by every 
gate, saying, ^^ Peace be upon you, because ye have en- 
dured with patience : how excellent a reward is paradise ! 
^^ But as for those who violate the covenant of God, after 
the establishment thereof, and who cut in sunder that 
which God hath commanded to be joined, and act cor- 
ruptly in the earth, on them shall a curse fall, and they 
shall have a miserable dwelling in hell. ^^ God giveth 
provision in abundance unto whom he pleaseth, and is 
sparing unto whom he pleaseth. Those of Mecca re- 
joice in the present life ; although the present life, 
in respect of the future, is but a precarious provi- 
sion. ^^ The infidels say, Unless a sign be sent down 
unto him from his Lord, we will not believe. Answer, 
Verily God will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and 
will direct unto himself him who repenteth, and those 
who believe, and whose hearts rest securely in the medi- 
tation of God. ^^ Shall not men's hearts rest securely in 

23 JVho join that which God hath tice of their duty, both towards God and 

commanded to be joined.'] By believing man i. 

in all the prophets without exception, 25 Gardens of eternal abode.] Literally, 

and joining thereto the continual prac- gardens of Eden, See chap. ix. 

^ Jl Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin, Yahya. 
VOL. II. E 



50 A L KORAN. [chap. 

the meditation of God ? ^^ They who believe, and do 
that which is right, shall enjoy blessedness, and partake of 
a happy resurrection. ^^ Thus have we sent thee to a 
nation which other nations have preceded, unto whom 
prophets have likewise been sent, that thou mayest re- 
hearse unto them that which we have revealed unto thee, 
even while they believe not in the merciful God. ^^ Say 
unto them, He is my Lord ; there is no God but he : in 
him do I trust, and unto him must I return. ^^ Though 
a Koran were revealed, by which mountains should be 
removed, or the earth cleaved in sunder, or the dead be 
caused to speak, it would be in vain. But the matter 
belongeth wholly unto God. Do not, therefore, the be- 
lievers know, that if God pleased, he would certainly 
direct all men ? Adversity shall not cease to afflict the 
unbelievers for that which they have committed, or to sit 
down near their habitations, until God's promise come : 
for God is not contrary to the promise. ^^ Apostles be- 
fore thee have been laughed to scorn ; and I permitted 
the infidels to enjoy a long and happy life : but afterwards 
I punished them ; and how severe was the punishment 
which I inflicted on them ! ^^ Who is it therefore that 
standeth over every soul, to observe that which it com- 
mitteth? They attribute companions unto God. Say, 
Name them: will ye declare unto him that which he 
knoweth not in the earth ? or will ye name them in out- 
ward speech only ? But the deceitful procedure of the 

34 Though a Kordn were revealed^ by are spoken to Mohammed, and then they 

which mountains should be removed, &c.] must be translated in the second person, 

These are miracles which the Koreish re- Nor shalt thou cease to sit down, &c. For 

quired of Mohammed ; demanding that he they say this verse relates to the idolaters 

would, by the power of his Koran, either of Mecca, who were afflicted with a series 

remove the mountains from about Mecca, ofmisfortunes for their ill usage of their pro- 

that they might have delicious gardens in phet, and were also continually annoyed 

their room ; or, that he would oblige the and harassed by his parties, which fre- 

wind to transport them with their mer- quently plundered their caravans, and 

chandize to Syria; (according to which drove off their cattle ; himself sitting down 

tradition the words here translated, or the with his whole army near the city in the 

earth cleaved in sunder, should be ren- expedition of al Hodeibiya 2. 

dered, or the earth be travelled over in an — Until God's promise come.~\ i. e. Till 

instant;) or else raise to life Kosai Ebn death and the day of judgment overtake 

Kelab ^ and others of their ancestors, to them; or, according to the exposition in 

bear witness to him; whereupon this pas- the preceding note, until the taking of 

sage was revealed. Mecca ^. 

— Or to sit down near their habitations.'] 36 In outward speech only.] That is, 

It is supposed by some, that these words calling them the companions of God, with- 



> See chap. viii. ^ ji Beiddwi. ^ Idem. 



XIII.] A L KORAN, 51 

infidels was prepared for them ; and they are turned aside 
from the right path : for he whom God shall cause to err, 
shall have no director. ^^ They shall suffer punishment in 
this life ; but the punishment of the next shall be more 
grievous : and there shall be none to protect them against 
God. ^^ This is the description of paradise, which is pro- 
mised to the pious. It is watered by rivers ; its food is 
perpetual, and its shade also : this shall be the reward of 
those who fear God. But the reward of the infidels shall 
be hell-fire. ^^ Those to whom we have given the scrip- 
tures, rejoice at what hath been revealed unto thee. Yet 
there are some of the confederates who deny part thereof. 
Say unto them. Verily I am commanded to worship God 
alone ; and to give him no companion : upon him do I 
call, and unto him shall I return. ^^ To this purpose have 
we sent down the Koran, a rule of judgment, in the 
Arabic language. And verily if thou follow their desires, 
after the knowledge which hath been given thee, there 
shall be none to defend or protect thee against God. 
^^ We have formerly sent apostles before thee, and bestowed 
on them wives and children; and no apostle had the 
power to come with a sign, unless by the permission of 
God. Every a^e hath its book of revelation : God shall 
abolish and shall confirm what hjB^leaseth. With him is the 
original of the book. ^^ Moreover, whether we cause thee 
to see any part of that punishment wherewith we have 

out being able to assign any reason, or 41 And bestowed on them wives and 

give any proof, why they deserve to be children.^ As we have on thee. This 

sharers in the honour and worship due passage was revealed in answer to the re- 

from mankind to him ^. preaches which were cast on Mohammed 

39 2%ose to whom we have given the on account of the great number of his 

scriptureSf &c.] Viz. The first proselytes wives. For the Jews said, That if he was 

to Mohammedism from Judaism and Chris- a true prophet, his care and attention would 

tianity, or the Jews and Christians in be employed about something else than 

general, who were pleased to find the Ko- women, and the getting of children *. It 

ran so consonant to their own scriptures 2. may be observed, that it is a maxim with 

— Some of the confederates, ^c,'\ That the Jews, that nothing is more repugnant 
is, such of them as had entered into a con- to prophecy than carnality ^. 
federacy to oppose Mohammed: as did — The original of the hook. '] Literally, 
Caab Ebn al Ashraf, and the Jews who the mother of the book ; by which is meant 
followed him ; and al Seyid al Najrani, al the preserved table, from which all the 
Akib, and several other Christians ; who written revelations which have been from 
denied such parts of the Koran as contra- time to time published to mankind, accord- 
dieted their corrupt doctrines and tradi- ing to the several dispensations, are tran- 
tions ^ scripts. 

^AlBeiddwi. 2 ggg ^y^ap. iii. ^ Idem. ^ Jallalo'ddin, Yahya. 

^ V. Maimon, More Nev. part. 2. c. 36, &c. 

E 2 



5^ AL KORAN. [chap. 

threatened them, or whether we cause thee to die before 
it be inflicted on them, verily unto thee belongeth preach- 
ing only, but unto us inquisition. ^^ Do they not see that 
we come into their land, and straiten the borders thereof, 
by the conquests of the true believers ? When God 
judgeth, there is none to reverse his judgment : and he 
will be swift in taking an account. ^^ Their predecessors 
formerly devised subtle plots against their prophets ; but 
God is master of every subtle device. He knoweth that 
which every soul deserveth : and the infidels shall surely 
know whose will be the reward of paradise. ^^ The un- 
believers will say. Thou art not sent of God. Answer, 
God is a suflScient witness between me and you, and he 
who understandeth the scriptures. 

45 The unbelievers,^ The persons intended in this passage, it is said, were the 
Jewish doctors ^. 

* Al BeiddwL 



CHAPTER XIV. 

INTITLED, ABRAHAM ; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ A. L. R. ^ This book have we sent down unto thee, that 
thou mayest lead men forth from darkness into light, by 
the permission of their Lord, into the glorious and laud- 
able way. ^ God is he unto whom belongeth whatsoever 
is in heaven and on earth : and woe be to the infidels, 
because a grievous punishment waiteth them ; ^ who love 
the present life above that which is to come, and turn 
men aside from the way of God, and seek to render it 
crooked : these are in an error far distant from the truth. 
^ We have sent no apostle but with the language of his 
people, that he might declare their duty plainly unto 

Title — Abraham.'] Mention is made of plainly unto them.~\ That so they might 

this patriarch towards the end of the not only perfectly and readily understand 

chapter. those revelations themselves, but might 

1 See the Prelim. Disc. § iii. also be able to translate and interpret rhem 

5 That he might declare their duty unto others ^. 

^ Al Beiddwi, 



XIV.] A L KORAN. 53 

them ; for God causeth to err whom he pleaseth, and 
directeth whom he pleaseth ; and he is the mighty, the 
wise. ^ We formerly sent Moses with our signs, and 
commanded him, saying, Lead forth thy people from 
darkness into light, and remind them of the favours of 
God : Verily therein are signs unto every patient and 
grateful person. ^ And call to mind when Moses said 
unto his people. Remember the favour of God towards 
you, when he delivered you from the people of Pharaoh : 
they grievously oppressed you ; and they slew your male 
children, but let your females live : therein was a great 
trial from your Lord. ^ And when your Lord declared, 
by the mouth of Moses, saying. If ye be thankful, I will 
surely increase my favours towards you; but if ye be 
ungrateful, verily my punishment shall be severe. ^ And 
MosES said. If ye be ungrateful, and all who are in the 
earth likewise ; verily God needeth not your thanks, 
though he deserveth the highest praise. ^^Hath not the 
history of the nations your predecessors reached you; 
namely, of the people of Noah, and of Ad, and of 
Thamud, and of those who succeeded them, whose num- 
ber none knoweth except God ? Their apostles came 
unto them with evident miracles ; but they clapped their 
hands to their mouths out of indignation, and said. We 
do not believe the message with which ye pretend to be 
sent ; and we are in a doubt concerning the religion to 
which ye invite us, as justly to be suspected. ^^ Their 
apostles answered. Is there any doubt concerning God, 
the creator of heaven and earth ? He inviteth you to the 
true faith, that he may forgive you part of your sins, and 
may respite your punishment, by granting you space to 
repent, until an appointed time. They answered, Ye are 

6 The favours of God.^ Literally, the 11 Part of your sins.^ That is, such of 
days of God; which ma}^ also be trans- them as were committed directly against 
lated, the battles of God, (the Arabs using God, which are immediately cancelled by 
the word day to signify a remarkable en- faith, or embracing Islam ; but not the 
gagement, as the Italians do Giornata, and crimes of injustice and oppression, which 
the French Journee,) or his wonderful acts were committed against man ^ : for, to 
manifested in the various success of former obtain remission of these last, besides 
nations in their wars ^. faith, repentance, and restitution accord- 

7 Females live,'] See chap. 7- ing to a man's ability, are also neces- 
10 Thamud.] See ibid. sary. 

1 Al Beiddwi. » Idem. 



54 AL KORAN. [chap. 

but men like unto us: ye seek to turn us aside from the gods 
which our fathers worshipped ; wherefore bring us an evi- 
dent demonstration, by some miracle, that ye speak truth. 
^^ Their apostles replied unto them. We are no other than 
men like unto you ; but God is bountiful unto such of his 
servants as he pleaseth ; ^^ and it is not in our power to give 
you a miraculous demonstration of our mission, unless by the 
permission of God ; in God therefore let the faithful trust. 
And what excuse have we to allege, that we should not 
put our trust in God, since he hath directed us our paths ? 
Wherefore we will certainly suffer with patience the per- 
secution wherewith ye shall afflict us : in God therefore 
let those put their confidence who seek in whom to put 
their trust. ^*And those who believed not, said unto 
their apostles. We will surely expel you out of our land, 
or ye shall return unto our religion. And their Lord 
spake unto them by revelation, saying. We will surely 
destroy the wicked doers ; ^^ and we will cause you to 
dwell in the earth after them. This shall be granted unto 
him who shall dread the appearance at my tribunal, and 
shall fear my threatening. ^^ And they asked assistance 
of God, and every rebellious perverse person failed of 
success. ^^ Hell lieth unseen before him, and he shall 
have filthy water given him to drink : ^^ he shall sup it 
up by little and little, and he shall not easily let it pass 
his throat, because of its nauseousness. Death also shall 
come upon him from every quarter, yet he shall not die ; 
and before him shall there stand prepared a grievous 
torment. *^ This is the likeness of those who believe not 
in their Lord. Their works are as ashes, which the wind 
violently scattereth in a stormy day ; they shall not be 
able to obtain any solid advantage from that which they 
have wrought. This is an error most distant from truth. 
^" Dost thou not see that God hath created the heavens 

16 They asked assistance of God.'\ The the preceding, but is spoken of the people of 

commentators are uncertain whether these Mecca, who begged rain in a great drought 

were the prophets who begged assistance with which they were afflicted at the prayer 

against their enemies, or the infidels, who of their prophet, but could not obtain it^. 

called for God's decision between them- 17 Filthy water."] Which will issue 

selves and them; or both. And some from the bodies of the damned, mixed with 

suppose this verse hath no connexion with purulent matter and blood. 

^ Al Beiddwi. 



XIV.] A L KORAN. 55 

and the earth in wisdom ? If he please, he can destroy 
you, and produce a new creature in your stead : neither 
will that be difficult with God. ^*And they shall all 
come forth into the presence of God at the last day : and 
the weak among them shall say unto those who behaved 
themselves arrogantly, Verily we were your followers on 
earth ; will ye not therefore avert from us some part of 
the divine vengeance ? They shall answer. If God had 
directed us aright, we had certainly directed you. It is 
equal unto us whether we bear our torments impatiently, 
or whether we endure them with patience ; for we have 
no way to escape. ^^ And Satan shall say, after judgment 
shall have been given. Verily God promised you a promise 
of truth ; and I also made you a promise ; but I deceived 
you. Yet I had not any power over you to compel you ; 
but I called you only, and ye answered me : wherefore 
accuse not me, but accuse yourselves. I cannot assist 
you : neither can ye assist me. Verily I do now renounce 
your having associated me with God heretofore. A 
grievous punishment is prepared for the unjust. ^^ But 
they who shall have believed, and wrought righteousness, 
shall be introduced into gardens wherein rivers flow ; they 
shall remain therein for ever, by the permission of their 
Lord ; and their salutation therein shall be. Peace ! 
^'^ Dost thou not see how God putteth forth a parable, 
representing a good word as a good tree, whose root is 
firmly fixed in the earth, and whose branches reach unto 
heaven ; which bringeth forth its fruit in all seasons, by 
the will of its Lord ? God propoundeth parables unto 
men, that they may be instructed. ^^ And the likeness 

21 The weak shall say unto those who blame your own folly in obeying and trust- 
hehave arrogantly.^ i.e. The more simple ing to me, who had openly professed my- 
and inferior people shall say to their teach- self your irreconcilable enemy. 

ers and princes who seduced them to idol- — I do now renounce your having asso- 

atry, and confirmed them in their obstinate dated me with God heretofore.^ Or, I do 

infidelity. now declare myself clear of your having 

— If God had directed us aright, we obeyed me preferably to God, and wor- 

had certainly directed you."] That is, We shipped idols at my instigation. Or the 

made the same choice for you as we did words may be translated, I believed not 

for ourselves ; and had not God permitted heretofore in that being with whom ye did 

us to fall into error, we had not seduced associate me ; intimating his first disobe- 

you. dience in refusing to worship Adam at 

22 Wherefore accuse not me, &c.] Lay God's command ^ 

not the blame on my temptations, but 23 Peace.^ See chap. x. 

^ Al Beiddwi, 



56 AL KORAN. [chap. 

of an evil word is as an evil tree ; which is torn up from 
the face of the earth, and hath no stability. ^^ God shall 
confirm them Avho believe, by the steadfast word of faith, 
both in this life and in that which is to come : but God 
shall lead the wicked into error ; for God doth that which 
he pleaseth. ^'^ Hast thou not considered those who have 
changed the grace of God to infidelity, and cause their 
people to descend into the house of perdition, namely, 
into hell ? ^^ They shall be thrown to burn therein ; and 
an unhappy dwelling shall it be. ^^ They also set up 
idols as co-partners with God, that they might cause men 
to stray from his path. Say unto them. Enjoy the plea- 
sures of this life for a time ; but your departure hence 
shall be into hell-fire. ^^ Speak unto my servants who 
have believed, that they be assiduous at prayer, and give 
alms out of that which we have bestowed on them, both 
privately and in public, before the day cometh wherein 
there shall be no buying or selling, neither any friendship. 
^^ It is God who hath created the heavens and the earth ; 
and causeth water to descend from heaven, and by means 
thereof produceth fruits for your sustenance : and by his 
command he obligeth the ships to sail in the sea for your 
service : and he also forceth the rivers to supply your 

25 Evil word.~\ What is particularly them ; as he did the Meccans, who, though 

intended in this passage by the good word, God had placed them in the sacred terri- 

and the evil word, the expositors differ, tory, and given them the custody of the 

But the first seems to mean the profession Caaba, and abundant provision of all ne- 

of God's unity, the inviting others to the cessaries and conveniences of life, and had 

true religion, or the Koran itself ; and the also honoured them by the mission of 

latter, the acknowledging a plurality of Mohammed, yet, in return for all this, 

gods, the seducing of others to idolatry, became obstinate unbelievers, and perse- 

or the obstinate opposition of God's pro- cuted his apostle ; for which they were not 

phets ^. only punished by a famine of seven years, 

2f> And in that which is to come.'] Jal- but also by the loss and disgrace they 

lalo'ddin supposes the sepulchre to be here sustained at Bedr ; so that they who had 

understood ; in which place when the true before been celebrated for their prosperity, 

believers come to be examined by the two were now stripped of that, and become 

angels concerning their faith, they will conspicuous only for their infidelity 3. If 

answer properly, and without hesitation ; this be the drift of the passage, it could not 

which the infidels will not be able to have been revealed at Mecca, as the rest 

do 2. of the chapter is agreed to be ; wherefore 

27 Hast thou not considered those who some suppose this verse and the next to 

have changed the grace of God to infidelity ^ have been revealed at Medina. 
&c.] That is, who requite his favours 31 He ohligeth.'] The word used here, 

with disobedience and incredulity. Or, and in the following sentences, is Sakhk- 

whose ingratitude obliged God to deprive hara, which signifies forcibly to press into 

them of the blessings he had betowed on any service *. 

* Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin, ^ See the Prelim. Disc, § iv. p. 90. 

^ Al Beiddwi. * See chap. ii. p. 25, note 166. 



XIV.] AL KORAN. 57 

uses ; ^^ he likewise compelleth the sun and the moon, 
which diligently perform their courses, to serve you ; and 
hath subjected the day and the night to your service. 
33 jj^ giveth you of every thing which ye ask him ; and 
if ye attempt to reckon up the favours of God, ye shall 
not be able to compute the same. Surely man is unjust 
and ungrateful. ^* Remember when Abraham said, O 
Lord, make this land a place of security ; and grant that 
I and my children may avoid the worship of idols ; ^^ for 
they, O Lord, have seduced a great number of men. 
^^ Whoever therefore shall follow me, he shall be of me ; 
and whosoever shall disobey me; verily thou wilt be 
gracious and merciful. ^^ O Lord, I have caused some of 
my offspring to settle in an unfruitful valley, near thy 
holy house, O Lord, that they may be constant at prayer. 
Grant, therefore, that the hearts of some men may be 
affected with kindness toward them ; and do thou 
bestow on them all sorts of fruits, that they may give 
thanks. ^^ O Lord, thou knowest whatsoever we conceal, 
and whatsoever we publish : for nothing is hidden from 
God, either on earth or in heaven. Praise be unto God, 
who hath given me, in my old age, Ismael and Isaac : 
for my Lord is the hearer of supplication. ^^ O Lord, 
grant that I may be an observer of prayer, and a part of 
my posterity also, O Lord ; and receive my supplication. 

34 This land.'] Viz. The territory of out of doors ; whereupon he sent them to 

Mecca. See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. the territory of Mecca, where God caused 

— And my children.'] This prayer, it the fountain of Zemzem to spring forth 

seems, was not heard as to all his pos- for their relief, in consideration of which, 

terity, particularly as to the descendants of the Jorhamites, who were the masters of 

Ismael ; though some pretend that these the country, permitted them to settle 

latter did not worship images, but only among them 2. 

paid a superstitious veneration to certain — The hearts of some men^ &c.] Had 

stones, which they set up, and compassed, he said the hearts of men absolutely, the 

as representations of the Caaba ^ Persians and Romans would also have 

36 Thou wilt he gracious and merciful.] treated them as friends; and both the 
That is, by disposing him to repentance. Jews and Christians would have made 
But Jallalo'ddin supposes these words were their pilgrimages to Mecca ^. 

spoken by Abraham before he knew that — Bestow on them fruits.] This 

God would not pardon idolatry. part of the prayer was granted ; Mecca 

37 Some of my offspring.] i.e. Ismael being so plentifully supplied, that the 
and his posterity. The Mohammedans fruits of spring, summer, and autumn, 
say, that Hagar, his mother, belonged to are to be found there at one and the 
Sarah, who gave her to Abraham ; and same time '*. 

that on her bearing him this son, Sarah 39 And a part of my posterity.] For 
became so jealous of her, that she pre- he knew by revelation that some of them 
vailed on her husband to turn them both would be infidels. 

1 Al Beiddwi. See the Prelim. Disc. § i. p. 23, 24. 2 ^/ BeiddwL 

3 Idem, Jallalo'ddin. * lidem. 



58 AL KORAN. [chap. 

O Lord, forgive me and my parents, and the faithful on 
the day whereon an account shall be taken. *^ Think 
not, O prophet, that God is regardless of what the 
ungodly do. *^ He only deferreth their punishment unto 
the day whereon men's eyes shall be fixed : ^^ they shall 
hasten forward at the voice of the angel calling to judg- 
ment, and shall lift up their heads ; they shall not be able 
to turn their sight from the object whereon it shall be 
fixed, and their hearts shall be void of sense through 
excessive terror. ^^ Wherefore do thou threaten men 
with the day whereon their punishment shall be inflicted 
on them, and whereon those who have acted unjustly 
shall say, O Lord, give us respite unto a term near at 
hand ; ^^ and we will obey thy call, and we will follow thy 
apostles. But it shall be answered unto them. Did ye 
not swear heretofore, that no reverse should befal you ? 
^^ yet ye dwelt in the dwellings of those who had treated 
their own souls unjustly ; and it appeared plainly unto 
you how we had dealt with them ; and we propounded 
their destruction as examples unto you. ^^ They employ 
their utmost subtilty to oppose the truth ; but their 
subtilty is apparent unto God, who is able to frustrate 
their designs ; although their subtilty were so great, that 
the mountains might be moved thereby. ^^ Think not 
therefore, O prophet, that God will be contrary to his 
promise of assistance, made unto his apostles ; for God is 
mighty, able to avenge. •^^ ThejdayjwilL.ci3inB^.„.w^ 
earth shall be chai^ 
into other heavens ; and men shall^come forth from their 

39 Forgive me and my parents.'] Abra- — And it appeared plainly unto you 

ham put up this petition to God before he how we had dealt with them."] Not only 

knew that his parents were the enemies of by the histories of those people revealed in 

God ^ Some suppose his mother was a the Koran, but also by the monuments 

true believer, and therefore read it in the remaining of them (as the houses of the 

singular. And my father. Others fancy Thamudites), and the traditions preserved 

that by his parents the patriarch here among you of the terriblejudgments which 

means Adam and Eve 2. befel them. 

44 That no reverse should befal you,] i. e. 48 When the earth shall be changed into 
That ye should not taste of death, but con- another earth, and the heavens into other 
tinue in this world for ever; or that ye should heavens.] This the Mohammedans sup- 
not after death be raised to judgment ^. pose will come to pass at the last day ; the 

Ab The dwellings of those who had treated earth becoming white and even, or, as 

their own souls unjustly.] Wz.Oiihe k6\ies some will have it, of silver; and the 

and Thamudites. heavens of gold*. 



^ See chap. ix. ^ Jallalo'ddin, Al Beiddwi. ^ Al Beiddwi, J allalo' ddin , 

Al Zamahhsharij Yahya. ^ lidem. V. Prelim. Disc. § iv. p. 101. 



XV.] AL KORAN. 69 

graves to appear before the only, the mighty God. ^^ And 
thoiLiEi]OS3^ 
Mtfixa^^^Jitheir^m^ 

shall cover their faces: ^Hhat GoD may reward every 
soul according to what it shall have deserved ; for God is 
swift in taking an account. ^^ This is a sufficient admo- 
nition unto men, that they may be warned thereby, and 
that they may know that there is but one God ; and that 
those who are endued with understanding may con- 
sider. 



CHAPTER XV. 

INTITLED, HEJR; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

* A. L. R. ^ These are the signs of the book, and of the 
perspicuous Koran. [*XIV.] ^The time may come 
when the unbelievers shall wish that they had been 
Moslems. ^ Suffer them to eat, and to enjoy themselves 
in this world; and let hope entertain them: but they 
shall hereafter know their folly. ^ We have not destroyed 
any city, but a fixed term of repentance was appointed 
them. ^ No nation shall be punished before their time 
shall be come ; neither shall they be respited after. ^ The 
Meccans say, O thou to whom the admonition hath been 
sent down, thou art certainly possessed with a devil: 
^ wouldest thou not have come unto us with an attendance 
of angels, if thou hadst spoken truth ? ^ Answer, We send 
not down the angels unless on a just occasion : nor should 

Title — HejrJ] Al Hcjr is a territory in 7 The admonition,'] i. e. The revela- 

the province of Hejaz, between Medina tions which compose the Koran, 
and Syria, where the tribe of ThamCid 9 A just occasion,] When the Divine 

dwelt ^ ; and is mentioned towards the end Wisdom shall judge it proper to use their 

of the chapter. ministry, as in bearing his revelations to 

1 A, L, R.] See the Prelim. Disc, the prophets, and the executing his sen- 

§ iii. tence on wicked people ; but not to humour 

3 When the unbelievers shall wish that you with their appearance in visible 
they had been Moslems.] Viz. When they shapes, which, should your demand be corn- 
shall see the success and prosperity of the plied with, would only increase your con- 
true believers; or when they shall come to fusion, and bring God's vengeance on you 
die ; or at the resurrection. the vsooiier. 



1 See Prelim. Disc. p. 8. 



60 A L KORAN. [cijap. 

they be then respited any longer. ^^ We have surely 
sent down the Koran ; and we will certainly preserve 
the same from corruption. ^^ We have heretofore sent 
apostles before thee, among the ancient sects : ^^ and 
there came no apostle unto them, but they laughed him 
to scorn. ^^ In the same manner will we put it into the 
hearts of the wicked Meccans to scoff at their prophet : 
^^ they shall not believe on him ; and the sentence of the 
nations of old hath been executed heretofore. ^^ If we 
should open a gate in the heaven above them, and they 
should ascend thereto all the day long, they would surely 
say. Our eyes are only dazzled : or rather we are a people 
deluded by enchantments. ^^ We have placed the twelve 
signs in the heaven, and have set them out in various 
figures for the observation of spectators : ^^ and w^e guard 
them from every devil driven away with stones ; ^^ except 
him who listeneth by stealth, at whom a visible flame is 
darted. ^^ We have also spread forth the earth, and 
thrown thereon stable mountains ; and we have caused 
every kind of vegetable to spring forth in the same, 
according to a determinate weight : ^^ and we have pro- 
vided therein necessaries of life for you, and for him whom 
ye do not sustain. ^^ There is no one thing but the 
storehouses thereof are in our hands : and we distribute 
not the same otherwise than in a determinate measure. 
^^ We also send the winds driving the pregnant clouds, 
and we send down from heaven water, whereof we give 
you to drink, and which ye keep not in store. ^^ Verily 

10 From corruption,'] See the Prelim, birth of Mohammed they were forbidden 

Disc. § iv. the other four *. 

15 Jnd they should ascend thereto.'] — Stones,] See chap. iii. 
i.e. The incredulous Meccans themselves ; 18 At whom a visible flame is darted,] 

or, as others rather think, the angels in For when a star seems to fall or shoot, 

visible forms. the Mohammedans suppose the angels, 

17 We guard them from every devil, 8ic,] who keep guard in the constellations, 

For the Mohammedans imagine that the dart. them at the devils who approach too 

devils endeavour to ascend to the constel- near. 

lations, to pry into the actions, and over- 20 And for him whom ye do not sustain,'] 
hear the discourse, of the inhabitants of Viz. Your family, servants, and slaves, 
heaven, and to tempt them. They also whom ye wrongly imagine that ye feed 
pretend that these evil spirits had the yourselves ; though it is God who pro- 
liberty of entering any of the heavens till vides for them as well as you 2 : or, as 
the birth of Jesus, when they were ex- some rather think, the animals, of whom 
eluded three of them ; but that on the men take no care ^ 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ Jallalo' ddin. 



XV.] A L KORAN. 61 

\v^^ive Jlfej^ M^ w^^^ and we are the heirs of 

all things. ^^ We know those among you who go before ; 
and we know those who stay behind. ^^ And thy Lord 
shall gather them together at the last day ; for he is 
knowing and wise. ^^ We^creatjei^ of dried clay^^^^^ of 
black mud forme^^jnto shape : ^^ and we had before 
created the devil, of subtile fire. ^^ And remember when 
thy Lord said unto the angels, Verily I am about to 
create man of dried clay, of black mud. wrought into 
shape : ^^ when therefore I shall have completely formed 
him, and shall have breathed of my spirit into him, do ye 
fall down and worship him. ^^ And all the angels wor- 
shipped Adam together, ^^ except Eblis, who refused to 
be with those who worshipped him. ^^ And God said 
unto him, O Eblis, what hindered thee from being with 
those who wm^shippe"d"AbTM? answered, llTp not 

fit that I should worship man, whom thou hast created of 
dried clayroT Hack mud, wrought into shape. ^^ God 
said. Get thM'^Tnierefi)re liencej fo thou shalt be driven 
away with stones : ^''^ and a curse shall be on thee, until the 
day of judgment. ^^^ The devil said, O Lord, give me 
respite until the day of resurrection. ^^ God answered, 
Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited until 
the day of the appointed time. ^^ The devil replied, 
O Lord, because thou hast seduced me, I will surely 
tempt them to disobedience in the earth ; and I will 
seduce them all ; ^^ except such of them as shall be thy 
chosen servants. ^^ God said. This is the right way with 
me. ^^ Verily as to my servants, thou shalt have no 
power over them ; but over those only who shall be 
seduced, and who shall follow thee. ^^ And hell is surely 
denounced unto them all : "^^ it hath seven gates : unto 

23 The heirs of all things.'] i. e. x\lone Mohammed's followers, on seeing a very 
surviving, w^hen all creatures shall be dead beautiful woman at prayers behind the 
and annihilated. prophet ; some of them going out of the 

24 We know those among you who go mosque before her, to avoid looking on her 
before, and those who stay behind.] What more nearly ; and others staying behind, 
these words particularly drive at, is uncer- on purpose to view her ^. 

tain. Some think them spoken of the 26 Created, &c.] See chap. ii. 

different times of men's several entrance 31 Eblis.] See ibid, and chap. 7. 

into this world, and their departure out of 40 This is the right way with me.] Viz. 

it ; others of the respective forwardness The saving of the elect, and the utter 

and backwardness of Mohammed's men in reprobation of the wicked, according to my 

battle ; and a third says, the passage was eternal decree, 

occasioned by the different behaviour of 43 Gates, Bzc] See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. 



At Beiddwi. 



62 AL KORAN. [chap. 

every gate a distinct company of them shall be assigned. 
^* But those who fear God shall dwell in gardens, amidst 
fountains. ^^ The angels shall say unto them, Enter ye 
therein in peace and security. *^ And we will remove all 
grudges from their breasts ; they shall be as brethren, 
sitting over-against one another on couches : *^ weariness 
shall not affect them therein, neither shall they be cast 
out thence for ever. ^^ Declare unto my servants that I 
am the gracious, the merciful God ; ^^ and that my 
punishment is a grievous punishment. ^^ And relate unto 
them the history of Abraham's guests. ^^ When they 
went in unto him, and said. Peace be unto thee ; he 
answered, Verily we are afraid of you ; ^^ and they replied, 
Fear not ; we bring thee the promise of a wise son. ^^ He 
said, Do ye bring me the promise of a son now old age 
hath overtaken me ? what is it therefore that ye tell me ? 
^* They said. We have told thee the truth ; be not there- 
fore one of those who despair. ^^ He answered. And 
who despaireth of the mercy of God, except those who 
err ? ^^ And he said, What is your errand therefore, O 
messengers of God ? ^^ They answered. Verily we are 
sent to destroy a wicked people : ^^ but as for the family 
of Lot, we will save them all, except his wife ; ^^ we have 
decreed that she shall be one of those who remain be- 
hind to be destroyed with the infidels. ^^ And when the 
messengers came to the family of Lot, ^^ he said unto them. 
Verily ye are people who are unknown to me. ^^ They 
answered. But we are come unto thee to execute that 
sentence, concerning which your fellow-citizens doubted : 
^^ we tell thee a certain truth ; and we are messengers of 
veracity. ^^ Therefore lead forth thy family in some time 
of the night ; and do thou follow behind them ; and let 
none of you turn back ; but go whither ye are commanded. 

46 We will remove all grudges from their which might be construed a sign of con- 

breasts.l That is, all hatred and ill-will tempt. 

which they bore each other in their life- 50 Abraham's guests.'] See chap. xi. 
time ^ ; or, as some choose to expound it, 51 We are afraid of you.] What occa- 

all envy or heartburning on account of the sioned Abraham's apprehension was, either 

different degrees of honour and happiness their sudden entering without leave, or 

to which the blessed will be promoted, their coming at an unseasonable time ; or 

according to their respective merits. else their not eating with him. 

— Sitting over-against one another.] 64 Whither ye are commanded.] Wbich 

Never turning their backs to one another 2; was into Syria, or into Egypt ^. 



^ See chap. vii. ^ JallaWddin. ^ At Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin. 



XV.] AL KORAN. 63 

^^ And we gave him this command, because the utmost 
remnant of those people was to be cut off in the morning : 
^^ And the inhabitants of the city came unto Lot, rejoicing 
at the news of the arrival of some strangers. ^^ And he 
said unto them, Verily these are my guests : wherefore do 
not disgrace me by abusing them ; ^^ but fear God, and 
put me not to shame. ^^ They answered, Have we not 
forbidden thee from entertaining or protecting any man ? 
^^ Lot replied. These are my daughters : therefore rather 
make use of them, if ye be resolved to do what ye 
purpose. ^^ As thou livest they wander in their folly. 
^^ Wherefore a terrible storm from heaven assailed them 
at sun-rise ; ^^ and we turned the city upside down ; and 
we rained on them stones of baked clay. ^^ Verily herein 
are signs unto men of sagacity : ^^ and those cities were 
punished, to point out a right way for men to walk in. 
^^ Verily herein is a sign unto the true believers. ^^ The 
inhabitants of the wood near Midian were also ungodly ; 
'^^ wherefore we took vengeance on them. And both of 
them were destroyed, to serve as a manifest rule for men 
to direct their actions by. ^^ And the inhabitants of Al 
Hejr likewise heretofore accused the messengers of God 
of imposture : ^^ and we produced our signs unto them, 
but they retired afar off from the same. ^\ And they 
hewed houses out of the mountains to secure themselves. 
^^ But a terrible noise from heaven assailed them in the 
morning : ^^ neither was what they had wrought of any 
advantage unto them. ^^ We have not created the heavens 
and the earth, and whatever is contained between them, 
otherwise than injustice: and the hour of judgment shall 
surely come. Wherefore, O Mohammed, forgive thy 
people with a gracious forgiveness. ^^ Verily thy Lord 
is the creator of thee and of them, and knoweth what is 

71 They wander, &c.] Some will have 78 We took vengeance on them.'] De- 

these words spoken by the angels to Lot; stroying them for their incredulity and 

others by God to Mohammed. disobedience, by a hot, suffocating wind 2. 

'JT The inhabitants of the wood.] To whom 79 The inhabitants of al Hejr.'] Who 

Shoaib was also sent ; as well as to the in- were the tribe of Thamud ^. 

habitants of Midian. Abu'lfeda says these 84 Forgive, &c.] This verse, it is said, 

people dwelt near Tabuc, and that they was abrogated by that of the Sword, 
were not of the same tribe with Shoaib \ 

^ See also Geogr. Nub. p. 110. * ji Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin. ^ See chap. vii. 

and Prelim. Disc. p. 8. 



64 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



most expedient. ^^ We have already brought unto thee 
seven verses which are frequently to be repeated, and the 
glorious Koran. ^^ Cast not thine eyes on the good 
things which we have bestowed on several of the unbe- 
lievers, so as to covet the same ; neither be thou grieved 
on their account. ^^ Behave thyself with meekness to- 
wards the true believers ; and say, I am a public preacher. 
^^ If they believe not, we will inflict a like punishment on 
them, as we have inflicted on the dividers, ^^ who distin- 
guished the Koran into different parts ; ^^ for by thy 
Lord, we will demand an account from them all, ^^ of 
that which they have wrought. ^^ Wherefore publish that 
which thou hast been commanded, and withdraw from the 
idolaters. ^^ We will surely take thy part against the 
scoflers, ^^ who associate with God another god ; they 
shall surely know their folly. ^^ And now we well know 



86 Seven verses^ 8fc.'] That is, the first 
chapter of the Koran, which consists of so 
many verses : though some suppose the 
seven long chapters ^ are here intended. 

87 Cast not thine eyes on the good things 
which we have bestowed on several of the 
unbelievers J &c.] That is, Do not envy 
or covet their worldly prosperity, since 
thou hast received in the Koran a blessing, 
in comparison whereof, all that we have 
bestowed on them, ought to be contemned 
as of no value. Al Beidawi mentions a 
tradition, that Mohammed meeting at 
Adhriat (a town of Syria) seven caravans 
very richly laden, belonging to some Jews 
of the tribes of Koreidha and al Nadir, 
his men had a great mind to plunder them, 
saying. That those riches would be of 
great service for the propagation of God's 
true religion. But the prophet represented 
to them, by this passage, that they had 
no reason to repine, God having given 
them the seven verses, which were infi- 
nitely more valuable than those seven 
caravans ^. 

89 The dividers.'] Some interpret the 
original word, the obstructors^ who hin- 
dered men from entering Mecca, to visit 
the temple, lest they should be persuaded 
to embrace Islam ; and this, it is said, was 
done by ten men who were all slain at 
Bedr. Others translate the word, Who 
hound themselves by oath ; and suppose 
certain Thamudites, who swore to kill 
Saleh by night, are here meant. But the 
sentence more probably relates to the Jews 



and Christians, who (say the Mohamme- 
dans) receive some part of the scriptures, 
and reject others ; and also approved of 
some passages of the Koran, and disap- 
proved of others, according to their preju- 
dices ; or else to the unbelieving Meccans, 
some of whom called the Koran, a piece of 
witchcraft ; others, flights of divination ; 
others, old stories ; and others, a poetical 
composition ^. 

94 We will take thy part against the 
scoffers.] This passage, it is said, was re- 
vealed on account of five noble Koreish, 
whose names were al Walid Ebn al Mog- 
heira, al As Ebn Wayel, Oda Ebn Kais, 
al Aswad Ebn Abd Yaghuth, and al Aswad 
Ebn al Motalleb. These were inveterate 
enemies of Mohammed, continually perse- 
cuting him, and turning him into ridicule : 
wherefore at length Gabriel came, and told 
him that he was commanded to take his 
part against them ; and on the angel's 
making a sign towards them one after 
another, al Walid passing by some arrows, 
one of them hitched in his garment, and 
he, out of pride, not stooping to take it 
off, but walking forward, the head of it 
cut a vein in his heel, and he bled to 
death. Al As was killed with a thorn, 
which struck him into the sole of his foot, 
and caused his leg to swell to a monstrous 
size. Oda died with violent and perpetual 
sneezing. Al Aswad Ebn Abd Yaguth 
run his head against a thorny tree, and 
killed himself, and al Aswad Ebn al Mo- 
talleb was struck blind *. 



^ See chap. ix. 



2 Al Beidawi. 



^ Idem, Jallalo' ddin. 



* Al Beiddwi. 



XVI.] AL KORAN. 65 

that thou art deeply concerned on account of that which 
they say : ^^ but do thou celebrate the praise of thy Lord; 
and be one of those who worship : ^^ and serve thy Lord, 
until death shall overtake thee. 

98 Death.] Literally, That which is certain. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

INTITLED, THE BEE ; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ THE sentence of God will surely come to be executed ; 
wherefore do not hasten it. Praise be unto him ! and far 
be that from him which they associate with him ! ^ He 
shall cause the angels to descend with a revelation by his 
command, unto such of his servants as he pleaseth, saying, 
preach that there is no God, except myself; therefore fear 
me. ^ He hath created the heavens and the earth to 
manifest his justice ; far be that from him which they 
associate with him ! ^ He hath created man of seed ; and 
yet behold he is a professed disputer against the resurrec- 
tion. ^ He hath likewise created the cattle for you : from 
them ye have wherewith to keep yourselves warm, and 
other advantages ; and of them do ye also eat. ^ And 
they are likewise a credit unto you, when ye drive them 
home in the evening, and when ye lead them forth to 
feed in the morning : ^ arid they carry your burdens to a 
distant country, at which ye could not otherwise arrive, 
unless with great difficulty to yourselves: for your Lord 
is compassionate and merciful. ^ And he hath also created 
horses, and mules, and asses, that ye may ride thereon, 
and for an ornament unto you ; and he likewise createth 

Title— Bee.~\ This insect is mentioned with a rotten bone, and asked him whether 

about the middle of the chapter. it was possible for God to restore it to life ^, 

Title — Mecca.^ Except the three last 5 Ye have wherewith to keep yourselves 

verses. warm.'] Viz. Their skins, wool, and hair, 

4 Behold he is a professed disputer which serve you for clothing. 

against the resurrection.] The person 6* J credit unto you.] Being a grace 

particula ly intended in this place, was to your court-yards, and a credit to you in 

Obba Ebn Khalf, who came to Mohammed the eyes of your neighbours ^. 

* ^l Beiddwi. - ^ Idem. 

VOL. II. F 



66 A L KORAN. [chap. 

other things which ye know not. ^ It appertaineth unto 
God, to instruct men in the right way ; and there is who 
turneth aside from the same : but if he had pleased, he 
would certainly have directed you all. ^^ It is he who 
sendeth down from heaven rain-water, whereof ye have to 
drink, and from which plants, whereof ye feed your cattle, 
receive their nourishment. ^^ And by means thereof he 
causeth corn, and olives, and palm-trees, and grapes, and 
all kinds of fruits, to spring forth for you. Surely herein 
is a sign of the divine power and wisdom unto people who 
consider. ^^ And he hath subjected the night and the 
day to your service ; and the sun, and the moon, and the 
stars, which are compelled to serve by his command. 
Verily herein are signs unto people of understanding. 
^^ And he hath also given you dominion over whatever he 
hath created for you in the earth, distinguished by its 
different colour. Surely herein is a sign unto people who 
reflect. ^* It is he who hath subjected the sea unto you, 
that ye might eat fish thereout, and take from thence 
ornaments for you to wear: and thou seest the ships 
ploughing the waves thereof, that ye may seek to enrich 
yourselves of his abundance, by commerce ; and that ye 
might give thanks. ^^ And he hath thrown upon the 
earth mountains firmly rooted, lest it should move with 
you, and also rivers, and paths, that ye might be directed : 
^^ and he hath likewise ordained marks whereby men may 
know their way; and they are directed by the stars. 
^^ Shall God therefore, who createth, be as he who 
createth not? Do ye not therefore consider? ^^If ye 
attempt to reckon up the favours of God, ye shall not be 

13 Distinguished by its different co- Mohammedans suppose that the earth, 
lour.'] That is, of every kind ; the va- when first created, was smooth and equal, 
rious colour of things being one of their and- thereby liable to a circular motion as 
chief distinctions ^ well as the celestial orbs : and that the 

14 Fish.] Literally /res^i flesh; by angels asking, who could be able to stand 
which fish is meant, as being naturally on so tottering a frame, God fixed it the 
more fresh, and sooner liable to corrup- next morning by throwing the mountains 
lion, than the flesh of birds and beasts, on il. 

The expression is thought to have been 16 And they are directed by the stars.] 

made use of here the rather, because the Which are their guides not only at sea, 

production of such fresh food from salt but also on land, when they travel by 

water is an instance of God's power 2. night through the deserts. The stars which 

— Ornaments.] As pearls and coral. they observe for this purpose are either the 

15 Lest it should move with you.] The Pleiades, or some of those near the pole. 



1 Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. 



XVI.] AL KORAN. 67 

able to compute their number. God is surely gracious 
and merciful ; ^^ and God knowetli that which ye conceal, 
and that which ye publish. ^^ But the idols which ye 
invoke, besides God, create nothing, but are themselves 
created. ^^ They are dead, and not living ; neither do 
they understand when they shall be raised. ^^ Your God 
is one God. As to those who believe not in the life to 
come, their hearts deny the plainest evidence, and they 
proudly reject the truth. ^^ There is no doubt but God 
knoweth that which they conceal, and that which they 
discover ; verily he lovetli not the proud. ^^ And when 
it is said unto them, What hath your Lord sent down 
unto Mohammed ? they answer. Fables, of ancient times. 
^^ Thus are they given up to error, that they may bear 
their own burthens without diminution on the day of re- 
surrection, and also a part of the burthens of those whom 
they caused to err, without knowledge. Will it not be 
an evil burthen which they shall bear ? ^^ Their prede- 
cessors devised plots heretofore ; but God came unto 
their building, to overthrow it from the foundations ; and 
the roof fell on them from above, and a punishment came 
upon them, from whence they did not expect. ^^ Also 
on the day of resurrection he will cover them with shame ; 
and will say, Where are my companions, concerning 
whom ye disputed ? Those unto whom knowledge shall 
have been« given, shall answer, This day shall shame and 
misery fall upon the unbelievers. ^^ They whom the 
angels shall cause to die, having dealt unjustly with their 
own souls, shall offer to make their peace in the article of 
death, saying, We have done no evil. But the angels 

21 When they shall be raised.'] i. e. At heaven, and wage war with the inhabitants 

what time they or their worshippers shall of that place ; but God frustrated his at- 

he raised to receive judgment. tempt, utterly overthrowing the tower by 

26 God overthrew their building, &c.] a violent wind and earthquake *. 

Some understand this passage figuratively, 27 Those unto whom knoivledge shall have 

of God's disappointing their wicked de- been given.] Viz. The prophets, and the 

signs: but others suppose the words lite- teachers and professors of God's unity or 

rally relate to the tower which Nimrod the angels. 

(whom the Mohammedans will have to be 28 Shall offer to make their peace.] 

the son of Canaan, the son of Ham, and Making their submission, and humbly ex- 

so the nephew of Cush, and not his son) cusing their evil actions, as proceeding 

built in Babel, and carried to an immense from ignorance, and not from obstinacy or 

height (five thousand cubits, say some), malice^, 
foolishly purposing thereby to ascend to 

. 1 Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddiru V. D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Nimrod. 2 lidem 

Interp. 

F 2 



68 AL KORAN. [chap. 

shall reply, Yea ! verily God well knowetli that which ye 
have wrought : ^^ wherefore enter the gates of hell, therein 
to remain for ever ; and miserable shall be the abode of 
the proud. ^^ And it shall be said unto those who shall 
fear God, What hath your Lord sent down ? They shall 
answer, Good : unto those who do right, shall be given 
an excellent reward in this world ; but the dwelling of 
the next life shall be better; and happy shall be the 
dwelling of the pious ! ^^ namely, gardens of eternal abode, 
into which they shall enter ; rivers shall flow beneath the 
same ; therein shall they enjoy whatever they wish. Thus 
will God recompense the pious. ^^Unto the righteous 
whom the angels shall cause to die, they shall say, Peace 
be unto you ; enter ye into paradise, as a reward for that 
which ye have wrought. ^^ Do the unbelievers expect 
any other than that the angels come unto them, to part 
their souls from their bodies ; or that the sentence of thy 
Lord come to be executed on them ? So did they act 
who were before them : and God was not unjust towards 
them in that he destroyed them ; but they dealt unjustly 
with their own souls : ^^ the evils of that which they com- 
mitted reached them ; and the divine judgment, which 
they scoffed at, fell upon them. ^^ The idolaters say. If 
God had pleased, we had not worshipped any thing be- 
sides him, neither had our fathers : neither had we for- 
bidden any thing without him. So did they who were 
before them. But is the duty of the apostles any other 
than public preaching ? ^^ We have heretofore raised up 
in every nation an apostle to admonish them, saying, 
Worship God, and avoid Taghut. And of them there 
were some whom God directed, and there were others of 
them who were decreed to go astray. Wherefore go 
through the earth, O tribe of Koreish, and see what 
hath been the end of those who accused their apostles of 
imposture. ^^ If thou, O prophet, dost earnestly wish for 
their direction ; verily God will not direct him whom he 

31 Gardens of eternal abode.] Lite- idolatry, and superstitious abstaining from 

Yd\\y f gardens of Eden. See chap. ix. certain cattle^, by pretending that had 

35 If God had pleased we had not wor- these things been disagreeable to God, he 

shipped any beside him, &c.] This they would not have suffered theni to bepractised. 
spoke in a scoffing manner, justifying their 36 Taghut.'] See chap. ii. 

1 See chap. vi. 



XVI.] AL KORAN. 69 

hath resolved to lead into error ; neither shall they have 
any helpers. ^^ And they swear most solemnly by God, 
saying God will not raise the dead. ^^ Yea, the promise 
thereof is true : but the greater part of them know it 
not. He will raise them, that he may clearly shew them 
the truth concerning which they now disagree, and that 
the unbelievers may know that they are liars. ^^ Verily 
our speech unto any thing, when we will the same, is, 
that we only say unto it. Be ; and it is. *^ As for those 
who have fled their country for the sake of God, after 
they had been unjustly persecuted, we will surely provide 
them an excellent habitation in this world ; but the re- 
ward of the next life shall be greater ; if they knew it. 
^^They who persevere patiently, and put their trust in 
their Lord, shall not fail of happiness in this life, and 
in that which is to come. ^^ We have not sent any be-" 
fore thee, as our apostles, other than men, unto whom we 
spake by revelation. Inquire therefore of those who 
have the custody of the scriptures, if ye know not this 
to be truth. ^^We sent them with evident miracles, 
and written revelations; and we have sent down unto 
thee this Koran, that thou mayest declare unto mankind 
that which hath been sent down unto them, and that they 
may consider. ^^ Are they who have plotted evil against 
their prophet secure that God will not cause the earth to 
cleave under them, or that a punishment will not come 
upon them from whence they do not expect ; ^^ or that he 
will not chastise them while they are busied in travelling 
from one place to another, and in traffick ; (for they shall 
not be able to elude the power of God ;) ^^ or that he will 
not chastise them by a gradual destruction ? But your 
Lord is truly gracious and merciful in granting you re- 

41 Who had fled their country after they — If they knew it.'] It is uncertain 
had been unjustly persecuted.'] Some sup- whether the pronoun they relates to the 
pose the prophet, and the companions of infidels, or to the true believers. If to the 
his flight in general, are here intended : former, the consequence would be, that 
others suppose that those are particularly they would be desirous of attaining to the 
meant in this place, who after Moham- happiness of the Mohajerin, by professing 
med'sdeparture,wereimprisoned at Mecca, the same faith; if to the latter, the know- 
on account of their having embraced his ledge of this is urged as a motive to pa- 
religion, and suffered great persecution tience and perseverance ^. 
from the Koreish ; as Belal, Soheib, Khab- 43 Men.^ See chap. vii. and chap. xii. 
bab, Ammar, Abes, Abu'l Jandal, and 44 This Koran.] Literally, this admo- 
SohaiU. nition^ 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ idem. ^ g^e the Prelim. Disc. § iii. p. 67. 



70 ^ AL KORAN. [chap. 

spite. *^ Do they not consider the things which God 
hath created ; whose shadows are cast on the right hand 
and on the left, worshipping God, and become contracted ? 
^^ Whatever nioveth, both in heaven and on earth, wor- 
shippeth God, and the angels also; and they are not 
elated with pride, so as to disdain his service : ^^ they fear 
their Lord, who is exalted above them, and perform that 
which they are commanded. ^^ God said, Take not unto 
yourselves two gods ; for there is but one God : and re- 
vere me. ^^ Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven 
and on earth ; and unto him is obedience eternally due. 
Will ye therefore fear any besides God ? ^^ Whatever 
favours ye have received, are certainly from God ; and 
when evil afflicteth you, unto him do ye make your sup- 
plication ; ^^ yet, when he taketh the evil from off you, 
behold, a part of you give a companion unto their Lord, 
to shew their ingratitude for the favours we have be- 
stowed on them. ^^ Delight yourselves in the enjoyments 
of this life : but hereafter shall ye know that ye cannot 
escape the divine vengeance. ^^ And they set apart unto 
idols which have no knowledge, a part of the food which 
we have provided for them. By God, ye shall surely be 
called to account for that which ye have falsely devised. 
^^ They attribute daughters unto God ; (far be it from 
him !) but unto themselves children of the sex which they 
desire. ^^ And when any of them is told the news of the 
birth of a female, his face becometh black, and he is 
deeply afflicted: ^^he hideth himself from the people, 
because of the ill tidings which have been told him; 
considering within himself whether he shall keep it with 
disgrace, or whether he shall bury it in the dust. Do 
they not make an ill judgment ? ^^ Unto those who be- 

48 God.'] See chap. xiii. 57 Daughters,] See the Prelim. Disc. 

56 Idols which have no knowledge.] Or, p, 20. Al Beidawi says, that the tribes 

which they know not ; foolishly imagining of Khozaah and Kenana, in particalar, 

that they have power to help them, or used to call the angels the daughters of 

interest with God to intercede for God. 

them. — Of the sex which they desire.] Viz. 

As to the ancient Arabs setting apart a Sons ; for the birth of a daughter was 

certain portion of the produce of their looked upon as a kind of misfortune among 

lands for their idols, and their superstitious the Arabs ; and they often used to put 

abstaining from the use of certain cattle, them to death by burying them alive ^ 

in honour to the same, see chap, v and vi, 58 His face becometh black.] Viz. 

and the notes there. Clouded with confusion and sorrow. 

^ See chap. Ixxxi. 



XVI.] AL KORAN. 71 

lieve not in the next life, the similitude of evil ought to 
be applied, and unto God the most sublime similitude : 
for he is mighty and wise. ^^ If God should punish men 
for their iniquity, he would not leave on the earth any 
moving thing : but he giveth them respite unto an ap- 
pointed time ; and when their time shall come, they shall 
not be respited an hour, neither shall their punishment 
be anticipated. ^^ They attribute unto God that which 
they dislike themselves, and their tongues utter a lie ; 
namely, that the reward of paradise is for them. There 
is no doubt but that the fire of hell is prepared for them, 
and that they shall be sent thither before the rest of the 
wicked. ^^ By God, we have heretofore sent messengers 
unto the nations before thee : but Satan prepared their 
works for them ; he was their patron in this world ; and 
in that which is to come they shall suffer a grievous tor- 
ment. ^^ We have not sent down the book of the Koran 
unto thee, for any other purpose, than that thou shouldest 
declare unto them that truth concerning which they dis- 
agree and for a direction and mercy unto people who be- 
lieve. ^^ God sendeth down water from heaven, and 
causeth the earth to revive after it hath been dead. 
Verily herein is a sign of the resurrection unto people 
who hearken. ^^ Ye have also in cattle an example of 
instruction: we give you to drink of that which is in 
their bellies, a liquor between digested dregs, and blood, 
namely, pure milk, which is swallowed with pleasure by 
those who drink it. ^^ And of the fruit of palm-trees, 
and of grapes, ye obtain an inebriating liquor, and also 

60 Similitude,'] This passage condemns Or, He is the patron of them (viz. the 

the Meccans' injudicious and blasphemous Koreish) this day, &c. 

application of such circumstances to God 66 A liquor between digested dregSy and 

as were unworthy of him, and not only blood.'] The milk consisting of certain 

derogatory to the perfections of the Deity, particles of the blood, supplied from the 

but even disgraceful to man ; while they finer parts of the aliment. Ebn Abbas 

arrogantly applied the more honourable says, that the grosser parts of the food 

circumstances to themselves. subside into excrement, and that the finer 

62 They attribute unto God that which parts are converted into milk, and the 
they dislike themselves.] By giving him finest of all into blood. 

daughters, and associates in power and — Pure milk.] Having neither the 

honour ; by disregarding his messengers ; colour of the blood, nor the smell of the 

and by setting apart the better share of excrements. 

the presents and offerings for their idols, 67 And of the fruits of palm -trees) and 

and the worse for him i. of grapes^ ye obtain an inebriating liquor, 

63 He was their patron in this world.] and also good nourishment,] Not only 

1 Al Beiddwi, 



72 A L KORAN. [chap. 

good nourishment. Verily herein is a sign unto people 
who understand. ^^ Thy Lord spake by inspiration unto 
THE BEE, saying, Provide thee houses in the mountains, 
and in the trees, and of those materials wherewith men 
build hives for thee : ^^ then eat of every kind of fruit, 
and walk in the beaten paths of thy Lord. There pro- 
ceedeth from their bellies a liquor of various colour; 
wherein is a medicine for men. Verily herein is a sign 
unto people who consider. ^^ God hath created you, and 
he will hereafter cause you to die : and some of you shall 
have his life prolonged to a decrepit age, so that he shall 
forget whatever he knew ; for God is wise and powerful. 
^^ God causeth some of you to excel others in worldly 
possessions ; yet they who are caused to excel, do not 
give their wealth unto the slaves whom their right hands 
possess, that they may become equal sharers therein. 
Do they therefore deny the beneficence of God ? ^^ God 
hath ordained you wives from among yourselves, and of your 
wives hath granted you children and grand-children ; and 
hath bestowed on you good things for food. Will they 
therefore believe in that which is vain, and ungratefully 
deny the goodness of God ? ^^ They worship, besides 

wine, which is forbidden, but also lawful useful remedy in several distempers, par- 
food, as dates, raisins, a kind of honey ticularly those occasioned by phlegm, 
flowing from the dates, and vinegar. There is a story that a man came once to 
Some have supposed that these words Mohammed, and told him that his brother 
allow the moderate use of wine ; but the was afflicted with a violent pain in his 
contrary is the received opinion ^ belly : upon which the prophet bade him 

68 Houses.^ So the apartments which give him some honey. The fellow took 
the bee builds are here called, because of his advice; but soon after coming again, 
their beautiful workmanship, and the ad- told him that the medicine had done his 
mirable contrivance, which no geometri- brother no manner of service. Moham- 
cian can excel ^. nied answered. Go and give him more 

69 And walk in the beaten paths of thy honey, for God speaks truth, and thy bro- 
Lord.^ I. e. The ways through which, by ther's belly lies. And the dose being re- 
Goo's power, the bitter flowers passing peated, the man, by God's mercy, was 
the bee's stomach become honey ; or, the immediately cured ^ 

methods of making honey, which he has 71 They give not their wealth unto their 
taught her by instinct; or else the ready slaves y &c.^ These words reprove the idol- 
way home from the distant places to which atrous Meccans, who could admit created 
that insect flies ^, beings to a share of the divine honour, 

— A liquor of various colour,'] Viz. though they suffered not their slaves to 
Honey ; the colour of which is very dif- share with themselves in what God had 
ferent, occasioned by the different plants bestowed on them ^ 

on which the bees feed : some being white, ^2 From among yourselves.'] That is, 

some yellow, some red, and some black *. of your own nations and tribes. Some 

— Wherein is a medicine for men.] think ihe formation of Eve from Adam is 
The same being not only good food, but a here intended. 



* See chap. ii. 2 ji Beiddwi, ^ Idem. * Idem. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. 



XVI 



.] ^ AL KORAN. 73 



God, idols which possess nothing wherewith to sustain 
them, either in heaven or on earth ; and have no power. 
^^ Wherefore liken not any thing unto God : for God 
knoweth, but ye know not. ^^God propoundeth as a 
parable a possessed slave, who hath power over nothing, 
and him on whom we have bestowed a good provision 
from us, and who giveth alms thereout both secretly and 
openly : shall these two be esteemed equal ? God forbid ! 
But the greater part of them know it not. ^^ God also 
propoundeth as a parable two men; one of them born 
dumb, who is unable to do or understand any thing, but 
is a burthen unto his master ; whithersoever he shall send 
him, he shall not return with any good success ; shall this 
man, and he who hath his speech and understanding, and 
who commandeth that which is just, and followeth the 
right way, be esteemed equal ? ^^ Unto God alone is the 
secret of heaven and earth known. And the business of 
the last hour shall be only as the twinkling of an eye, or 
even more quick : for God is almighty. ^^ God hath 
brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers ; ye 
knew nothing, and he gave you the senses of hearing and 
seeing, and understandings, that ye might give thanks. 
^^ Do they not behold the fowls which are enabled to fly 
in the open firmament of heaven ? none supporteth them 
except God. Verily herein are signs unto people wlio^ 
believe. ^^ God hath also provided your houses for habit- 
ations for you ; and hath also provided you tents of the 
skins of cattle, which ye find light to be removed on the 
day of your departure to new quarters, and easy to be 

74 Liken 7iot any thing unto God.'] Or family abundantly, and also assisteth others 
propound no similitudes or comparisons who have need, both in public and in 
between him and his creatures. One argu- private 2. 

ment the Meccans employed in defence of 76 God also propoundeth as a parable 
their idolatry, it seems, was, that the wor- two metif &c.] The idol is here again re- 
ship of inferior deities did honour to God; presented under the image of one who, by 
in the same manner as the respect shown a defect in his senses, is a useless burthen 
to the servants of a prince, does honour to to the man who maintains him ; and God, 
the prince himself^. under that of a person completely quali- 

75 God propoundeth as a parable a pos- fied either to direct or execute any useful 
sessed slave, &c.] The idols are here undertaking. Some suppose the compari- 
likened to a slave, who is so far from having son is intended of a true believer and an 
any thing of his own, that he is himself in infidel. 

the possession of another ; whereas God is 77 The hisiness of the last hour.] That 
as a rich free man, who provideth for his is. The resurrection of the dead. 

* At Beiddwi. ^ Idem, JallaWddin, 



74 AL KORAN. [chap. 

pitched on the day of your sitting down therein : and of 
their wool, and their fur, and their hair, hath he supplied 
you with furniture and household stuff for a season. 
®^ And God hath provided for you, of that which he hath 
created, conveniences to shade you from the sun, and he 
hath also provided you places of retreat in the moun- 
tains, and he hath given you garments to defend you from 
the heat, and coats of mail to defend you in your wars. 
Thus doth he accomplish his favour towards you, that ye 
may resign yourselves unto him. ^^ But if they turn back; 
verily thy duty is public preaching only. ^^ They acknow- 
ledge the goodness of God, and afterwards they deny the 
same, but the greater part of them are unbelievers. ^* On 
a certain day we will raise a witness out of every nation : 
then they who shall have been unbelievers shall not be 
suffered to excuse themselves, neither shall they be re- 
ceived into favour. ^^ And when they who shall have 
acted unjustly, shall see the torment prepared for them 
(it shall not be mitigated unto them, neither shall they 
be respited) ; ^^ and when those who shall have been 
guilty of idolatry shall see their false gods; they shall 
say, O Lord, these are our idols which we invoked, 
besides thee. But they shall return an answer unto 
them, saying. Verily ye are liars. ^^And on that day 
shall the wicked offer submission unto God; and the 
false deities which they imagined shall abandon them. 
^^As for those who shall have been infidels, and shall 
have turned aside others from the way of God, we will 

81 Conveniences to shade you from the their worship and thanks to their idols, by 

sun.'] As trees, houses, tents, mountains, whose intercession they imagine blessings 

&c. are obtained. 

— Places of retreat in the mountains.'] — But the greater part of them are un- 
Viz. Caves and grottoes, both natural and believers.] Absolutely denying God's pro- 
artificial, vidence, either through ignorance, or per- 

— To defend you from the heat.] Al verseness. 

Beidawi says, that one extreme, and that 84 A witness.] See chap. iv. 

the most insupportable in Arabia, is here 86 Their false gods.] Literally, their 

put for both ; but Jallalo'ddin supposes companions. 

that by heat, we are in this place to under- — Ye are liars.] For that we are not 

stand cold. the companions of God, as ye imagined ; 

83 They acltnowledge the goodness of neither did ye really serve us, but your 

God. and afterwards deny the same.] Con- own corrupt affections and lusts ; nor yet 

fessing God to be the author of all the were ye led into idolatry by us, but ye 

blessings they enjoy ; and yet directing fell into it of your own accord ^ 



Al Beiddwi, 



XVI.] AL KORAN. 75 

add unto them punishment upon punishment, because 
they have corrupted others. ^^ On a certain day we will 
raise up in every nation a witness against them from 
among themselves ; and we will bring thee, O Moham- 
med, as a witness against these Arabians. We have sent ^ 
down unto thee the book of the Koran, for an explica- 
tion of every thing necessary both as to faith and prac- 
tice, and a direction, and mercy, and good tidings unto 
the Moslems. ^^ Verily God commandeth justice, and 
the doing of good, and the giving unto kindred what shall 
be necessary ; and he forbiddeth wickedness, and iniquity, 
and oppression : he admonisheth you that ye may remem- 
ber. ^^ Perform your covenant with God, when ye enter 
into covenant with him ; and violate not your oaths, after 
the ratification thereof; since ye have made God a wit- 
ness over you. Verily God knoweth that which ye do. 
^^ And be not like unto her who undoeth that which she 
hath spun, untwisting it after she hath twisted it strongly ; 
taking your oaths between you deceitfully, because one 
party is more numerous than another party. Verily God 
only tempteth you therein ; and he will make that mani- 
fest unto you, on the day of resurrection, concerning 
which ye now disagree. ^^ If God had pleased, he would 
surely have made you one people : but he will lead into 
error whom he pleaseth, and he will direct whom he 
pleaseth; and ye shall surely give an account of that 

90 Remember, &c.] This verse, which Mohammed by his followers, is chiefly in-' 
was the occasion of the conversion of 0th- tended here. 

man Ebn Matun, the commentators say, 92 Be not like her who undoeth that 

containeth the whole which it is a man's which she hath spun, &c.] Some suppose 

duty either to perform or to avoid ; and is that a particular woman is meant in this 

alone a sufficient demonstration of what is passage, who used (like Penelope) to undo 

said in the foregoing verse. Under the at night the work which she had done in 

three things here commanded, they under- the day. Her name, they say, was Reita 

stand the belief of God's unity, without Bint Saad Ebn Teym, of the tribe of Ko- 

inclining to atheism, on the one hand, or reish 2. 

polytheism, on the other ; obedience to — Taking your oaths deceitfully, he- 

the commands of God; and charity to- cause one party is more numerous than 

wards those in distress. And under the another,'] Of this insincerity in their al- 

three things forbidden, they comprehend liances the Koreish are accused ; it being 

all corrupt and carnal affections ; all false usual with them, when they saw the ene- 

doctrines and heretical opinions ; and all mies of their confederates to be superior 

injustice towards man ^. in force, to renounce their league with their 

91 Perform your covenant with God.] old friends, and strike up one with the 
By persevering in his true religion. , Some others ^. 

think that the oath of fidelity taken to 93 One people.] Or, of one religion. 

1 Al Beiddwi, * Idem. ^ Idem. 



76 A L KORAN. [chap. 

which ye have done. ^^ Therefore take not your oaths be- 
tween you deceitfully, lest your foot slip, after it hath been 
stedfastly fixed, and ye taste evil in this life, for that ye 
have turned aside from the way of God ; and ye suffer a 
grievous punishment in the life to come. ^^ And sell not 
the covenant of God for a small price ; for with God is a 
better recompense prepared for you, if ye be men of 
understanding. ^^ That which is with you will fail ; but 
that which is with God is permanent ; and we will surely 
reward those who shall persevere according to the utmost 
merit of their actions. ^^ Whoso worketh righteousness, 
whether he be male or female, and is a true believer, we 
will surely raise him to a happy life ; and we will give 
them their reward according to the utmost merit of their 
actions. \When thou readest the Koran, have recourse 
unto God, that he may preserve thee from Satan driven 
away with stones : ^^ he hath no power over those who 
believe, and who put their confidence in their Lord ; 
^^^ but his power is over those only who take Jiini for 
their patron, and who give companions unto God.V^^ When 
we substitute in the Koran an abrogating verse in lieu 
of a verse abrogated, (and God best knoweth the fitness 
of that which he revealeth,) the infidels say. Thou art 
only a forger of these verses : but the greater part of 
them know not truth from falsehood. ^^^ Say, The holy 
spirit hath brought the same down from thy Lord with 
truth ; that he may confirm those who believe, and for a 
direction and good tidings unto the Moslems. ^^^ We 
also know that they say, Verily, a certain man teacheth 
him to compose the Koran. The tongue of the person 

95 Sell not the covenant of God for a sured them that those words were put into 

small price, ~\ That is, Be not prevailed on his mouth by the devil ; and to prevent any 

to renounce your religion, or your engage- such accident for the future, he is here 

ments with your prophet, by any promises taught to beg God's protection before he 

or gifts of the infidels. For it seems the entered on that duty ^, Hence the Mo- 

Koreish, to tempt the poorer Moslems to hammedans, before they begin to read any 

apostatize, made them offers, not very con- part of this book, repeat these words, I 

siderable indeed, but such as they ima- have recourse unto God for assistance 

gined might be worth their acceptance '. against Satan driven away with stones. 

98 When thou readest the Koran, have 102 The holy spirit,'] Viz. Gabriel. See 

recourse unto God, &c.] Mohammed one chap. ii. 

day reading in the Koran, uttered a horrid 103 A certain man teacheth him, &c.] 

blasphemy, to the great scandal of those This was a great objection made by the 

who were present, as will be observed in Meccans to the authority of the Koran : 

another place ^ ; to excuse which, he as- for when Mohammed insisted, as a proof 

* Al Beiddwi. ^ In not. ad cap. xxii. ^ Jallalo' ddin, Al Beiddwi, Yahya, &c. 



XVI.] 



AL KORAN. 



77 



unto whom they incline, is a foreign tongue ; but this, 
wherein the Koran is written, is the perspicuous Arabic 



of its divine original, that it was impos- 
sible a man so utterly unacquainted with 
learning as himself, could compose such a 
book, they replied, that he had one or 
more assistants in the forgery ; but as to 
the particular person or persons, suspected 
of this confederacy, the traditions differ. 
One says it was Jabar, a Greek servant 
to Amer Ebn al Hadrami, who could read 
and write welU; another, that they were 
Jabar and Yesar, two slaves, who followed 
the trade of sword-cutlers at Mecca, and 
used to read the pentateuch and gospel, 
and had often Mohammed for their audi- 
tor, when he passed that way ^. Another 
tells us, it was one A'lsh, or Yai'sh, a do- 
mestic of Haweiteb Ebn Abd al Uzza, 
who was a man of some learning, and had 
embraced Mohammedism ^. Another sup- 
poses it was one Kais, a Christian, whose 
house Mohammed frequented *; another, 
that it was Addas, a servant of Otba Ebn 
Rabia ^ ; and another, that it was Salman 
the Persian ^. 

According to some Christian writers '^, 
Abdallah Ebn Salam, the Jew, who was 
so intimate with Mohammed, (named by 
one, according to the Hebrew dialect, Ab- 
dias Ben Salon, and by another, Abdala 
Celen) was assisting to him in the com- 
piling his pretended revelations. This 
Jew Dr. Prideaux confounds with Salman 
the Persian, who was a very ditferent 
man, as a late author ^ has observed be- 
fore me ; wherefore, and for that we may 
have occasion to speak of Salman here- 
after, it may be proper to add a brief ex- 
tract of his story, as told by himself. He 
was of a good family of Ispahan, and in 
his younger years left the religion of his 
country to embrace Christianity ; and tra- 
velling into Syria, was advised, by a cer- 
tain monk of Amuria, to go into Arabia ; 
where a prophet was expected to arise 
about that time, who should establish the 
religion of Abraham, arid whom he should 
know, among other things, by the seal of 
prophecy between his shoulders. Salman 
performed the journey, and meeting with 
Mohammed at Koba, where he rested in 
his flight to Medina, soon found him to be 



the person he sought, and professed Is- 
lam 9. 

The general opinion of the Christians 
however is, that the chief help Mohammed 
had in the contriving his Koran, was from 
a Nestorian monk named Sergius, sup- 
posed to be the same person with the 
monk Boheira, with whom Mohammed in 
his younger years had some conference at 
Bosra, a city of Syria Damascena, where 
that monk resided '^. To confirm which 
supposition, a passage has been produced 
from an Arab writer ^*, who says that Bo- 
heira's name in the books of the Chris- 
tians is Sergius : but this is only a con- 
jecture : and another ^^ tells us, his true 
name was Said, or Felix, and his surname 
Boheira. But be that as it will, if Bo- 
heira and Sergius were the same man, I 
find not the least intimation in the Mo- 
hammedan writers, that he ever quitted 
his monastery to go into Arabia (as is sup- 
posed by the Christians) ; and his ac- 
quaintance with Mohammed at Bosra was 
too early to favour the surmise of his as- 
sisting him in the Koran, which was com- 
posed long after ; though Mohammed 
might, from his discourse, gain some know- 
ledge of Christianity, and of the scriptures, 
which might be of use to him therein. 

From the answer given in this passage 
of the Koran, to the objection of the in- 
fidels, viz. that the person suspected by 
them to have a hand in the Koran, spoke 
a foreign language, and therefore could 
not, with any face of probability, be sup- 
posed to assist in a composition written in 
the Arabic tongue, and with so great ele- 
gance, it is plain this person was no Ara- 
bian. The word Ajami, which is here 
used, signifies any foreign or barbarous 
language in general ; but the Arabs ap- 
plying it more particularly to the Persian, 
it has been thence concluded by some, 
that Salman was the person ; however, if 
it be true, that he came not to Mohammed 
till after the Hejra, either he could not be 
the man here intended, or else this verse 
must have been revealed at Medina, con- 
trary to the common opinion. 



^ Jl Zamakhshari, Al BeiddwU Yahya. 
Prid. Life of Mah. p. 32. ^ ijdem. 



2 A I Zamakhshariy Al Beiddwi, See 
* JallaWddin. ^ Al Zamak. Yahya, 

^ Al Zamakh. Al BeiddwL ^ Ricardi Confut. legis Saracenicae, c. 13. Joh. 

Andreas, de confus. sectae Mahometanse, c. 2. See Prid. Life of Mah. p. 33, 34. 
^ Gagnier, not. in Abulf. vit. Moh. p. 74. ^ Ex Ebn Ishak. V. Gagnier, ibid. 

'° See Prid. ubi sup. p. 35, &c. Gagnier, ubi sup. p. 10, II. J/arracc. de Alcor. 
p. 37. ^^ At Masudi. ^- Ahul Hasan al Becrl in Koran. 



78 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



tongue. ^^* Moreover, as for those who believe not in 
the signs of God, God will not direct them, and they 
shall suffer a painful torment : ^^^ verily they imagine a 
falsehood who believe not in the signs of God, and they 
are really the liars. ^^^ Whoever denieth God, after he 
hath believed, except him who shall be compelled against 
his will, and whose heart continueth stedfast in the faith, 
shall be severely chastised : but whoever shall voluntarily 
profess infidelity, on those shall the indignation of God 
fall, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. ««^^^^ This 
shall be their sentence, because they have loved the pre- 
sent life above that which is to come, and for that God 
directeth not the unbelieving people. ^^^ These are they 
whose hearts, and hearing, and sight, God hath sealed 
up ; and these are the negligent : ^^^ there is no doubt, but 
that in the next life they shall perish. "^ Moreover thy 
Lord will be favourable unto those who have fled their 



106 Except him who shall he compelled 
against his willy &c.J These words were 
added for the sake of Ammar Ebn Yaser, 
and some others, who, being taken and 
tortured by the Koreish, renounced their 
faith out of fear, though their hearts agreed 
not with their mouths ^ It seems, Am- 
mar wanted the constancy of his father 
and mother, Yaser, and Sommeya, who 
underwent the like trial, at the same time, 
with their son, and resolutely refusing to 
recant, were both put to death ; the in- 
fidels tying Sommeya between two camels, 
and striking a lance through her privy 
parts 2. When the news was brought to 
Mohammed, that Ammar had denied the 
faith, he said, it could not be, for that 
Ammar was full of faith from the crown 
of his head to the sole of his foot, faith 
being mixed and incorporated with his 
very flesh and blood ; and when Ammar 
himself came weeping to the prophet, he 
wiped his eyes, saying. What fault was it 
of thine, if they forced thee ? 

But though it be here said, that those 
who apostatize in appearance only, to 
avoid death or torments, may hope for 
pardon from God, yet it is unanimously 
agreed by the Mohammedan doctors, to 
be much more meritorious and pleasing 
in the sight of God, courageously and 
nobly to persist in the true faith, and 
rather to suffer death itself than renounce 
it, even in words. Nor did the Moham- 
medan religion want its martyrs, in the 



strict sense of the word : of which I will 
here give two instances, besides the above- 
mentioned. One is that of Khobaib Ebn 
Ada, who being perfidiously sold to the 
Koreish, was by them put to death in a 
cruel manner, by mutilation, and cutting 
off his flesh piecemeal ; and being asked, 
in the midst of his tortures, whether he 
did not wish Mohammed was in his place, 
answered, I would not wish to be with my 
family, my substance, and my children, 
on condition that Mohammed was only to 
be pricked with a thorn ^. The other is 
that of a man who was put to death by 
Moseilama, on the following occasion. 
That false prophet having taken two of 
Mohammed's followers, asked one of them 
what he said of Mohammed. The man 
answered, That he was the apostle of God. 
And what sayest thou of me ? added Mosei- 
lama; to which he replied. Thou also art the 
apostle of God ; whereupon he was imme- 
diately dismissed in safety. But the other, 
having returned the same answer to the for- 
mer question, refused to give any to the last, 
though required to do it three several 
times, but pretended to be deaf, and was 
therefore slain. It is related that Mo- 
hammed, when the story of these two men 
was told him, said. The first of them threw 
himself on God's mercy; but the latter 
professed the truth ; and he shall find his 
account in it *. 

110 Those who have fled their country, 
after having suffered persecution ^ &c.] As 



1 Al Beiddwij Al Zamakh. Yahya. 
* Al Beiddwi. 



2 Al Beiddwi, 



^ Ebn Shohnah, 



XVI.] AL KORAN. 79 

country, after having suffered persecution, and been com- 
pelled to deny the faith by violence, and who have since 
fought in defence of the true religion, and have persevered 
with patience ; verily unto these will thy Lord be gracious 
and merciful, after they shall have shewn their sincerity. 
^^^ On a certain day shall every soul come to plead for 
itself, and every soul shall be repaid that which it shall 
have wrought ; and they shall not be treated unjustly. 
"^ God propoundeth as a parable a city which was secure 
and quiet, unto which her provisions came in abundance 
from every side ; but she ungratefully denied the favours 
of God ; wherefore God caused her to taste the extreme 
famine, and fear, because of that which they had done. 
^^^Andnowis an apostle come unto the inhabitants of 
Mecca from among themselves ; and they accuse him of 
imposture : wherefore a punishment shall be inflicted on 
them, while they are acting unjustly. ^^* Eat of what 
God hath given you for food, that which is lawful and 
good ; and be thankful for the favours of God, if ye serve 
him. ^^^ He hath only forbidden you that which dieth of 
itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that which hath 
been slain in the name of any, besides God. But unto 
him who shall be compelled by necessity to eat of these 
things, not lusting, nor wilfully transgressing, God will 
surely be gracious and merciful. ^^^ And say not that 
wherein your tongues utter a lie : This is lawful, and this 
is unlawful ; that ye may devise a lie concerning God : 
for they who devise a lie concerning God, shall not 
prosper. ^^^ They shall have small enjoyment in this 

did Ammar, who made one in both the 112 God propoundeth as a parable a 

flights. Some, reading the verb with dif- city, &c.] This example is applied to 

ferent vowels, render the last words. After every city which, having received great 

having persecuted the true believers ; and blessings from God, becometh insolent and 

instance in al Hadrami, who obliged a unthankful, and is therefore chastised by 

servant of his to renounce Mohammedism some signal judgment ; or rather to Meccaj 

by force, but afterwards together with that in particular, on which the calamities 

servant, professed the same faith, and fled threatened in this passage, viz. both with 

for it ^. famine and sword, were inflicted ^. 

111 Every soul shall come to plead for 115 Besides God.'] See chap. v. 

itself,'] That is. Every person shall be 116 And say not — This is lawful, and 

solicitous for his own salvation, not con- this is unlauful.] Allowing what God 

cerning himself with the condition of hath forbidden, and superstitiously ab- 

another, but crying out. My own soul, my staining from what he hath allowed. See 

own soul 2. chap. vi. 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. 



80 A L KORAN. [chap. 

world, and in that which is to come they shall suffer a 
grievous torment. ^^^ Unto the Jews did we forbid that 
which we have told thee formerly : and we did them no 
injury in that respect ; but they injured their own souls. 
^^^ Moreover thy Lord will be favourable unto those who 
do evil through ignorance ; and afterwards repent and 
amend : verily unto these will thy Lord be gracious and 
merciful after their repentance. ^^^ Abraham was a model 
of true religion, obedient unto God, orthodox, and was 
not an idolater : ^^^ he was also grateful for his benefits : 
wherefore God chose him, and directed him into the 
right way. ^^^ And we bestowed on him good in this 
world; and in the next he shall surely be one of the 
righteous. ^^^ We have also spoken unto thee, O Mo- 
hammed, by revelation, saying. Follow the religion of 
Abraham, who was orthodox, and was no idolater. ^^^ The 
sabbath was only appointed unto those who differed with 
their prophet concerning it ; and thy Lord will surely 
judge between them, on the day of resurrection, as to 
that concerning which they differed. ^^^ Invite men unto 
the way of thy Lord by wisdom and mild exhortation ; 
and dispute with them in the most condescending man- 
ner : for thy Lord well knoweth him who strayeth from 
his path, and he well knoweth those who are rightly 
directed. ^^^ If ye take vengeance on any, take a ven- 

118 Formerly.'] Viz. In the 6th chapter, hammed's uncle, being slain at the battle 

— They injured their own souls.] i. e. of Ohod. For the infidels having abused 

They were forbidden things which were his dead body, by taking out his bowels, 

in themselves indifferent, as a punishment and cutting off his ears and his nose, when 

for their wickedness and rebellion. Mohammed saw it, he swore that if God 

123 And was not an idolater.] This was granted him success, he would retaliate 
to reprehend the idolatrous Koreish, who those cruelties on seventy of the Koreish ; 
pretended that they professed the religion but he was by these words forbidden to 
of Abraham. execute what he had sworn, and accord- 

124 Who differed with their prophet con- ingly made void his oath 2. Abu'lfeda 
cerning it.] These were the Jews ; who makes the number on which Mohammed 
being ordered by Moses to set apart Friday swore to wreak his vengeance, to be but 
(the day now observed by tl^e Mohamme- thirty ^ ; but it may be observed by the 
dans) for the exercise of divine worship, way, that the translator renders the pas- 
refused it, and chose the sabbath-day, be- sage in that author, God hath revealed 
cause on that day God rested from his unto me that I shall retaliate, &c. instead 
works of creation : for which reason they of, If God grant me victory over the Ko- 
were commanded to keep the day they had reish, I will retaliate, &c. reading Lain 
chosen in the strictest manner *. adhharni, for adhfarni ; God, far from 

126 If ye take vengeance^ &c.] This putting this design into the prophet's head 
passage is supposed to have been revealed by a revelation, expressly forbidding him 
at Medina, on occasion of Hamza, Mo- to put it in execution. 

1 Al Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin. 2 Hdem. 3 Abirif. Vit. Moham. p, 68. 



XVII,] AL KORAN. 81 

geance proportionable to the wrong which hath been 
done you ; but if ye suffer wrong patiently, verily this 
will be better for the patient. ^^^ Wherefore do thou 
bear opposition with patience ; but thy patience shall not 
be practicable, unless with God's assistance. And be not 
thou grieved on account of the unbelievers ; neither be 
thou troubled for that which they subtilely devise ; ^^^ for 
God is with those who fear him, and are upright. 

126 The patient.'] Here, says al Bei- Mohammed, who was of all men the most 
dawi, the Koran principally points at conspicuous for meekness and clemency. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

INTITLED, THE NIGHT JOURNEY ; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

[*XV.]/\ ^ Praise be unto him who transported his 
servant by night from the sacred temple of Mecca to the 
farther temple of Jerusalem, the circuit of which we 
have blessed, that we might shew him some of our signs ; 
for God is he who heareth, and seeth. ^ And we gave 
unto Moses the book of the law, and appointed the same 
to be a direction unto the children of Israel, commanding 

Title — Night journey, — The reason of ral mistakes in the relation of Dr. Prideaux, 

this inscription appears in the first words ; and in other writers. 

some intitle the chapter, the children of It is a dispute among the Mohammedan 

Israel. divines, whether their prophet's night- 

Title — Mecca.'] Some except eight journey was really performed by him cor- 

verses,beginning at these words: It wanted porally, or whether it was only a dream 

little but that the infidels had seduced or vision. Some think the whole was no 

thee, &c. more than a vision ; and allege an express 

1 Who transported his servant by night tradition of Moawiyah 3, one of Moham# 

from the sacred temple of Mecca to the farther med's successors, to that purpose. Others 

temple of Jerusalem.] From whence he suppose he was carried bodily to Jerusa- 

was carried through the seven heavens to lem, but no farther : and that he ascended 

the presence of God, and brought back thence to heaven in spirit only. But the 

again to Mecca the same night. received opinion is, that it was no vision, 

This journey of Mohammed to heaven but that he was actually transported in the 

is so well known, that I may be pardoned body to his journey's end; and if any im- 

if I omit the description of it. The Eng- possibility be objected, they think it a 

lish reader may find it in Dr. Prideaux's sufficient answer to say, that it might 

life of Mahomet ^ and the leariied in Abu'l- easily be effected by an omnipotent 

feda 2, whose annotator has corrected seve- agent *. 



* Page 43, &c. See also Morgan's Mahometism explained, vol. 2. ^ vit. 

Moham. cap. 19. ^ V. ibid. c. 18. * Al BeiddwL 

VOL. II. G 



82 



AL KORAN. 



[chap. 



them, saying, Beware that ye take not any other patron 
besides me. ^ O posterity of those whom we carried in 
the ark with Noah ; verily he was a grateful servant. 
^ And we expressly declared unto the children of Israel 
in the book of the law, saying, Ye will surely commit evil 
in the earth twice, and ye will be elated with great inso- 
lence. ^ And when the punishment threatened for the 
first of those transgressions came to be executed, we sent 
against you our servants, endued with exceeding strength 
in war, and they searched the inner apartments of your 
houses : and the prediction became accomplished. ^ After- 
wards we gave you the victory over them, in your turn, 
and we granted you increase of wealth and children, and 
we made you a more numerous people, saying, ^ If ye do 
well, ye will do well to your own souls ; and if ye do 
evil, ye will do it unto the same. And when the punish- 
ment threatened for your latter transgression came to be 
executed, we sent enemies against you, to afflict you, 



3 O posterity of those, &c.] The com- 
mentators are put to it to find out the 
connexion of these words with the fore- 
going. Some think the accusative case 
is here put for the vocative, as I have 
translated it : and others interpret the 
words thus, Take not for your patrons, 
besides me, the posterity of those, &c. 
meaning mortal men. 

4 Ye will surely commit evil in the earth 
twice.~\ Their first transgression was their 
rejecting the decisions of the law, their 
putting Isaiah to death i, and their im- 
prisoning of Jeremiah 2 : and the second, 
was their slaying of Zachariah, and John 
the Baptist, and their imagining the death 
of Jesus 3. 

5 We sent against you our servants, &c.] 
These were Jalut, or Goliath, and his 
forces * ; or Sennacherib the Assyrian ; or 
else Nebuchadnezzar, whom the eastern 
writers call Bakhtnasr, (which was how- 
ever only his surname, his true name being 
Gudarz, or Raham,) the governor of Baby- 
lon under Lohorasp, king of Persia^, who 
took Jerusalem, and destroyed the tem- 
ple. 

6 Afterwards we gave you the victory 
over them, &c.] By permitting David to 
kill Goliath; or by the miraculous defeat 



of Sennacherib's army; or for that God 
put it into the heart of Bahman, the son 
of Isfandiyar, when he succeeded his 
grandfather Lohorasp, to order Kiresh, or 
Cyrus, then governor of Babylon, to send 
home the Jews from their captivity, under 
the conduct of Daniel ; which he accord- 
ingly did, and they prevailed against 
those whom Bakhtnasr had left in the 
land 6. 

7 We sent enemies against you, to afflict 
2/OM.] Some imagine the army meant in 
this place was that of Bakhtnasr ^ ; but 
others say the Persians conquered the 
Jews this second time by the arms of 
Gudarz, (by whom they seem to intend 
Antiochus Epiphanes,) one of the succes- 
sors of Alexander at Babylon. It is related 
that the general in this expedition, enter- 
ing the temple, saw blood bubbling up on 
the great altar, and asking the reason of 
it, the Jews told him it was the blood of a 
sacrifice, which had not been accepted of 
God ; to which he replied, that they had 
not told him the truth, and ordered a 
thousand of them to be slain on the altar; 
but the blood not ceasing, he told them, 
that if they would not confess the truth, 
he would not spare one of them ; where- 
upon they acknowledged it was the blood 



^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Jallalo^ ddin. 

Yahya. ^ Al Zamakhshari, Al Beiddwi 

^ Yahya, Jallalo^ddin, 



^ I idem ^ Jallalo'ddin, 

^ lidem. 



XVII.] 



AL KORAN. 



83 



. and to enter the temple, as they entered it the first time, 
and utterly to destroy that which they had conquered. 
^ Peradventure your Lord will have mercy on you here- 
after: but if ye return to transgress a third time, we 
also will return to chastise you ; and we have appointed 
hell to be the prison of the unbelievers. ^ Verily this 
Koran directeth unto the way which is most right, and 
declareth unto the faithful, who do good works, that they 
shall receive a great reward ; ^^ and that for those who 
believe not in the life to come, we have prepared a 
grievous punishment. ^^ Man prayeth for evil, as he 
prayeth for good ; for man is hasty. ^^ We have ordained 
the night and the day for two signs of our power : after- 
wards we blot out the sign of the night, and we cause 
the sign of the day to shine forth, that ye may endeavour 
to obtain plenty from your Lord, by doing your business 
therein, and that ye may know the number of years, and 
the computation of time ; and every thing necessary have 
we explained by a perspicuous explication. ^^The fate 



of John : and the general said, Thus hath 
your Lord taken vengeance on you ; and 
then cried out, O John, my Lord and thy 
Lord knoweth what hath befallen thy 
people for thy sake ; wherefore let thy 
blood stop, by God's permission, lest I 
leave not one of them alive ; upon which 
the blood immediately stopped ^. 

These are the explications of the com- 
mentators, wherein their ignorance in an- 
cient history is sufficiently manifest; though 
perhaps Mohammed himself, in this latter 
passage, intended the destruction of Jeru- 
salem by the Romans. 

8 But if ye return to transgress a third 
timef we also will return to chastise you.'] 
And this came accordingly to pass : for 
the Jews being again so wicked as to reject 
Mohammed, and conspire against his life, 
God delivered them into his hands ; and 
he exterminated the tribe of Koreidha, 
and slew the chiefs of that of al Nadir, 
and obliged the rest of the Jewish tribes 
to pay tribute ^. 

1 1 Man prayeth for evil, as he prayeth 
for good.] Out of ignorance, mistaking 
evil for good ; or making wicked impreca- 
tions on himself, and others, out of passion 
and impatience. 

— Man is hasty.] Or inconsiderate, 



not weighing the consequence of what he 
asks. 

It is said that the person here meant is 
Adam, who, when the breath of life was 
breathed into his nostrils, and had reached 
so far as his navel, though the lower part 
of his body was, as yet, but a piece of clay, 
must needs try to rise up, and got an ugly 
fall by the bargain. But others pretend 
the passage was revealed on the following 
occasion. Mohammed committed a certain 
captive to the charge of his wife, Sawda 
bint Zamaa, who, moved with compassion 
at the man's groans, unbound him, and let 
him escape : upon which the prophet, in 
the first emotions of his anger, wished her 
hand might fall off; but immediately com- 
posing himself, said aloud, O God, I am 
but a man, therefore turn my curse into a 
blessing ^ 

13 The fate.] Literally, the bird, which 
is here used to signify a man's fortune or 
success : the Arabs, as well as the Greeks 
and Romans, taking omens from the flight 
of birds, which they supposed to portend 
good luck, if they flew from the left to the 
right ; but if from the right to the left, the 
contrary. The like judgment they also 
made when certain beasts passed before 
them. 



1 A I Beiddwl. 



2 Idem. 



Jallalo^ddin, 



g2 



84 AL KORAN. [chap 

of every man have we bound about his neck ; and we 
will produce unto him on the day of resurrection, a book 
wherein his actions shall be recorded ; it shall be offered 
him open, and the angels shall say unto him, ^^ Read thy 
book ; thine own soul will be a sufficient accomptant 
against thee this day. ^^ He who shall be rightly directed, 
shall be directed to the advantage only of his own soul ; 
and he who shall err, shall err only against the same : 
neither shall any laden soul be charged with the burthen 
of another. We did not punish any people, until we had 
first sent an apostle to warn them. ^^ And when we 
resolved to destroy a city, we commanded the inhabitants 
thereof, who lived in affluence, to obey our apostle ; but 
they acted corruptly therein : wherefore the sentence was 
justly pronounced against that city ; and we destroyed it 
with an utter destruction. ^^ And how many generations 
have we consumed since Noah ? ^^ for thy Lord sufficiently 
knoweth and seeth the sins of his servants. ^^ Whosoever 
chooseth this transitory life, we will bestow on him therein 
beforehand that which we please ; on him, namely, whom 
we please : afterwards will we appoint him hell for his 
abode ; he shall be thrown into the same to be scorched, 
covered with ignominy, and utterly rejected from mercy. 
^^ But whosoever chooseth the life to come, and directeth 
his endeavour towards the same, being also a true be- 
liever ; the endeavour of these shall be acceptable unto 
God. On all will we bestow the blessings of this life, 
both on these and on those, of the gift of thy Lord ; for 
the gift of thy Lord shall not be denied unto any. 
^^ Behold, how we have caused some of them to surpass 
others in wealth and dignity : but the next life shall be 
more considerable in degrees of honour, and greater in 
excellence. ^^ Set not up another god with the true 
God, lest thou sit down in disgrace, and destitute. 
^^ Thy Lord hath commanded that ye worship none 
besides him ; and that ye shew kindness unto your 
parents, whether the one of them, or both of them, attain 
to old age with thee. Wherefore say not unto them. 
Fie on you ! neither reproach them, but speak respect- 
is Have we hound about his neck.~\ 23 With thee.~\ That is, receiving 
Like a collar, which he cannot by any their support and maintenance from 
means get off. See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. thee. 



xvji.] A L KORAN. 85 

fully unto them ; ^^ and submit to behave humbly towards 
them, out of tender affection, and say, O Lord, have 
mercy on them both, as they nursed me when I was little. 
^^ Your Lord well knoweth that which is in your souls ;' 
whether ye be men of integrity : and he will be gracious 
unto those who sincerely return unto him. ^^ And give 
unto him who is of kin to you his due, and also unto 
the poor, and the traveller. ^^ And waste not thy sub- 
stance profusely: for the profuse are brethren of the 
devils ; and the devil was ungrateful unto his Lord. 
^^ But if thou turn from them in expectation of the mercy* 
which thou hopest from thy Lord ; at least, speak kindly 
unto them. ^^ And let not thy hand be tied up to thy 
neck ; neither open it with an unbounded expansion, lest 
thou become worthy of reprehension, and be reduced to 
poverty. ^^ Verily thy Lord will enlarge the store of 
whom he pleaseth ; and will be sparing unto whom he 
pleaseth ; for he knoweth and regardeth his servants. 
^^ Kill not your children for fear of being brought to 
want ; we will provide for them and for you : verily the 
killing them is a great sin. ^^ Draw not near unto forni- 
cation ; for it is wickedness, and an evil way. ^^ Neither 
slay the soul which God hath forbidden you to slay, 
unless for a just cause; and whosoever shall be slain 
unjustly, we have given his heir power to demand satis- 
faction ; but let him not exceed the bounds of moderation 
in putting to death the murderer in too cruel a manner, 

24 Submit to behave humbly ^ &c.] Liter- defer thy charity till God shall grant thee 

ally, Lower the wing of humility, &c. hetter ability. 

26 His due.~\ That is, friendship and 29 Let not thy hand be tied up, neither 
affection, and assistance in time of need. open it with an unbounded expansion."] i. e. 

27 For the profuse are brethren of the Be neither niggardly nor profuse, but 
devils.'] Prodigality, and squandering observe the mean between the two ex- 
away one's substance in folly or luxury, tremes, wherein consists true liberality 2. 
being a very great sin. The Arabs were 31 Kill not your children, &c.] See 
particularly guilty of extravagance in kill- chap. vi. and chap. Ixxxi. 

ing camels, and distributing them by lot, 33 Urdessfor a just cause,] The crimes 

merely out of vanity and ostentation; for which a man may justly be put to 

which they are forbidden by this passage, death are these : apostacy, adultery, and 

and commanded to bestow what they could murder ^. 

spare on their poor relations, and other — We have given his heir power to 

indigent people ^. demand satisfaction.] It being at the 

28 If thou turn from them in expecta- option of the heir, or next of kin, either 
tion, &c.] That is, if thy present circum- to take the life of the murderer, or to ac- 
stances will not permit thee to assist others, cept of a line in lieu of it*. 

1 Al Beiddwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem, * See chap, ii. 



86 AL KORAN. [chap. 

or by revenging his friend's blood on any other than the 
person who killed him ; since he is assisted by this law. 
^^And meddle not with the substance of the orphan, 
unless it be to improve it until he attain his age of 
strength : and perform your covenant ; for the perform- 
ance of your covenant shall be inquired into hereafter. 
^^ And give full measure, when you measure aught : and 
weigh with a just balance. This will be better, and more 
easy for determining every man's due. ^^ And follow not 
that whereof thou hast no knowledge ; for the hearing, 
and the sight, and the heart, every of these shall be 
examined at the last day. ^^ Walk not proudly in the 
land, for thou canst not cleave the earth, neither shalt 
thou equal the mountains in stature. ^^ All this is evil, 
and abominable in the sight of thy Lord. ^^ These 
precepts are a part of the wisdom which thy Lord hath 
revealed unto thee. Set not up any other god as equal 
unto God, lest thou be cast into hell, reproved and 
rejected. ^^ Hath your Lord preferably granted unto you 
sons, and taken for himself daughters from among the 
angels ? Verily, in asserting this, ye utter a grievous 
saying. ^^ And now have we used various arguments and 
repetitions in this Koran, that they may be warned ; yet 
it only rendereth them more disposed to fly from the 
truth. ^^ Say unto the idolaters. If there were other 
gods with him, as ye say, they would surely seek an 
occasion of making some attempt against the possessor of 
the throne. God forbid ! and far, very far, be that from 
him which they utter ! ^^ The seven heavens praise him, 
and the earth, and all who are therein : ** neither is 

33 Since he is assisted, &c.] Some believe true, or at least probable. Some 
refer the pronoun, he, to the person slain, interpret the words, Accuse not another of 
for the avenging whose death this law was a crime whereof thou hast no knowledge ; 
made ; some to the heir, who has a right supposing they forbid the bearing false 
granted him to demand satisfaction for his witness, or the spreading or giving credit 
friend's blood ^ ; and others, to him who to idle reports of others^. 

shall be slain by the heir, if he carry his 40 Daughters^] See chap. xvi. 
vengeance too far 2. 42 They would make some attempt 

34 Jge, &c.] See chap. iv. against the possessor of the throne.^ i. e. 

35 More easy for determinifig, &c.] Or They would in all probability contend 
more advantageous in the end ^. with God for superiority, and endeavour 

36 Follow not that whereof thou hast no to dethrone him, in the same manner 
knowledge.'] i. e. Vain and uncertain opi- as princes act with one another on 
nions, which thou hast not good reason to earth. 

* Yahya. ^ Al Beiddwi, ^ Al Beiddwi, al Zamakhshari, "* lidem. 



XVII.] A L KORAN. 87 

there any thing which doth not celebrate his praise ; but 
ye understand not their celebration thereof: he is gra- 
cious and merciful. ^^ When thou readest the Koran, 
we place between thee and those who believe not in the 
life to come, a dark veil ; ^^ and we put coverings over 
their hearts, lest they should understand it, and in their 
ears thickness of hearing. ^^ And when thou makest 
mention, in repeating the Koran, of thy Lord only, they 
turn their backs, flying the doctrine of his unity. ^^ We 
well know with what design they hearken, when they 
hearken unto thee, and when they privately discourse 
together : when the ungodly say. Ye follow no other 
than a madman. ^^ Behold ! what epithets they bestow 
on thee. But they are deceived : neither can they find 
any just occasion to reproach thee. ^^ They also say. 
After we shall have become bones and dust, shall we 
surely be raised a new creature ? ^^ Answer, Be ye stones, 
or iron, or some creature more improbable in your 
opinions to be raised to life. But they will say. Who 
shall restore us to life ? Answer, He who created you the 
first time : and they will wag their heads at thee, saying. 
When shall this be? Answer, Perad venture it is nigh. 
^^ On that day shall God call you forth from your sepul- 
chres, and ye shall obey, with celebration of his praise ; 
and ye shall think that ye tarried but a little while. 
^^ Speak unto my servants, that they speak mildly 
unto the unbelievers, lest ye exasperate them ; for 
Satan soweth discord among them, and Satan is 
a declared enemy unto man. ^^ Your Lord well 
knoweth you : if he pleaseth, he will have mercy on 
you ; or, if he pleaseth, he will punish you : and 
we have not sent thee to be a steward over them. 

47 Of thy Lord only.^ Not allowing 54 Your Lord well knoweth you^ &c.] 

their gods to be his associates, nor praying These words are designed as a pattern for 

their intercession with him. the Moslems to follow, in discoursing with 

52 Ye shall obey with celeh-ation of his the idolaters; by which they are taught to 

praise.'] The dead, says al Beidawi, at use soft and dubious expressions, and not 

his call, shall immediately rise, and shak- to tell them directly that they are doomed 

ing the dust off their heads, shall say, to hell-fire ; which, besides the presump- 

Praise be unto thee, O God. tion in offering to determine the sentence 

— That ye tarried.] Viz. In your of others, would only make them more 

graves, or in the world. irreconcilable enemies ^. 

1 AlBeiddwL 



88 A L KORAN. [chap. 

^^ Thy Lord well knoweth all persons in heaven and 
on earth. We have bestowed peculiar favours on 
some of the prophets, preferably to others ; and we 
gave unto David the psalms. ^^ Say, Call upon those 
whom ye imagine to be gods besides him ; yet they will 
not be able to free you from harm, or to turn it on others. 
^^ Those whom ye invoke, do themselves desire to be ad- 
mitted to a near conjunction with their Lord ; striving 
which of them shall approach nearest unto him : they 
also hope for his mercy, and dread his punishment ; for 
the punishment of thy Lord is terrible. ^^ There is no 
city, but we will destroy the same before the day of resur- 
rection, or we will punish it with a grievous punishment. 
^^ This is written in the book of our eternal decrees. 
^^ Nothing hindered us from sending thee with miracles, 
except that the former nations have charged them with 
imposture. We gave unto the tribe of Thamud, at their 
demand, the she-camel visible to their sight ; yet they 
dealt unjustly with her : and we sent not a prophet with 
miracles, but to strike terror. ^^ Remember when we said 
unto thee. Verily thy Lord encompasseth men by his 
knowledge and power. We have appointed the vision 
which we shewed thee, and also the tree cursed in the 

55 The Lord well knoweth all persons^ by Abu Becr*s bearing testimony to the 

&c.] And may choose whom he pleases truth of it ^, The word vision, here used, 

for his ambassador. This is an answer to is urged by those who take this journey to 

the objections of the Koreish, that Mo- have been no more than a dream, as a 

hammed was the orphan pupil of Abu plain confirmation of their opinion. Some, 

Taleb, and followed by a parcel of naked however, suppose the vision meant in this 

and hungry fellows ^ passage was not the night journey, but the 

— The psalms.'] Which were a greater dream Mohammed saw at al Hodeibiya, 

honour to him than his kingdom : and wherein he seemed to make his entrance 

wherein Mohammed and his people are into Mecca ^ ; or that at Bedr ^ ; or else a 

foretold by these words among others 2; vision he had relating to the family of 

The righteous shall inherit the earth ^. Ommeya, whom he saw mount his pulpit, 

57 Those whom ye invoke.] Viz. The and jump about in it like monkeys ; upon 

angels and prophets, who are the servants which he said, This is their portion in this 

of God as well as yourselves. world, which they have gained by their 

60 Thamud.] See chap. vii. profession of Islam ^ But if any of these 

61 The vision which we shewed thee, he] latter expositions be true, the verse must 
Mohammed's journey to heaven is gene- have been revealed at Medina. 

rally agreed to be intended in this place, — The cursed tree.] Called al Zak^ 
which occasioned great heats and debates kum^ which springs from the bottom of 
among his followers, till they were quieted hell ^ 

1 AlBeiddtvi. ^ V. Marrac. in Ale. p. 28, &c. Prid. Life of Mah. p. 122. 

3 Psal. xxxvii. 28. Al Beiddwi. * V. Abulf. vit. Moh. p. 39, & not. ibid. 

Prid. Life of Mah. p. 50. and Prelim. Disc. § ii. ^ See Kor. chap, xlviii. ^ gee 

chap. viii. 7 At Beiddwi. ^ See chap, xxxvii. 



XVII.] AL KORAN. 89 

Koran, only for an occasion of dispute unto men, and to 
strike them with terror ; but it shall cause them to trans- 
gress only the more enormously. ^^ And remember when 
we said unto the angels, Worship Adam, and they all 
worshipped him, except Eblis, who said, Shall I worship 
him whom thou hast created of clay ? ^^ And he said. 
What thinkest thou, as to this man whom thou hast 
honoured above me? Verily, if thou grant me respite 
until the day of resurrection, I will extirpate his offspring, 
except a few. ^^ God answered. Be gone ; I grant thee 
respite: but whosoever of them shall follow thee, hell 
shall surely be your reward ; an ample reward for your 
demerits ! ^^ And entice to vanity such of them as thou 
canst, by thy voice ; and assault them on all sides, with 
thy horsemen and thy footmen ; and partake with them 
in their riches and their children ; and make them promises 
(but the devil shall make them no other than deceitful 
promises) : ^^ as to my servants, thou shalt have no power 
over them ; for thy Lord is a sufficient protector of those 
who trust in him. ^^ It is your Lord who driveth forward 
the ships for you in the sea, that ye may seek to enrich 
yourselves of his abundance by commerce ; for he is mer- 
ciful towards you. ^^ When a misfortune befalleth you at 
sea, the false deities whom ye invoke are forgotten by 
you, except him alone : yet when he bringeth you safe to 
dry land, ye retire afar off from him, and return to your 
idols ; for man is ungrateful. ^^ Are ye therefore secure 
that he will not cause the dry land to swallow you up, or 
that he will not send against you a whirlwind, driving the 
sands to overwhelm you? Then shall ye find none to 
protect you. ^® Or are ye secure that he will not cause 
you again to commit yourselves to the sea another time, 
and send against you a tempestuous wind, and drown you; 
for that ye have been ungrateful? Then shall je find 
none to defend you against us in that distress. ^* And 

64 Demerits.^ See chap. ii. and vii. and to spend it in supporting vice and 

65 With thy horsemen and with thy superstition ; and tempting them to inces- 
footmen.~\ i. e. With all thy forces. tuous mixtures, and to give their children 

— And partake with them in their names in honour of their idols, as Abd 
riches, and their children.'] Instigating Yaghuth, Abd' al Uzza, &c. ^ 
them to get wealth by unlawful means, 68 Ungrateful,'] See chap. x. 

1 Al Beiddwi. 



90 AL KORAN. [chap. 

now have we honoured the children of Adam by sundry 
pecuh'ar privileges and endowments ; and we have given 
them conveniences of carriage by land and by sea, and 
have provided food for them of good things ; and we have 
preferred them before many of our creatures which we 
have created, by granting them great prerogatives. ^^ On 
a certain day we will call all men to judgment with their 
respective leader : and whosoever shall have his book given 
him into his right hand, they shall read their book with joy 
and satisfaction : and they shall not be wronged a hair. 
'^^ And whoever hath been blind in this life, shall be also 
blind in the next, and shall wander more widely from the 
path of salvation. ^* It wanted little but the unbelievers 
had tempted thee to swerve from the instructions which 
we had revealed unto thee, that thou shouldest devise 
concerning us a different thing ; and then would they have 
taken thee for their friend : ^^ and unless we had con- 
firmed thee, thou hadst certainly been very near inclining 
unto them a little. ^^ Then would we surely have caused 
thee to taste the punishment of life, and the punishment of 
death ; and thou shouldest not have found any to protect 
thee against us. ^^ The unbelievers had likewise almost 
caused thee to depart the land, that they might have ex- 

72 Their respective leader,"] Some in- that if the other Arabs asked him the 

terpret this of the prophets sent to every reason of tliese concessions, he should say, 

people ; others, of the various religions that God had commanded him so to do \ 

professed in the world ; others, of the According to which explication it is plain 

books which shall be given to every man this verse must have been revealed long 

at the resurrection, containing a register after the Hejra. 

of their good and bad actions ^, Some, however, will have the passage 

— Book,] See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. to have been revealed at Mecca, on occa- 

— A hair,] See chap. iv. sion of the Koreish ; who told Mohammed 
74 It wanted little but the unbelievers they would not suffer him to kiss the black 

had seduced theCf &c.] These are gene- stone in the wall of the Caaba, unless he 

rally supposed to have been the tribe of also visited their idols, and touched them 

Thakif, the inhabitants of al Tayef, who with his hand, to show his respect, 
insisted on Mohammed's granting them 76 The punishment of life and the punish- 

^overal very extraordinary privileges, as ment of death.] i.e. Both of this life and 

the terms of their submission to him ; for the next. Some interpret the first of the 

they demanded that they might be free punishment in the next world, and the 

from the legal contribution of alms, and latter of the torture of the sepulchre *. 
from observing the appointed times of 77 Th^ unbelievers had likewise almost 

prayer ; that they might be allowed to caused thee to depart the land, &c.] The 

keep their idol AUat for a certain time 2, commentators differ as to the place where 

and that their territory might be declared this passage was delivered, and the occa- 

a place of security, and not be violated, sion of it. Some think it was revealed at 

like that of Mecca, &c. And they added, Mecca, and that it refers to the violent 

* Al Beiddwi, 2 gge the Prelim. Disc. p. 21. ^ Al Beiddwi, Jallald' ddin. 

V. Abulf, vit. Moham. p. 126, &c. ^ ^/ Beiddwi, 



XVII.] 



AL KORAN. 



91 



pelled thee thence : but then should they not have tarried 
therein after thee, except a little while. ^^ This is the 
method of dealing which we have prescribed ourselves in 
respect to our apostles, whom we have already sent before 
thee : and thou shalt not find any change in our prescribed 
method. ^^ Regularly perform thy prayer at the declen- 
sion of the sun, at the first darkness of the night, and 
the prayer of day-break ; for the prayer of day-break is 
borne witness unto by the angels. ^^ And watch some 
part of the night in the same exercise, as a work of supe- 
rerogation for thee; peradventure thy Lord will raise 
thee to an honourable station. ^^ And say, O Lord, 
cause me to enter with a favourable entry ; and cause me 
to come forth with a favourable coming forth ; and grant 
me from thee an assisting power. ^^ And say. Truth is 
come, and falsehood is vanished : for falsehood is of short 



enmity which the Koreish bore Moham- 
med, and their restless endeavours to make 
him leave Mecca ^ ; as he was at length 
obliged to do. But as the persons here 
spoken of seem not to have prevailed in 
their project, others suppose that the verse 
was revealed at Medina, on the following 
occasion. The Jews, envious of Moham- 
med's good reception and stay there, told 
him, by way of counsel, that Syria was the 
land of the prophets, and that if he was 
really a prophet, he ought to go thither. 
Mohammed seriously reflecting on what 
they had said, began to think they had 
advised him well ; and actually set out and 
proceeded a day's journey in his way to 
jSyria ; whereupon God acquainted him 
with their design by the revelation of this 
verse, and he returned to Medina 2, 

— Then should they not have tarried 
therein after thee, except a little whileJ] 
This was fulfilled according to the former 
of the above-mentioned explications, by 
the loss of the Koreish at Bedr ; and 
according to the latter, by the great 
slaughter of the Jews of Koreidha and al 
Nadir ^. 

79 At the declension of the sun,'\ i. e. 
At the time of noon prayer, when the sun 
declines from the meridian ; or, as some 
choose to translate the words, at the setting 
of the sun, which is the time of the first 
evening prayer. 

— At the first darkness of the night,"] 
The time of the last evening prayer. 



— The prayer of day-break,] Lite- 
rally the reading of the day -break ; whence 
some suppose the reading of the Koran at 
that time is here meant. 

— By the angels.] Viz. The guardian- 
angels, who, according to some, are relieved 
at that time ; or else the angels appointed 
to make the change of night into day, &c. *. 

80 An honourable station.] According 
to a tradition of Abu Horeira, the honour- 
able station here intended is, that of inter- 
cessor for others ^ 

81 Cause me to enter with a favourable 
entry, and cause me to come forth with a 
favourable coming forth,] That is. Grant 
that I may enter my grave with peace, 
and come forth from it, at the resurrection, 
with honour and satisfaction. In which 
sense this petition is the same with that of 
Balaam, Let me die the death of the 
righteous, and let my last end be like his ^. 

But as the person here spoken to is ge- 
nerally supposed to be Mohammed, the 
commentators say he was commanded to 
pray in these words for a safe departure 
from Mecca, and a good reception at Me- 
dina ; or for a sure refuge in the cave, 
where he hid himself when he fled from 
Mecca ^; or (which is the more common 
opinion) for a victorious entrance into 
Mecca, and a safe return thence ^ 

82 Say, Truth is come, and falsehood is 
vanished, &c.] These words Mohammed 
repeated when he entered the temple of 
Mecca, after the taking of that city, and 



* Al Beiddwi. 
^ Numb, xxiii. 10. 



^ Idem, Jallalo' ddin, ^ lidem. '^ Idem. ^ Idem. 

^ See the Prelim. Disc. § ii. ^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo*ddin, 



92 A L KORAN. [chap. 

continuance. ^^ We send down of the Koran that which 
is a medicine and mercv unto the true beh* overs, but it 
shall only increase the perdition of the unjust. ^^ When 
we bestow favours on man, he retireth and withdraweth 
himself ungratefully from us ; but when evil toucheth him, 
he despaireth of our mercy. ^^ Say, Every one acteth 
after his own manner : but your Lord best knoweth who 
is most truly directed in his way. ^^ They will ask thee 
concerning the spirit : answer ; The spirit was created at 
the command of my Lord : but ye have no knowledge 
given unto you, except a little. ^^ If we pleased, we 
should certainly take away that which we have revealed 
unto thee : in such case thou couldest not find any to 
assist thee therein against us, ^^ unless through mercy 
from thy Lord ; for his favour towards thee hath been 
great. ^^ Say, Verily, if men and genii were purposely 
assembled, that they might produce a book like this 
Koran, they could not produce one like unto it, although 
the one of them assisted the other. ^® And we have 
variously propounded unto men in this Koran, every kind 
of figurative argument; but the greater part of men 
refuse to receive it, merely out of infidelity. ^^ And they 
say. We will by no means believe on thee, until thou 
cause a spring of water to gash forth for us out of the 

cleansed it of the idols ; a great number of nein ^, and to give them an account of the 

which are said to have fallen down on his soul of man ; adding, that if he pretended 

touching them with the end of the stick he to answer all the three questions, or could 

held in his hand ^. answer none of them, they might be sure 

85 Every one acleth after his own man- he was no prophet ; but if he gave an an- 
ner.~\ i. e. According to his judgment or swer to one or two of the questions, and 
opinion, be it true or false ; or according to was silent as to the other, he was really a 
the bent of his mind, and the natural con- prophet. Accordingly, when they pro- 
stitution of his body *. pounded the questions to him, he told 

86 Concerning the spirit.'] Or the soul them the two histories, but acknowledged 
of man. Some interpret it of the angel his ignorance as to the origin of the human 
Gabriel, or of the divine revelation ^, soul ^. 

— The spirit was created at the com- — Ye have no knowledge given unto youy 

mand of my Lord.] Viz. By the word Kun, except a little.] All your knowledge being 

i. e. Be ; consisting of an immaterial sub- acquired from the information of your 

stance, and not generated, like the body, senses, which must necessarily fail you in 

But, according to a different opinion, this spiritual speculations, without the assist- 

passage should be translated. The spirit is ance of divine revelation 7, 

of those things, the knowledge of which 87 We should certaiiily take away that 

thy Lord hath reserved to himself. For which we have revealed.] Viz. The Koran; 

it is said that the Jews bid the Koreish ask by razing it both from the written copies, 

Mohammed to relate the history of those and the memories of men. 

who slept in the cave *, and of Dhu'lkar- 91 Until thou cause a spring of water to 

* At Beiddwif JallaW ddin. V. Gagnier, Vie de Mahomet, torn. ii. p. 127. ^ -^^ 

Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ See the next chapter. ^ See ibid. ^ AlBeiddwi. ^ Idem. 



XVII.] AL KORAN. 93 

earth ; ^^ or thou have a garden of palm-trees and vines, 
and thou cause rivers to spring forth from the midst 
thereof in abundance ; ^^ or thou cause the heaven to fall 
down upon us, as thou hast given out, in pieces ; or thou 
bring down God and the angels to vouch for thee ; ^^ or 
thou have a house of gold ; or thou ascend by a ladder 
to heaven : neither will we believe thy ascending thither 
alone, until thou cause a book to descend unto us, bearing 
witness of thee, which we may read. Answer, My Lord 
be praised ! Am I other than a man, sent as an apostle? 
'^^ And nothing hindereth men from believing, when a 
direction is come unto them, except that they say, Hath 
God sent a man for his apostle ? ^^ Answer, if the angels 
had walked on earth as familiar inhabitants thereof, we 
had surely sent down unto them from heaven an angel 
for our apostle. ^^ Say, God is a sufficient witness be- 
tween me and you : for he knoweth and regardeth his 
servants. ^^ Whom God shall direct, he shall be rightly 
directed ; and whom he shall cause to err, thou shalt find 
none to assist, besides him. And we will gather them 
together on the day of resurrection, creeping on their 
faces, blind, and dumb, and deaf: their abode shall be 
hell ; so often as the fire thereof shall be extinguished, 
we will rekindle a burning flame to torment them. ^^ This 
shall be their reward, because they disbelieve in our signs, 
and say. When we shall have been reduced to bones and 
dust, shall we surely be raised new creatures ? ^^^ Do 
they not perceive that God, who created the heavens and 
the earth, is able to create other bodies like their present ? 
And he hath appointed them a limited term, there is 
no doubt thereof: but the ungodly reject the truth, 
merely out of unbelief. ^^^ Say, If ye possessed the trea- 
sures of the mercy of my Lord, ye would surely refrain 

gush forth^ &:c.] This and the following 98 So often as the fire shall he extin- 

miracles were demanded of Moham- guished, we will rekindle it to torment them.^ 

med by the Koreish, as proofs of his mis- i. e. When the fire shall go out or abate for 

bion. want of fuel, after the consumption of the 

94 Thy ascending thither alone.~\ As skins and flesh of the damned, we will add 

thou pretendest to have done in thy night- fresh vigour to the flames by giving them 

journey; but of which no man was wit- new bodies •. 

ness. 100 ^ limited term."] Of life or resur- 

98 ^/iwr/, &c.] See the Prelim. Disc. §iv. rection. 

* Al Bciddwi. See chap. iv. p. 88. 



94 AL KORAN. [chap. 

from using them, for fear of spending them: for man 
is covetous. ^^^ We heretofore gave unto Moses the 
power of working nine evident signs. And do thou 
ask the children of Israf:l as to the story of Moses; 
when he came unto them, and Pharaoh said unto him, 
Verily I esteem thee, O Moses, to be deluded by sor- 
cery. ^^^ Moses answered, Thou well knowest that none 
hath sent down these evident signs, except the Lord of 
heaven and earth ; and I surely esteem thee, O Pharaoh, 
a lost man. ^^^ Wherefore Pharaoh sought to drive them 
out of the land ; but we drowned him, and all those who 
were with him. ^^^And we said unto the children of 
Israel, after his destruction. Dwell ye in the land : and 
when the promise of the next life shall come to be ful- 
filled, we will bring you both promiscuously to judgment. 
106 -yy-^ have sent down the Koran, with truth, and it 
hath descended with truth : and we have not sent thee 
otherwise than to be a bearer of good tidings, and a de- 
nouncer of threats. ^^^ And we have divided the Koran, 
revealing it by parcels, that thou mightest read it unto 
men with deliberation ; and we have sent it down, caus- 
ing it to descend as occasion required. ^^^ Say, Whether 
ye believe therein, or do not believe, verily those who 
have been favoured with the knowledge of the scriptures 
which were revealed before it, when the same is rehearsed 
unto them, fall down on their faces, worshipping, and 
say. Our Lord be praised, for that the promise of our 

101 For fear of spending them.'] That or murder, nor practise sorcery or usury, 
is, lest they should be exhausted. nor accuse an innocent man to take away 

102 Nine signs.^ These were the his life, or a modest woman of whoredom, 
changing his rod into a serpent, the making nor desert the army ; to which he added 
his hand white and shining, the producing the observing of the sabbath, as a tenth 
locusts, lice, frogs, and blood, the dividing commandment, but which peculiarly re- 
of the Red Sea, the bringing water out of garded the Jews : upon which answer, it 
the rock, and the shaking of mount Sinai is said, the Jew kissed the prophet's hands 
over the children of Israel. In lieu of and feet 2. 

the three last some reckon the inundation — Do you ask the children of Israel, &c.] 
of the Nile, the blasting of the corn, and Some think these words are directed to 
scarcity of the fruits of the earth ^ These Moses, who is hereby commanded to de- 
words, however, are interpreted by others, mand the children of Israel of Pharaoh, 
not of nine miracles, but of nine command- that he might let them go with him. 
ments, which Moses gave his people, and 107 By parcels, &c.] See the Prelim, 
were thus numbered up by Mohammed Disc. § iii. 

himself to a Jew, who asked him the ques- 108 On their faces,~\ Literally, on their 

tion, viz. That they should not be guilty chins, 
of idolatry, nor steal, nor commit adultery 

* 41 Beiddwiy Jallaloddnu 2 jj Beiddwi. 



xviii.] AL KORAN. 95 

Lord is surely fulfilled ! And they fall down on their 
faces, weeping ; and the hearing thereof increaseth their 
humility. ^^^ Say, Call upon God, or call on the Merci- 
ful : by whichsoever of the two names ye invoke him, it 
is equal ; for he hath most excellent names. Pronounce 
not thy prayer aloud, neither pronounce it with too low a 
voice, but follow a middle way between these : ^^^ and 
say. Praise be unto God, who hath not begotten any 
child ; who hath no partner in the kingdom, nor hath any 
to protect him from contempt : and magnify him by pro- 
claiming his greatness. 

109 Call on God or the Merciful, &c.] with too low a voice, &c.] Neither so loud 

The infidels hearing Mohammed say, O that the infidels may overhear thee, and 

God, and O Merciful, imagined the Mer- thence take occasion to blaspheme and 

ciful was the name of a deity different scoff; nor so softly as not to be heard by 

from God, and that he preached the wor- the assistants. Some suppose that by the 

ship of two; which occasioned this passage, word prayer, in this place, is meant the 

See chap. vii. reading of the Koran. 

109 Pronounce not thy prayer aloud, nor 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

INTITLED, THE CAVE ; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

* Praise be unto God, who hath sent down unto his ser- 
vant the book of the Koran, and hath not inserted there- 
in any crookedness, but hath made it a straight rule : 
^ that he should threaten a grievous punishment unto the 
unbelievers, from his presence ; and should bear good 
tidings unto the faithful, who work righteousness, that 
they shall receive an excellent reward, namely, paradise, 
^ wherein they shall remain for ever : ^ and that he should 
warn those who say, God hath begotten issue ; of which 
matter they have no knowledge, neither had their fathers. 
A grievous saying it is, which proceedeth from their 
mouths : they speak no other than a lie. ^ Perad venture 
thou wilt kill thyself with grief after them, out of thy 
earnest zeal for their conversion, if they believe not in 

Title — Cave,'] The chapter is thus in- Title — Mecca.'] Some except one verse, 

scribed because it makes mention of the which begins thus, Behave thyself with 

cave wherein the seven sleepers concealed constancy, &c, 
themselves. 



96 AL KORAN. [chap. 

this new revelation of the Koran. ^Verily we have 
ordained whatsoever is on the earth for the ornament 
thereof, that we might make trial of men, and see which 
of them excelleth in works : ^ and we will surely reduce 
whatever is thereon to dry dust. ^ Dost thou consider 
that the companions of the cave, and Al Rakim, were 
one of our signs, and a great miracle ? ^ When the young 
men took refuge in the cave, they said, O Lord, grant us 
mercy from before thee, and dispose our business for us 
to a right issue. ^^ Wherefore we struck their ears with 
deafness, so that they slept without disturbance in the 
cave for a great number of years : " then we awaked them, 
that w^e might know which of the two parties was more 
exact in computing the space which they had remained 
there. ^^ We will relate unto thee their history with 
truth. Verily they were young men who had believed in 
their Lord ; and we had abundantly directed them ; 
*^ and we fortified their hearts with constancy when they 
stood before the tyrant : and they said, Our Lord is the 
Lord of heaven and earth : we will by no means call on 
any god besides him ; for then should we surely utter an 
extravagance. ^^ These our fellow-people have taken 
other gods, besides him ; although they bring no demon- 

8 The companions of the cave.^ These and others (who seem to come nearer the 

were certain Christian youths, of a good true signification) that it was a brass plate, 

family in Ephesus, who, to avoid the per- or stone table, placed near the mouth of 

secution of the emperor Decius, by the the cave, on which the names of the young 

Arab writers called Decianus, hid them- men were written. 

selves in a cave, where they slept for a There are some, however, who take the 

great number of years ^. companions of Al Rakim to be different 

This apocryphal story — for Baronius ^ from the seven sleepers : for they say the 
treats it as no better ; and Father Mar- former were three men, who were driven 
racci ^ acknowledges it to be partly false, by ill weather into a cave for shelter, and 
or at least doubtful, though he calls Hot- were shut in there by the falling down of 
tinger a monster of impiety, and the off- a vast stone, which stopped up the cave's 
scum of heretics, for terming it a fable *, — mouth ; but on their begging God's mercy, 
was borrowed by Mohammed from the and their relating each of them a meri - 
Christian traditions ^, but has been em- torious action which they hoped might 
bellished by him and his followers with entitle them to it, were miraculously de- 
several additional circumstances^. livered by the rock's rending in sunder to 

— Al RakimJ] What is meant by this give them passage ^. 

word the commentators cannot agree. Some 11 The two parties.'] Viz. of the sleepers 

will have it to be the name of the moun- themselves, or others, who were divided in 

tain, or the valley, wherein the cave was ; opinion as to the length of their stay in 

some say it was the name of their dog ; the cave. 

^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin, &c. ^ ifj Martyrol. ad 27 Julii. ^ j^ 

Alcor. p. 425. & in Prodr. part iv. p. 103. * Hotting. Hist. Orient, p. 40. 

* Greg. Turon. & Simeon. Metaphrast. « V. D'Herh. Bibl. Q/ient. p. 189. 
^ Al Beiddtuif ex trad. Nooman Ebn Bashir. 



XVIII.] AL KORAiNT. 97 

strative argument for them : and who is more unjust than 
he who deviseth a lie concerning God ? ^^ And they said 
the one to the other, When ye shall separate yourselves 
from them, and from the deities which they worship, 
except God, fly into the cave : your Lord will pour his 
mercy on you abundantly, and will dispose your business 
for you to advantage. ^^ And thou mightest have seen 
the sun, when it had risen, to decline from their cave 
towards the right hand ; and when it went down, to leave 
them on the left hand : and they were in the spacious 
part of the cave. This was one of the signs of God. 
Whomsoever God shall direct, he shall be rightly di- 
rected; and whomsoever he shall cause to err, thou shalt 
not find any to defend or to direct. ^^ And thou wouldest 
have judged them to have been awake, while they were 
sleeping ; and w^e caused them to turn themselves to the 
right hand, and to the left. And their dog stretched 
forth his fore legs in the mouth of the cave. ^^ If thou 
hadst come suddenly upon them, verily thou wouldest 
have turned thy back and fled from them, and thou 
wouldest have been filled with fear at the sight of them. 

15 Except God.'\ For they, like other which opinion is supported by reading, as 
idolaters, worshipped the true God and some do, Calebohom, their dog's master, 
idols also ^, instead of Calbohom, their dog ^. Jalla- 

16 The sun declined from their cave, &c.] lo'ddin adds, that the dog behaved as his 
Lest it should be offensive to them, the masters did, in turning himself, in sleep- 
cave opening towards the south 2. ing, and in waking. 

— In the spacious part of the cave.'] i. e. The Mohammedans have a great respect 
In the midst of it, where they were in- for this dog, and allow him a place in para- 
commoded neither by the heat of the sun, dise with some other favourite brutes : 
nor the closeness of the cave ^. and they have a sort of proverb, which 

17 Thou wouldest have judged them to they use in speaking of a covetous person, 
have been awake.] Because of their hav- that he would not throw a bone to the dog 
ing their eyes open, or their frequent of the seven sleepers: nay, it is said that 
turning themselves from one side to the they have the superstition to write his 
other *. name, which they suppose to be Katmir 

— And they turned themselves, &c.] (though some, as is observed above, think 
Lest their lying so long on the ground he was called al Rakim), on their letters 
should consume their flesh 5. which go far, or which pass the sea, as a 

— Their dog.] This dog had followed protection, or kind of talisman, to preserve 
them as they passed by him, when they them from miscarriage '^. 

fled to the cave, and they drove him away ; 18 Thou wouldest have been filled with 
whereupon God caused him to speak, and fear at the sight of them.] For that God 
he said, I love those who are dear unto had given them terrible countenances, or 
God ; go to sleep, therefore, and I will else because of the largeness of their bo- 
guard you. But some say it was a dog dies, or the horror of the place, 
belonging to a shepherd who followed them. It is related that the Khalif Moawiyah, 
and that the dog followed the shepherd ; in an expedition he made against Natolia, 

* Al Beiddwi. 2 idem. ^ idem. * Idem. ^ Idem, JaU 

laWddin. ^ Idem. ^ /.^ Roque, Voy. de I'Arabie heur. p. 74. V. D'Her- 

hel. ubi sup. 

VOL. II. H 



98 AL KORAN. [chap. 

And so we awaked them from their sleep, that they might 
ask questions of one another. ^^ One of them spake, and 
said, How long have ye tarried here ? They answered. 
We have tarried a day, or part of a day. The others 
said. Your Lord best knoweth the time ye have tarried : 
and now send one of you with this your money into the 
city, and let him see which of its inhabitants hath the 
best and cheapest food, and let him bring you provision 
from him ; and let him behave circumspectly, and not 
discover you to any one. ^^ Verily, if they come up 
against you, they will stone you, or force you to return 
to their religion ; and then shall ye not prosper for ever. 
^^ And so we made their people acquainted with what had 
happened to them ; that they might know that the pro- 
mise of God is true, and that there is no doubt of the 
last hour; when they disputed among themselves con- 
cerning their matter. ^^ And they said. Erect a building 
over them: their Lord best knoweth their condition. 
Those who prevailed in their affair answered. We will 
surely build a chapel over them. ^^ Some say. The sleepers 
were three; and their dog was the fourth: and others 
say. They were five ; and their dog was the sixth ; guess- 
passed by the cave of the seven sleepers, the souls only should be raised; others, 
and would needs send somebody into it, that they should be raised v^rith the body : 
notwithstanding Ebn Abbas remonstrated or, concerning the sleepers, after they were 
to him the danger of it, saying, That a really dead ; one saying, that they were 
better man than him (meaning the pro- dead ; and another, that they were only 
phet) had been forbidden to enter it, and asleep ; or else concerning the erecting a 
repeated this verse ; but the men the Kha- building over them, as it follows in the 
lif sent in, had no sooner entered the cave, next words ; some advising a dwelling- 
than they were struck dead by a burning housetobebuilt there, and others a temple 3. 
wind ^. 22 Those who prevailed said, We will 

19 Your Lord best knoweth the time ye build a chapel over them.'] When the 
have tarried.] As they entered the cave young man, who was sent into the city, 
in the morning, and waked about noon, went to pay for the provision he had 
they at first imagined they had slept half bought, his money was so old, being the 
a day, or a day and a half at most ; but coin of Decianus, that they imagined he 
when they found their nails and their hair had found a treasure, and carried him be- 
grown very long, they used these words ^. fore the prince, who was a Christian, and 

— Ttito the city.] Which some com- having heard his story, sent some with 
mentators suppose was Tarsus. him to the cave, who saw and spoke to the 

21 That there is no doubt of the last others : after which they fell asleep again, 

hour.] The long sleep of these young and died; and the prince ordered them to 

men, and their waking after so many years, be buried in the same place, and built a 

being a representation of the state of those chapel over them. 

who die, and are afterwards raised to 23 Some say, They were three, &c.] 

li^e. This was the opinion of al Seyid, a Ja- 

— Concerning their matter.] i. e. Con- cobite Christian of Najran. 

cerning the resurrection ; some saying that — Others say, They ivere five, &c.] 

1 Al Beiddwi. 2 [dem. 3 i^em. 



xviii.] AL KORAN. 99 

ing at a secret matter : and others say, They were seven ; 
and their dog was the eighth. Say, My Lord best 
knoweth their number : none shall know them, except a 
few. ^^ Wherefore dispute not concerning them, unless 
with a clear disputation, according to what hath been 
revealed unto thee : and ask not any of the Christians 
concerning them. ^^ Say not of any matter, I will surely 
do this to-morrow ; unless thou add, If God please. And 
remember thy Lord, when thou forgettest, and say. My 
Lord is able to direct me with ease, that I may draw 
near unto the truth of this matter rightly. ^^ And they 
remained in their cave three hundred years, and nine 
years over. ^^ Say, God best knoweth how long they 
continued there : unto him are the secrets of heaven and 
earth known ; do thou make him to see, and to hear. 
The inhabitants thereof have no protector besides him ; 
neither doth he suffer any one to have a share in the 
establishment or knowledge of his decree. ^^ Read that 
which hath been revealed unto thee, of the book of thy 
Lord, without presuming to make any change therein : 
there is none who hath power to change his words ; and 
thou shalt not find any to fly to, besides him, if thou 

Which was the opinion of certain Chris- 26 Three hundred and nine years.'] Jal- 

tians, and particularly of a Nestorian pre- lalo'ddin supposes the whole space was 

late. three hundred solar years, and that the 

— Others say, They were seven, &c.] odd nine are added to reduce them to 
And this is the true opinion ^. lunar years. 

25 Say not of any matter, I will do this Some think these words are introduced 

to-morrow ; unless thou add, If God please.] as spoken by the Christians, who differed 

It is said, that when the Koreish, by the among themselves about the time ; one 

direction of the Jews, put the three ques- saying it was three hundred years, and 

tions above-mentioned to Mohammed, he another, three hundred and nine years ^. 

bid them come to him the next day, and The interval between the reign of Decius, 

he would give them an answer ; but added and that of Theodosius the younger, in 

not, If it please God; for which reason he whose time the sleepers are said to have 

had the mortification to wait above ten awaked, will not allow them to have slept 

days, before any revelation was vouch- quite two hundred years ; though Mo- 

safed him concerning those matters, so hammed is somewhat excusable, since the 

that the Koreish triumphed, and bitterly number assigned by Simeon Metaphrastes* 

reproached him as a liar ; but at length is three hundred and seventy-two years. 

Gabriel brought him directions what he 27 Do thou make him to see, and to 

should say ; with this admonition, how- hear.] This is an ironical expression, in- 

ever, that he should not be so confident timating the folly and madness of man's 

for the future ^. presuming to instruct God ^. 

— Remember thy Lord, &c.] i. e. Give 28 Read that which hath been revealed 
the glory to him, and ask pardon for thy unto thee, without malnng any cha?ige 
omission, in case thou forget to say. If it therein.] As the unbelievers would per- 
please God. suade thee to do ^. 



1 Al Beidawi, Jallalo'ddin. ^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem, * Ubi sup, 

^ Al Beiddwi, Jallalo' ddin. ^ Idem. 

H 2 



100 A L KORAN. [chap. 

attempt it. ^^ Behave thyself with constancy towards 
those who call upon their Lord morning and evening, 
and who seek his favour ; and let not thine eyes be turned 
away from them, seeking the pomp of this life; neither 
obey him whose heart we have caused to neglect the 
remembrance of us, and who followeth his lusts, and 
leaveth the truth behind him. ^^ And say. The truth is 
from your Lord ; wherefore let him who will, believe, 
and let him who will, be incredulous. We have surely 
prepared for the unjust hell-fire, the flame and smoke 
w^hereof shall surround them like a pavilion : and if they 
beg relief, they shall be relieved with water like molten 
brass, w^hich shall scald their faces : O how miserable a 
potion, and how unhappy a couch ! ^^ As to those who 
believe, and do good works, we will not sufter the reward 
of him who shall work righteousness to perish : ^^ for 
them are prepared gardens of eternal abode, which shall 
be watered by rivers ; they shall be adorned therein with 
bracelets of gold, and shall be clothed in green garments 
of fine silk and brocades ; reposing themselves therein on 
thrones. O how happy a reward, and how easy a couch ! 
^^ And propound unto them as a parable two men : on the 
one of whom we had bestowed two vineyards, and had 
surrounded them with palm-trees, and had caused corn to 
grow between them. ^* Each of the gardens brought 
forth its fruit every season, and failed not at all : and we 
caused a river to flow in the midst thereof : and he had 



29 Let not thine eyes be turned away that two particular persons are here meant. 

from them, &c.] That is, Despise not the One says that they were two Israelites, and 

poor believers, because of their meanness ; brothers, who had a considerable sura left 

nor honour the rich, because of their them by their father, which they divided 

wealth and grandeur. between them ; and that one of them, 

— Whose heart we have caused to neg- being an unbeliever, bought large fields 

led the remembrance of m5.] The person and possessions with his portion ; while 

more particularly intended here, it is said, the other, who was a true believer, dis- 

was Ommeya Ebn Khalf, who desired posed of his to pious uses ; but that, in the 

Mohammed to discard his indigent com- end, the former was ruined, and the latter 

panions, out of respect to the Koreish. prospered. Another thinks they were two 

See chap. vi> men of the tribe of Makhzum : the one 

32 Gardens of eternal abode.~\ Lite- named al Aswad Ebn Abd'al Ashadd, an 
YdWy^ of Eden. See chap. ix. infidel: and the other, Abu Salma Ebn 

33 Two men.'] Though these seem to be Abd'allah, the husband of Omm Salma, 
general characters only, designed to repre- (whom the prophet married after his 
sent the different end of the wicked, and death,) and a true believer^. 

of the good ; yet it is supposed, by some, 

^ Al Beiddwi, 



XVIII.] AL KORAN. 101 

great abundance. ^^ And he said unto his companion, by 
way of debate, I am superior to thee in wealth, and have 
a more powerful family. ^^ And he went into his garden, 
being guilty of injustice against his own soul, and said, I 
do not think that this garden will decay for ever; 
^^ neither do I think that the last hour will come : and 
although I should return unto my Lord, verily I shall 
find a better garden than this in exchange. ^^ And his 
companion said unto him, by way of debate, Dost thou 
not believe in him who created thee of the dust, and 
afterwards of seed ; and then fashioned thee into a perfect 
man ? ^^ But as for me, God is my Lord ; and I will 
not associate any other deity with my Lord. ^^ And 
when thou enterest thy garden, wilt thou not say. What 
God pleaseth shall come to pass ; there is no power but 
in God alone ? ^^ Although thou seest me to be inferior 
to thee in wealth and number of children, my Lord is 
well able to bestow on me a better gift than thy garden, 
and to shoot his arrows against the same from heaven, so 
that it shall become barren dust : ^^ or its water may sink 
deep into the earth, that thou canst not draw thereof. 
^^ And his possessions were encompassed with destruction, 
as his companion had forewarned him : wherefore he began 
to turn down the palms of his hands, out of sorrow and 
regret for that which he had expended thereon ; for the 
vines thereof were fallen down on their trails : and he 
said. Would to God that I had not associated any other 
deity with my Lord ! ^* And he had no party to assist 
him besides God, neither was he able to defend himself 
against his vengeance. ^^ In such case protection be- 
longeth of right unto God alone ; he is the best rewarder, 
and the best giver of success. ^^ And propound to them a 
similitude of the present life. It is like water which we 
send down from heaven ; and the herb of the earth is 
mixed therewith ; and after it hath been green and 
flourishing, in the morning it becometh dry stubble, which 

36 And he weyit into Ms garden."] Car- 37 / shall find a better garden in ex-' 
rying his companion with him, out of change.'] Vainly imagining that his pros- 
ostentation, and to mortify him with the parity was not so much the free gift of God, 
view of his large possessions ^. as due to his merit 2. 

1 Al Beiddwi. 2 i(|em. 



102 AL KORAN. [chap. 

the winds scatter abroad; and God is able to do all 
things. ^^ Wealth and children are the ornament of this 
present life ; but^ood wor ks, which are perman ent, are 
better in the sight of tt^TjORD , with respect to the re-^ 
war J, and better^ith respect ton5ope7"~~^^^~0ira^^ 
day \ve^ill causeHtlie^ mountains to pass away, and thou 
shalt see the earth appearing plain and even ; and we will 
gather mankind together, and we will not leave any one 
of them behind. ^^ And they shall be set before thy 
Lord in distinct order, and he shall say unto them. Now 
are ye come unto us naked, as we created you the first 
time ; but ye thought that we should not perform our 
promise anto you. ^^ And the book wherein every one's 
actions are recorded shall be put into his hand ; and thou 
shalt see the wicked in great terror, because of that which 
is written therein, and they shall say, Alas for us ! what 
meaneth this book ? It omitteth neither a small action 
nor a great one, but it compriseth the same ; and they 
shall find that which they have wrought present before 
their eyes : and thy Lord will not deal unjustly with any 
one. ^^ Remember when we said unto the angels. Wor- 
ship ye Adam : and they all worshipped him, except Eblis, 
who was one of the genii, and departed from the com- 
mand of his Lord. Will ye therefore take him and his 
offspring for your patrons besides me, notwithstanding they 
are your enemies ? Miserable shall such a change be to 
the ungodly ! ^^ I called not them to be present at the 
creation of the heavens and of the earth, nor at the crea- 
tion of themselves, neither did I take those seducers for 
my assistants. ^^ On a certain day, God shall say unto 
the idolaters. Call those whom ye imagined to be my 
companions to protect you : and they shall call them, but 
they shall not answer them ; and we will place a valley of 

48 The mountains shall pass away,~\ occasion of his rebellion, and call him the 

For, being torn up by the roots, they father of the genii, whom he begat after 

shall fly in the air, and be reduced to his fall ^ ; it being a constant opinion 

atoms 1. among the Mohammedans, that the angels 

51 Eblis.'] See chap. ii. and chap. vii. are impeccable, and do not propagate their 

— Who was one of the genii.] Hence species ^. 

some imagine the genii are a species of 53 A valley of destruction between them.] 

angels. Others suppose the devil to have i. e. Between the idolaters and their false 

been originally a genius, which was the gods. Some suppose the meaning is no 

* A I Beiddwi. See the Prelim. Disc. § iv. ^ Jallalo'ddin, &c. ^ See the 

Prelim. Disc. § iv. 



xviii.] AL KORAN. 103 

destruction between them ; ^^ and the wicked shall see 
hell-fire ; and they shall know that they shall be thrown 
into the same, and they shall find no way to avoid it. 
^^ And now have we variously propounded unto men, in 
this Koran, a parable of every kind ; but man cavilleth 
at most things therein. ^^ Yet nothing hindereth men 
from believing, now a direction is come unto them, and 
from asking pardon of their Lord, excepting that they 
wait until the punishment of their predecessors come to 
be inflicted on them, or that the chastisement of the next 
life come upon them publicly. ^^ We send not our mes- 
sengers but to bear good tidings, and to denounce threats. 
Those who believe not, dispute with vain arguments, that 
they may thereby render the truth of no effect : and they 
hold my signs, and the admonitions which have been 
made them, in derision. ^^ And who is more unjust than 
he who hath been acquainted with the signs of his Lord, 
and retireth afar off* from the same, and forgetteth that 
which his hands have formerly committed ? ^^ Verily we 
have cast veils over their hearts, lest they should under- 
stand the Koran, and into their ears thickness of hearing: 
if thou invite them to the true direction, yet will they 
not therefore be directed for ever. ^^ Thy Lord is gra- 
cious, endued with mercy; if he would have punished 
them for that which they have committed, he would 
doubtless have hastened their punishment : but a threat 
hath been denounced against them, and they shall find no 
refuge, besides him. ^^ And those former cities did we 
destroy when they acted unjustly ; and we gave them 
previous warning of their destruction. ^^ And remember 
when MosES said unto his servant Joshua, the son of 
Nun, I will not cease to go forward, until I come to 
the place where the two seas meet ; or I will travel for a 
long space of time. ^^ But when they were arrived at 

more, than that God will set them at towns of the Adites, Thamudites, Sodom- 
variance and division. ites, &c. 

60 A threat hath been denounced against 62 For a long space of time.'] The ori- 
them.'] Viz. of their calamity at Bedr, ginal word properly signifies the space of 
(for the Koreish are the infidels here in- eighty years and upwards.] To explain 
tended,) or their punishment at the resur- this long passage, the commentators tell 
rection ^ the following story. They say that Moses 

61 Those former cities.] That is, the once preaching to the people, they admired 

1 Al Beiddwi. 



104 - AL KORAN. [chap. 

the meeting of the two seas, they forgot their fish, which 
they had taken with them ; and the fish took its way 
freely in the sea. ^^ And when they had passed beyond 
that place, Moses said unto his servant, Bring us our 
dinner ; for now are we fatigued with this our journey. 
^^ His servant answered, Dost thou know what has be- 
fallen me ? When we took up our lodging at the rock, 
verily 1 forgot the fish : and none made me to forget 
it, except Satan, that I should not remind thee of it. 
And the fish took its way in the sea in a wonderful 
manner. ^^ Moses said. This is what we sought after. 
And they both went back, returning by the way they 
came. ^^ And coming to the rock they found one of 
our servants, unto whom we had granted mercy from 
us, and whom we had taught wisdom from before us. 
^^ And Moses said unto him. Shall I follow thee, that 
thou mayest teach me part of that which thou hast been 
taught, for a direction unto me ? ^^ He answered, Verily 

his knowledge and eloquence so much, ablution at the fountain of life (of which 

that they asked him whether he knew any immediately), some of the water happened 

man in the world who was wiser than him- to be sprinkled on the fish, which imme- 

self; to which he answered in the nega- diately restored it to life^. 

tive ; whereupon God, in a revelation, — The fish took its way freely in the 

having reprehended him for his vanity seaJ] The word here translated freely, 

(though some pretend that Moses asked signifying also a pipe ox arched canal iox 

God the question of his own accord), ac- conveyance of water, some have imagined 

quainted him that his servant al Kedr was that the water of the sea was miraculously 

more knowing than he ; and at Moses's kept from touching the body of the fish, 

request told him he might find that person which passed through it as under an arch*. 

at a certain rock, where the two seas met; 67 One of our servants.^ This person, 

directing him to take a fish with him in a according to the general opinion, was the 

basket, and that where he missed the fish, prophet al Kedr ; whom the Mohamme- 

that was the place. Accordingly Moses dans usually confound with Phineas, Elias, 

set out, with his servant Joshua, in search and St. George, saying that his soul passed 

of al Kedr ; which expedition is here de- by a metempsychosis successively through 

scribed ^. all three. Some, however, say his true 

63 The meeting of the two seasJ] Viz. name was Balya Ebn Malcan, and that he 

Those of Persia and Greece. Some fancy lived in the time of Afridun, one of the 

that the meeting of Moses and al Kedr is ancient kings of Persia, and that he pre- 

here intended, as of two seas of know- ceded Dhu'lkarnein, and lived to the time 

ledge 2. of Moses. 'J'hey suppose al Khedr, having 

— They forgot their fish, &c.] Moses found out the fountain of life, and drunk 
forgot to inquire concerning it, and Joshua thereof, became immortal; and that he 
forgot to tell him when he missed it. It is had therefore this name, from his flourish- 
said, that when they came to the rock, ing and continual youth ^. 
Moses falling asleep, the fish, which was Part of these fictions they took from the 
roasted, leaped out of the basket into the Jews, some of whom also fancy Phineas 
sea. Some add, that Joshua, making the was Elias ^. 

^ Al Beiddwi, Al Zamakhshari, Al Bokhari, in Sonna, &c. ^ lidem. ^ lidem. 
* lidem. ^ lidem. V. D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Khedher. Septemcastrens. de 

Turcar. moribus. Busbeq. Epist. 1. p. 93, &c. Hotting. Hist. Orient, p. 58, &c. 99, &c. 
292, &c. 6 R. Levi Ben Gerson in append. 1. 1. Reg. 1. 27- 



xviii.] AL KORAN. 105 

thou canst not bear with me : ^^ for how canst thou 
patiently suffer those things, the knowledge whereof thou 
dost not comprehend ? ^^ Moses replied. Thou shalt find 
me patient, if God please ; neither will I be disobedient 
unto thee in any thing. ^^ He said, If thou follow me, 
therefore, ask me not concerning any thing, until I shall 
declare the meaning thereof unto thee. ^^ So they both 
went on by the sea-shore, until they went up into a ship : 
and he made a hole therein. And Moses said unto him, 
Hast thou made a hole therein, that thou mightest drown 
those who are on board ? Now hast thou done a strange 
thing. ^^He answered. Did I not tell thee that thou 
couldest not bear with me ? ^^ Moses said. Rebuke me 
not, because I did forget ; and impose not on me a diffi- 
culty in what I am commanded. ^^ Wherefore they left 
the ship, and proceeded, until they met with a youth ; 
and he slew him. Moses said. Hast thou slain an inno- 
cent person, without his having killed another? Now 
hast thou committed an unjust action. [*XVI.] ^^ He 
answered. Did I not tell thee that thou couldest not bear 
with me? ^^ Moses said, If I ask thee concerning any 
thing hereafter, suffer me not to accompany thee : now 
hast thou received an excuse from me. ^^ They went for- 
ward, therefore, until they came to the inhabitants of a 
certain city, and they asked food of the inhabitants there- 
of; but they refused to receive them. And they found 
therein a wall, which was ready to fall down ; and he set 
it upright. Whereupon Moses said unto him. If thou 
wouldest, thou mightest doubtless have received a reward 
for it. ^^ He answered, This shall be a separation between 
me and thee : but I will first declare unto thee the signi- 
fication of that which thou couldest not bear with pa- 
tience. ^^ The vessel belonged to certain poor men, who 
did their business in the sea : and I was minded to render 

73 He made a hole in the ship.'] For tioch ; or, as some rather think, Obollah, 

al Khedr took an ax, and knocked out two near Basra ; or else Bajirwan, in Armenia^, 

of her planks ^. — He set it upright.] By only stroking 

76 He slew him.] By twisting his neck it with his hand: though others say he 

round, or dashing his head against a wall, threw it down and rebuilt it*, 

or else by throwing him down, and cutting 81 Certain poor 7nen.] They were ten 

his throat ^. brothers, five of whom were past their 

79 A certain city.] This city was An- labour by reason of their age ^. 

* Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. * Idem. ^ Idem. 



106 A L KORAN. [chap. 

it unserviceable, because there was a king behind them, 
who took every sound ship by force. ^^ As to the youth, 
his parents were true believers ; and we feared lest he, 
being an unbeliever, should oblige them to suffer his per- 
verseness and ingratitude: ^^ wherefore we desired that 
their Lord might give them a more righteous child in 
exchange for him, and one more affectionate towards 
them. ^^ And the wall belonged to two orphan youths in 
the city, and under it was a treasure hidden which be- 
longed to them ; and their father was a righteous man : 
and thy Lord was pleased that they should attain their 
full age, and take forth their treasure, through the mercy 
of. thy Lord. And I did not what thou hast seen of 
mine own will, but of God's direction. This is the in- 
terpretation by that which thou couldest not bear with 
patience. ^^ The Jews will ask thee concerning Dhu'l- 
KARNEiN. Answer, I will rehearse unto you an account 
of him. ^^ We made him powerful in the earth, and we 
gave liim means to accomplish every thing he pleased. 
^^ And he followed his way, until he came to the place 
where the sun setteth ; and he found it to set in a spring 
of black mud: and he found near the same a certain 

81 A 'king.'\ Named Jaland Ebn Kar- which is most probable, by reason of his 

kar, or Minwar Ebn Jaland al Azdi 1, who great valour. Several modern writers^ 

reigned in Oman. See Poc. Spec. p. 42. rather suppose the surname was occasioned 

83 That their Lord might give them a by his being represented in his coins and 
more righteous child, &c.] It is said that statues with horns, as the son of Jupiter 
they had afterwards a daughter, who was Ammon ; or else by his being compared 
the wife and the mother of a prophet ; by the prophet Daniel to a he-goat ^ ; 
and that her son converted a whole na- though he is there represented with but 
tion 2. one horn ''. 

84 Two orphans.'] Their names were, There are some good writers, however, 
Asram and Sarim ^. who believe the prince intended in this 

85 Dhu' Ikarnein.'] or, The two-horned, passage of the Koran, was not Alexander 
The generality of the commentators '* sup- the Grecian, but another great conqueror 
pose the person here meant to be Alex- who bore the same name and surname, 
ander the Great, or, as they call him. Is- and was much more ancient than he, being 
cander at Rumi, king of Persia and Greece : contemporary with Abraham, and one of 
but there are very different opinions as to the kings of Persia of the first race ^ ; or 
the reason of this surname. Some think as others suppose, a king of Yaman, named 
it was given him because he was king of Asaab Ebn al Rayesh ^. 

the East and of the West, or because he had They all agree he was a true believer ; 

made expeditions to both those extreme but whether he was a prophet or not, is a 

parts of the earth ; or else because he had disputed point. 

two horns on his diadem, or two curls 87 He found the sun to set in a spring 

of hair, like horns on his forehead ; or, of black mud.~\ That is, it seemed so to 

^ Al Beiddwi. ^ Idem. ^ Idem. * Idem, Zamakhshari, Jallalo' ddin, 

Yahya. ^ Scaliger, de Emend, temp. L' Empereur, not. in Jachiad. Dan. viii. 5. 

Got. in Alfrag. p. 58, &c. ^ Schickard. Tarikh reg. Pers. p. 73. ^ See Dan. viii. 

^ Abu'lfeda. Khondernir, Tarikh Montakhab, &c. V. D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. 
Escander. ^ Ex trad. Ebn Abbas. V. Poc. Spec. p. 58. 

1 



XVIII.] 



AL KORAN. 



10^ 



people. ^^And we said, O Dhu'lkarnein, either punish 
this people, or use gentleness towards them. ^^ He an- 
swered, Whosoever of them shall commit injustice, we 
will surely punish him in this world ; afterwards shall he 
return unto his Lord, and he shall punish him with a 
severe punishment. ^^ But whosoever believeth, and doth 
that which is right, shall receive the most excellent re- 
ward, and we will give him in command that which is 
easy. ^^ Then he continued his way, until he came to 
the place where the sun riseth ; and he found it to rise 
on certain people, unto whom we had not given any 
thing wherewith to shelter themselves therefrom. ^^ Thus 
it was ; and we comprehended with our knowledge the 
forces which were with him. ^^ And he prosecuted his 
journey from south to north, until he came between the 
two mountains, beneath which he found certain people, 
who could scarce understand what was said. ^^ And they 
said, O Dhu'lkarnein, verily Gog and Magog waste 
the land; shall we therefore pay thee tribute, on con- 



him, when he came to the ocean, and saw 
nothing but water ^. 

— A certain people.~\ An unbelieving 
nation, who were clothed in the skins of 
wild beasts, and lived upon what the sea 
cast on shore 2, 

88 Either punish them or use them with 
gentleness.'] For God gave Dhu'lkarnein 
his choice, either to destroy them for their 
infidelity, or to instruct them in the true 
faith ; or, according to others, either to 
put them to the sword, or to take them 
captives ; but the words which follow con- 
firm the former interpretation, by which 
it appears, he chose to invite them to the 
true religion, and to punish only the dis- 
obedient and incredulous. 

91 The place where the sun riseth.~\ i. e. 
That part of the habitable world on which 
the sun first rises. 

— And he found it to rise on a certain 
people, &c.] Who had neither clothes nor 
houses, their country not bearing any 
buildings, but dwelt in holes underground, 
into which they retreated from the heat of 
the sun^. Jallalo'ddin says they were 
the Zenj, a black nation lying south-west 
of Ethiopia. They seem to be the Tro- 
glodytes of the ancients. 



93 The two mountains."] Between which 
Dhu'lkarnein built the famous rampart 
mentioned immediately, against the irrup- 
tions of Gog and Magog- These moun- 
tains are situate in Armenia and Adher- 
bijan, or according to others, much more 
northwards, on the confines of Turkestau*. 
The relation of a journey taken to this 
rampart, by one who was sent on purpose 
to view it by the Khalif al Walthec, may 
be seen in D'Herbelot ^. 

— Who could scarce understand what 
was said.] By reason of the strangeness 
of their speech, and their slowness of ap- 
prehension ; wherefore they were obliged 
to make use of an interpreter ^. 

94 Gog and Magog waste the land.] 
The Arabs call them Yajuj and Majuj, 
and say they are two nations or tribes 
descended from Japhet, the son of Noah, 
or as others write, Gog is a tribe of the 
Turks, and Magog of those of Gilan ^, the 
Geli and Gelse of Ptolemy and Strabo ^. 

It is said these barbarous people made 
their irruptions into the neighbouring 
countries in the spring, and destroyed and 
carried off all the fruits of the earth, and 
some pretend they were man-eaters^. 



^ A I Beiddwi, Jallalo'ddin. 
^ Bibl. Orient. Art. Jagiouge. 
supra. 



2 lidem. 

6 Al Beiddwi. 



^ lidem. 
^ Idem, 



4 A I Beiddwi. 
V. D'Herhel. ubi 



V. Gol, in Alfrag. p. 207- 



^ Al Beiddwi. 



108 A L KORAN. [chap. 



dition that thou build a rampart between us and them ? 
^^ He answered, The power wherewith my Lord hath 
strengthened me, is better than your tribute : but assist 
me strenuously, and I will set a strong wall between you 
and them. ^^ Bring me iron in large pieces, until it fill 
up the space between the two sides of these mountains. 
And he said to the workmen. Blow with your bellows, 
until it make the iron red hot as fire. ^^ And he said 
further. Bring me molten brass, that I may pour upon it. 
^^ Wherefore, when this w^all was finished, Gog and Ma- 
gog could not scale it, neither could they dig through it. 
^^And Dhu'lkarnein said. This is a mercy from my 
Lord : but when the prediction of my Lord shall come 
to be fulfilled, he shall reduce the wall to dust ; and the 
prediction of my Lord is true. ^^^ On that day we will 
suffer some of them to press tumultuously like waves on 
others ; and the trumpet shall be sounded, and we will 
gather them in a body together. ^^^ And we will set hell 
on that day, before the unbelievers ; ^^^ whose eyes have 
been veiled from my remembrance, and who could not 
hear my words. ^^^ Do the unbelievers think that I will 
not punish them, for that they take my servants for their 
protectors besides me? Verily we have prepared hell 
for the abode of the infidels. ^^^ Say, Shall we declare 
unto you those whose works are vain, whose endeavour, 
in the present life hath been wrongly directed, and who 
think they do the work which is right ? ^^^ These are 
they who believe not in the signs of the Lord, or that 
they shall be assembled before him : wherefore their works 
are vain ; and we will not allow them any weight on the 

98 This wallf &c.] The commentators was built of stones joined by cramps of 

say the wall was built in this manner, iron, on which they poured melted brass 

They dug till they found water ; and hav- to fasten them ^ 

ing laid the foundation of stone and melted 99 When the prediction of my Lord shall 

brass, they built the superstructure of come to be fulfilled, &c.] That is, When 

large pieces of iron, between which they the time shall come for Gog and Magog to 

laid wood and coals, till they equalled the break forth from their confinement ; which 

height of the mountains; and then, setting shall happen some time before the resur- 

fire to the combustibles, by the help of rection ^. 

large bellows, they made the iron red-hot, 100 To press tumultuously like waves, 

and over it poured melted brass, which &c.] These words represent either the 

filling up the vacancies between the pieces violent irruption of Gog and Magog, or 

of iron, rendered the whole work as firm the tumultuous assembly of all creatures, 

as a rock. Some tell us that the whole men, genii, and brutes, at the resurrection. 

1 Al Beiddwi, &c. ^ gee the Prelim. Disc. § iv. 



XIX.] AL KORAN. 109 

clay of resurrection. ^^^ This shall be their reward, namely, 
hell ; for that they have disbelieved, and have held my 
signs and my apostles in derision. ^^^ But as for those 
who believe, and do good works, they shall have the gar- 
dens of paradise for their abode ; ^^^ they shall remain 
therein for ever ; they shall wish for no change therein. 
^^^ Say, If the sea were ink, to write the words of my 
Lord, verily the sea would fail, before the words of my 
Lord would fail ; although we added another sea like 
unto it as a farther supply. ^^^ Say, Verily I am only a 
man as ye are. It is revealed unto me that your God is 
one only God : let him therefore who hopeth to meet his 
Lord, work a righteous work ; and let him not make any 
other to partake in the worship of his Lord. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

INTITLED, MARY ; REVEALED AT MECCA. 

In the name of the most merciful God. 

^ C. H. Y. A. S. ^ A commemoration of the mercy of 
thy Lord towards his servant Zacharias. ^ When he 
called upon his Lord, invoking him in secret, and 
said, ^ O Lord, verily my bones are weakened, and 
my head is become white with hoariness, and I have 
never been unsuccessful in my prayers, to thee, O Lord. 
^ But now I fear my nephews, who are to succeed after 
me, for my wife is barren : ^ wherefore give me a suc- 
cessor of my own body from before thee, who may be my 
heir, and may be an heir of the family of Jacob ; and 

Title — Mary.'] Several circumstances people in the true religion, they should 

relating to the Virgin Mary being men- seduce them to idolatry ^ And some com- 

tioned in this chapter, her name was pitch- mentators imagine that he made this prayer 

ed upon for the title. in private, lest his nephews should over- 

Title — Mecca,'] Except the verse of hear him. 
Adoration. 6 And may he an heir of the family of 

1 C, H. Y.A.S.] See the Prelim. Jacob.] Viz. In holiness and knowledge ; 
Disc. § iii. or in the government and superintendence 

2 Zacharias.] See chap. iii. of the Israelites. There are some who 
5 1 fear my nephews^ &c.] These were suppose it is not the patriarch who is here 

his brother's sons, who were very wicked meant, but another Jacob, the brother of 
men ; and Zacharias was apprehensive lest, Zacharias; or of Imran Ebn Mathan, of 
after his death, instead of confirming the the race of Solomon ^. 

^ Al Beiddwif Jallalo' ddin. 2 Udem. 



110 A L KORAN. [chap. 

grant, O Lord, that he may be acceptable unto thee. 
^ And the angel answered him, O Zacharias, verily we 
bring thee tidings of a son, whose name shall be John : 
we have not caused any to bear the same name before 
him. ^ Zacharias said. Lord, how shall I have a son, 
seeing my wife is barren, and I am now arrived at a 
great age, and am decrepit ? ^ The angel said, So shall 
it be : thy Lord saith. This is easy with me ; since I 
created thee heretofore, when thou wast nothing. ^^ Za- 
charias answered, O Lord, give me a sign. The angel 
replied. Thy sign shall be, that thou shalt not speak to 
men for three nights, although thou be in perfect health. 
^^ And he went forth unto his people, from the chamber, 
and he made signs unto them, as if he should say. Praise 
ye God in the morning and in the evening. ^^ And we 
said unto his son, O John, receive the book of the law, 
with a resolution to study and observe it. ^^ And we 
bestowed on him wisdom, when he w^as yet a child, and 
mercy from us, and purity of life ; ^^ and he was a devout 
person, and dutiful towards his parents, and was not 
proud or rebellious. ^^ Peace be on him the day whereon 
he was born, and the day whereon he shall die, and the 
day whereon he shall be raised to life. ^^ And remember 
in the book of the Koran the story of Mary ; when she 
retired from her family to a place towards3EiI^stX2I^ 

7 We have not caused any to bear that 11 He made signs unto themJ] Some 

name before him,'] For he was the first say he wrote the following words on the 

who bore the name of John, or Yahya, (as ground, 

the Arabs pronounce it;) which fancy 13 And purity of life,'] Or, as the word 

seems to be occasioned by the words of St. also signifies, the love of alms-deeds. 

Luke misunderstood, that none of Zacha- 16 To a place towards the east.] Viz. 

rias's kindred was called by that name ^ : To the eastern part of the temple ; or to 

for otherwise John, or, as it is written in a private chamber in the house, which 

Hebrew, Johanan, was a common name opened to the east; whence, says al Bei- 

among the Jews. dawi, the Christians pray towards that 

Some expositors avoid this objection, by quarter, 

observing, that the original word Samiyyan There is a tradition, that when the Vir- 

signifies, not only one who is actually gin was grown to years of puberty, she 

called by the same name, but also one used to leave her apartment in the temple, 

who, by reason of his possessing the like and retire to Zacharias's house to her aunt, 

qualities and privileges, deserves, or may when her courses came upon her ; and so 

pretend to, the same name. soon as she was clean, she returned again 

S I am arrived at a great age, &c.] The to the temple ; and that at the tim^ of the 

Mohammedan traditions greatly differ as angel's visiting her, she was at her aunt's 

to the age of Zacharias at this time : we on the like occasion, and was sitting to 

have mentioned one already ^ : Jallalo'ddin wash herself, in an open place, behind a 

says, he was an hundred and twenty, and veil, to prevent her being seen ^. But 

his wife ninety-eight; and the Sonna takes others more prudently suppose the design 

notice of several other opinions. of her retirement was to pray *. 



1 Luke i. 61. ^ Chap. ii. note. ^ Yahya, Al Beiddwi. * Al Zamakh, 



XIX.] 



AL KORAN. 



Ill 



t ook a veij_ to_cmiceal^^ h^^ and we sent 

our spirit Gabriel unto her, and he appeared unto her 
nTlTie" shape of a perfect man. ^^ She said, I fly for 
refuge unto the merciful God, that he may defend me 
from thee : if thou fearest him, thou wilt not approach 
me. ^^ He answered. Verily I am the messenger of thy 
Cord, aSd~am sent to give thee a holy son. ^^ She said, 
How shall I have a son, seeing a man hath not touched 
me, and I am no harlot ? ^^ Gabriel replied. So shall it 
be : thy Lord saith. This is easy with me ; and we will 
perform it, that we may ordain him for a sign unto men, 
and a mercy from us : for it is a thing which is decreed. 
^^ Whejrefore she conceived him : and^she retired aside 
with him in her womb to a distant place; ^^and the 
pains of child-birth came upon her near the trunk of a 
paTm-tree. She said. Would to God I had died before 
this, and had become a thing forgotten, and lost in 
oblivion ! And he who was beneath her called to her, 
saying. Be not grieved ; now hath God provided a rivulet 



IT In the shape of a man.'] Like a full- 
grown but beardless youth. Al Beidawi, 
not contented with having given one good 
reason why he appeared in that form, viz. 
to moderate her surprise, that she might 
hear his message with less shyness, adds, 
that perhaps it might be to raise an emo- 
tion in her, and assist her conception. 

22 She conceived.] For Gabriel blew 
into the bosom of her shift, which he 
opened with his fingers ^, and his breath 
reaching her womb, caused the concep- 
tion 2. The age of the Virgin Mary at 
the time of her conception was thirteen, 
or, as others say, ten ; and she went six, 
seven, eight, or nine months with him, 
according to different traditions : though 
some say the child was conceived at its 
full growth of nine months, and that she 
was delivered of him within an hour 
after ^. 

— To a distant place.] To conceal her 
delivery, she went out of the city by night 
to a certain mountain. 

23 Her pains came upon her near the 
trunk of a palm-tree.] The palm to which 
she fled, that she might lean on it in 



travail, was a withered trunk, without any 
head or verdure, and this happened in the 
winter season ; notwithstanding which, it 
miraculously supplied her with fruits for 
her refreshment*; as is mentioned imme- 
diately. 

It has been observed, that the Moham- 
medan account of the delivery of the 
Virgin Mary, very much resembles that of 
Latona, as described by the poets ^, not 
only in this circumstance of their laying 
hold on a palm-tree ^, (though some say 
Latona embraced an olive-tree, or an olive 
and a palm, or else two laurels,) but also 
in that of their infants' speaking ; which 
Apollo is fabled to have done in the 
womb '^. 

— He who was beneath her.] This 
some imagine to have been the child him- 
self; but others suppose it was Gabriel, 
who stood somewhat lower than she did ^. 
According to a different reading, this pas- 
sage may be rendered. And he called to 
her from beneath her, &c. And some 
refer the pronoun, translated Jier, to the 
palm-tree ; and then it should be beneath 
it, &c. 



^ Yahya. 2 JallaWddin^ Jl Beidawi. 3 ^/ Beidawi, Yahya* 

4 lidem, Al ZamaJch. ^ V. Sikii not. in Evang. Infant, p. 9. 21, &c. 

^ Homer. Hymn, in Apoll. CalUmach. Hymn, in Delum. '^ CaUimach. ibid. 

See Kor. chap. 3. ^ Al Beidawi, Jallalo'ddin. 



112 AL KORAN. [chap. 

under thee ; ^^ and do thou shake the body of the palm- 
tree, and it s|iall let fall ripe dates upon thee, ready 
gathered. ^^ And eat, and drink, and calm thy mind. 
Moreover, if thou see any man, and he question thee, 
say, Verily I have vowed a fast unto the Merciful ; 
wherefore I will by no means speak to a man this day. 
^^ So she brought the child to her people, carrying him in 
her arms. And they said unto her, O Mary, now hast 
thou done a strange thing. ^^O sister of Aaron, thy 
father was not a bad man, neither was thy mother a 
harlot. ^^ But she made signs unto the child to answer 
them ; and they said. How shall we speak to him who is 
an infant in the cradle ? ^^ Whereupon the child said, 
, Verily I am the servant of God ; he hath given me the 
-book of the gospel, and hath appointed me a prophet. 
^^ And he hath made me blessed, wheresoever I shall be ; 
and hath commanded me to observe prayer, and to give 
alms, so long as I shall live ; and he hath made me 
dutiful towards my mother, and hath not made me proud, 
or unhappy. ^^ And peace be on me the day whereon 1 
was born, and the day whereon I shall die, and the day 
whereon I shall be raised to life. ^^ This was Jesus the 
son of Mary ; the Word of trut